-evil as fact of nature to be avoided.</li></ul>-physical evil or natural calamities (eg. Earthquake, moral evil caused by ma himself (eg. war)<br />-evil is not work of higher force beyond nature<br />2. Aesthetic Value<br />-related to other experiences as child of nature; they are natural and do not involve spiritual <br />3. Religious Value<br />-man and society as secondary and dependent on natural order<br />-man as child of the universe more than of society<br />-man struggle for power, dignity & honor and a need for social contract<br /><ul><li>EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS
-not all atheistic terms; God is within nature but not all nature nor more than nature; foundation of all value.
-God is power in nature that makes good possible.</li></ul>4. Nature of Man<br />-not interested in discussing soul of man or his moral condition<br />-man as most significant child of nature<br />-human self as offshoot of nature<br />-there is evil in the world and man shares is but he develops self-consciousness to combat evil<br /><ul><li>STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
Personal possess and enjoy values; individuality as locus and measure of values
Values relate parts to whole (ethical, aesthetic, religious and social)
Ethical values: individuals are persons, innate imperative to do good, obedience to universal moral laws; good will to do right because I know it is right & necessary; community of selves; individual immorality.
- multiplicity of methods to offer alternatives for thought and action, eg. Discussion, lecture & projects</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>RELIGION
1. Status of Religion</li></ul>-rational basis of religion to avoid vagueness & superstition; prayer balance of feeling, knowledge and experience in our God-idea or search for God.<br />-religion as deeper than man’s conscious reasoning & intentions; it is distinct or sui generis<br />-idea of God is not the same as God himself<br />-refinement of religion by reason but is reason prior to reason?<br />2. Experience of God<br />-conscious experience of the world, selfhood, community relationships point beyond to a Creator, Cosmic Intelligence World Self and reason points to God as answer.<br />3. Existence of God<br />-intellectualization of man’s experience of God that brings to it harmony<br />-Anselm: there is something greater that must exist not in the mind but in reality itself for it is impossible to conceive of such greatest as non-existing.<br />-Descartes: The self is self-evident and it is imperfect and thus, points to the perfect beyond which nothing greater can be conceived. This perfect Being exist beyond the mind and this God-idea is a leap of the mind but based on empirical experience. This God—idea is not purely subjective imagination but reasonable to say that God is speaking to man.<br />4. Nature of God<br />-polar tension between homogenous unity of God and none besides Him exist vis-à-vis God as componte of multitude of selves. Synthesis: Unity in Multiplicity <br />-God is not limited by His non individuality for He is a personal unity within whom there is multiplicity (eg. Trinity)<br />-God is absolute but personal both in internal and external relations<br />-Father is perfect moral goodness whose nature is love.<br />-synthesis: Immanence and Transcendence<br />God is immanent in nature-Power<br />God is immanent in Man-Spirit<br />God is immanent in Physical Existence-Divine Energy<br /><ul><li>The Father who gives, the Son is medium, the Spirit is the distributor of grace.
The world of human experience is temporal and limited, and evil exist; How can God permit evil? Evil becomes limitation of God’s power & goodness?
The Nature of Man</li></ul>-the individual man is self & spiritual unity but he is also prone to evil.<br />-man needs God’s help to do greater good and the higher goal of his selfhood is in God, identification with Him. Man has all potency for good and for God.<br />STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES<br /><ul><li>Somewhat visionary utopianism, or social/moral idealism.
Centrality to self does not quiet address the beyond the self dimension
Historical development are very negative and in light of these evils, where is the promise of potentiality for good of man?
Showed education be moral and lead to character education? Or should they be more religious educaton?
For the idealistic, all education should aim toward faith and not just morals.</li></ul>(Condensed from J. Donald Butter, Four Philosophical and Their Practice in Education and Religion)<br />FR. DANNY T. IMPERIAL<br />Program Director – Religious Education<br />Ateneo de Naga University <br />