Naturalism

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Naturalism

  1. 1. NATURALISM<br /><ul><li>PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS
  2. 2. Metaphysics
  3. 3. one substance as be-all and end-all of nature
  4. 4. nature as process rather than substance
  5. 5. Materialism-reducible to atom
  6. 6. Energism-atomic energy
  7. 7. Positivism-laws of nature (gravity, cause & effect, system or structure of natural order)
  8. 8. Pragatism-nature as process rather than system, changing substance, laws & relationships
  9. 9. Epistemology
  10. 10. -reality & nature as identical
  11. 11. objects yield replicas in mind of beholder
  12. 12. direct observation of nature & inductive knowledge
  13. 13. scientific attitude of intellectual insight
  14. 14. scientific method of knowledge (realism as child of naturalism)
  15. 15. Axiology
  16. 16. nature as order that posseses values
  17. 17. thus, values reside in nature and do not transcend it
  18. 18. harmony with nature as highest value
  19. 19. 1. Ethical Value
  20. 20. -refined pleasure as highest good
  21. 21. -desired quietude & freedom from struggle/pain
  22. 22. -peace & happiness, contentment which may be accompanied by virtue & sacrifice
  23. 23. -private contentment
  24. 24. -choice of values based on pleasure
  25. 25. -evil as fact of nature to be avoided.</li></ul>-physical evil or natural calamities (eg. Earthquake, moral evil caused by ma himself (eg. war)<br />-evil is not work of higher force beyond nature<br />2. Aesthetic Value<br />-related to other experiences as child of nature; they are natural and do not involve spiritual <br />3. Religious Value<br />-man and society as secondary and dependent on natural order<br />-man as child of the universe more than of society<br />-man struggle for power, dignity & honor and a need for social contract<br /><ul><li>EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS
  26. 26. Education as social institution
  27. 27. confidence in nature, less in human society
  28. 28. thus, no rationale for existence of school as institution
  29. 29. mother/father as natural teachers
  30. 30. learning is natural thing but needs protection & necessity
  31. 31. Student
  32. 32. teachers do not teach subjects, the teach students
  33. 33. student is to teacher just as disciple is to a philosopher
  34. 34. focus on physical and mental development for is dependent on guardian
  35. 35. child’s spontaneous activity as natural processes
  36. 36. Objectives of Education
  37. 37. moral education as business of life thus, moral responsibility and practical self-sufficiency toward complete living
  38. 38. Self-preservation-laws of health to earn living
  39. 39. Securing necessities of life-economic efficiency to passive life
  40. 40. Raising children- discipline
  41. 41. Maintenance of social & political relations-effective social & political action
  42. 42. Enjoyment of leisure-gratification of tastes & feelings
  43. 43. Educative Process
  44. 44. Educating as natural function with central role of parents and teachers
  45. 45. Natural growth & mental development
  46. 46. Pleasurable-natural readiness
  47. 47. Spontaneous self-ectivity-discovery
  48. 48. Acquisition of Knowledge
  49. 49. Both body & mind
  50. 50. Art of delay toward readinedd-maturation
  51. 51. Inductive instruction-less telling but more discovery
  52. 52. Punishment tempered with sympathy
  53. 53. RELIGIOUS ASPECTS
  54. 54. Status of Religion
  55. 55. religious experience as phenomenon of nature
  56. 56. live in harmony with nature so as to do good and avoid evil
  57. 57. versatility of nature to transcend individual limitations
  58. 58. religion as phenomenon of nature
  59. 59. Nature of God
  60. 60. not to argue about the existence of God but religious experiences as experience of God
  61. 61. in nature there are facts which carry values but also have potency
  62. 62. God as structure and greatest of values (but impersonal)
  63. 63. Power and goodness of God
  64. 64. -not all atheistic terms; God is within nature but not all nature nor more than nature; foundation of all value.
  65. 65. -God is power in nature that makes good possible.</li></ul>4. Nature of Man<br />-not interested in discussing soul of man or his moral condition<br />-man as most significant child of nature<br />-human self as offshoot of nature<br />-there is evil in the world and man shares is but he develops self-consciousness to combat evil<br /><ul><li>STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
  66. 66. Significant but danger of over-simplification
  67. 67. Life and society are more complex
  68. 68. Hazy concept of spiritual
  69. 69. Nature is not all rhythm and harmony as complete basis for living
  70. 70. No solid theory answer the why existence
  71. 71. Does not sufficiently explain death
  72. 72. Vague on the role of education & religion
  73. 73. IDEALISM
  74. 74. History
  75. 75. Plato-primacy of the mind and reason in the experience of man
  76. 76. physical objects as imperfect of ideas (particular, universal and absolute)
  77. 77. recognize things by recollection of former knowledge of absolute (idea-ism / ideal-ism)
  78. 78. Descartes-self as most immediate reality in experience
  79. 79. Existence of God evidenced by idea of perfect being
  80. 80. Doubt as road to truth; self as beyond doubt
  81. 81. I think, therefore, I am (Cogito, ergo sum)
  82. 82. Spinoza-unchanging & abiding existence of thought
  83. 83. enduring susbstance called God
  84. 84. Kant-experience as mere representations
  85. 85. need to understand conceptions
  86. 86. existence of universal moral laws
  87. 87. obligation to act in obedience to moral laws (categorical imperative)
  88. 88. believes in freedom & good will
  89. 89. immortality of the soul
  90. 90. existence of God
  91. 91. PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS
  92. 92. Metaphysics
  93. 93. orderliness in nature and it can be depended on
  94. 94. reality of the self as conscious being with its spiritual reality and transcendental meaning
  95. 95. unity & multiply of being
  96. 96. complexity of selfhood
  97. 97. the world has spiritual order
  98. 98. individual selves are part of Universal Mind
  99. 99. only perfection is real and evil is not self-subssistent
  100. 100. there is freedom to do good; but there are boundaries
  101. 101. there is freedom of choice & action
  102. 102. freedom as self-determination of selfhood
  103. 103. Ultimate Self is one and good but evil in actuality of the world though transient
  104. 104. evil is absence of adequate motives and positive purpose; evil is missing the mark
  105. 105. no efficient cause for evil; relative and no status in isolation
  106. 106. there is leisure in aspiring to do the good as ultimate goal
  107. 107. death awakens the value of life
  108. 108. Epistemology
  109. 109. Knowledge by direct observation but with limitations
  110. 110. We interpret the world through conceptual constructs
  111. 111. Individual knowledge is always in relation to the order of nature
  112. 112. Axiology
  113. 113. Values are rooted in existence
  114. 114. Personal possess and enjoy values; individuality as locus and measure of values
  115. 115. Values relate parts to whole (ethical, aesthetic, religious and social)
  116. 116. Ethical values: individuals are persons, innate imperative to do good, obedience to universal moral laws; good will to do right because I know it is right & necessary; community of selves; individual immorality.
  117. 117. Religious Value
  118. 118. religious convictions relate values and religion
  119. 119. idea of God at the foundation of value experience
  120. 120. experience of God in self-consciousness (eg. Prayer or worship of God) as second person (Thon)
  121. 121. experience of love for God as ground of the soul
  122. 122. No heading
  123. 123. coworker with God in perfecting man
  124. 124. communicates & mediates spiritual heritage
  125. 125. loves teaching
  126. 126. continuing learning
  127. 127. apostle of program
  128. 128. maker of democracy
  129. 129. selfless dedication
  130. 130. Imitation/Modelism
  131. 131. challenge toward excellence
  132. 132. Interest, Effort and Discipline
  133. 133. Interest as positive atttaction
  134. 134. Effort as conscious and voluntary exertion
  135. 135. Discipline as extraneous action for completion of task.
  136. 136. Self-Activity
  137. 137. Learning is in the response of the learners
  138. 138. The educational process is more the individual’s response to stimulus; self-direction to achieve self-appointed goals.
  139. 139. Importance of character education and freedom of will
  140. 140. Curriculum
  141. 141. Experiences, activities, life situations and studies toward formation of ideal character of man for ideal society.
  142. 142. Development of intellectual, emotion and will through objective content& experiential learning
  143. 143. Ideal school is personality building covering: universe, civilization, culture and personality, need of general cultural education.
  144. 144. Both direct & vicarious experience
  145. 145. Method
  146. 146. - multiplicity of methods to offer alternatives for thought and action, eg. Discussion, lecture & projects</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>RELIGION
  147. 147. 1. Status of Religion</li></ul>-rational basis of religion to avoid vagueness & superstition; prayer balance of feeling, knowledge and experience in our God-idea or search for God.<br />-religion as deeper than man’s conscious reasoning & intentions; it is distinct or sui generis<br />-idea of God is not the same as God himself<br />-refinement of religion by reason but is reason prior to reason?<br />2. Experience of God<br />-conscious experience of the world, selfhood, community relationships point beyond to a Creator, Cosmic Intelligence World Self and reason points to God as answer.<br />3. Existence of God<br />-intellectualization of man’s experience of God that brings to it harmony<br />-Anselm: there is something greater that must exist not in the mind but in reality itself for it is impossible to conceive of such greatest as non-existing.<br />-Descartes: The self is self-evident and it is imperfect and thus, points to the perfect beyond which nothing greater can be conceived. This perfect Being exist beyond the mind and this God-idea is a leap of the mind but based on empirical experience. This God—idea is not purely subjective imagination but reasonable to say that God is speaking to man.<br />4. Nature of God<br />-polar tension between homogenous unity of God and none besides Him exist vis-à-vis God as componte of multitude of selves. Synthesis: Unity in Multiplicity <br />-God is not limited by His non individuality for He is a personal unity within whom there is multiplicity (eg. Trinity)<br />-God is absolute but personal both in internal and external relations<br />-Father is perfect moral goodness whose nature is love.<br />-synthesis: Immanence and Transcendence<br />God is immanent in nature-Power<br />God is immanent in Man-Spirit<br />God is immanent in Physical Existence-Divine Energy<br /><ul><li>The Father who gives, the Son is medium, the Spirit is the distributor of grace.
  148. 148. The Power and Goodness of God
  149. 149. The world of human experience is temporal and limited, and evil exist; How can God permit evil? Evil becomes limitation of God’s power & goodness?
  150. 150. The Nature of Man</li></ul>-the individual man is self & spiritual unity but he is also prone to evil.<br />-man needs God’s help to do greater good and the higher goal of his selfhood is in God, identification with Him. Man has all potency for good and for God.<br />STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES<br /><ul><li>Somewhat visionary utopianism, or social/moral idealism.
  151. 151. Metaphysically & ontologically weak
  152. 152. Comprehensive but not quiet systematic
  153. 153. Centrality to self does not quiet address the beyond the self dimension
  154. 154. Historical development are very negative and in light of these evils, where is the promise of potentiality for good of man?
  155. 155. Showed education be moral and lead to character education? Or should they be more religious educaton?
  156. 156. For the idealistic, all education should aim toward faith and not just morals.</li></ul>(Condensed from J. Donald Butter, Four Philosophical and Their Practice in Education and Religion)<br />FR. DANNY T. IMPERIAL<br />Program Director – Religious Education<br />Ateneo de Naga University <br />

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