Concurrent engineering can be defined as the simultaneous development of project design functions, with open and interactive communication existing among all team members for the purposes of reducing time to market, decreasing cost, and improving quality and reliability
Teams provide the primary integration mechanism in CE programs
There are three types of teams
Program Management Team
Time savings of CE programs are created by performing activities in parallel
Designing for the Customer Ideal Customer Product Quality Function Deployment Value Analysis/ Value Engineering House of Quality
Designing for the Customer: Quality Function Deployment
Interfunctional teams from marketing, design engineering, and manufacturing
Voice of the customer
House of Quality
Designing for the Customer: The House of Quality
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Customer requirements information forms the basis for this matrix, used to translate them into operating or engineering goals. Customer Requirements Importance to Cust. Easy to close Stays open on a hill Easy to open Doesn’t leak in rain No road noise Importance weighting Engineering Characteristics Energy needed to close door Check force on level ground Energy needed to open door Water resistance 10 6 6 9 2 3 7 5 3 3 2 X X X X X Correlation: Strong positive Positive Negative Strong negative X * Competitive evaluation X = Us A = Comp. A B = Comp. B (5 is best) 1 2 3 4 5 X AB X AB XAB A X B X A B Relationships: Strong = 9 Medium = 3 Small = 1 Target values Reduce energy level to 7.5 ft/lb Reduce force to 9 lb. Reduce energy to 7.5 ft/lb. Maintain current level Technical evaluation (5 is best) 5 4 3 2 1 B A X BA X B A X B X A BXA BA X Door seal resistance Accoust. Trans. Window Maintain current level Maintain current level
Designing for the Customer: Value Analysis/Value Engineering (VA/VE)
Achieve equivalent or better performance at a lower cost while maintaining all functional requirements defined by the customer
Does the item have any design features that are not necessary?
Can two or more parts be combined into one?
How can we cut down the weight?
Are there nonstandard parts that can be eliminated?
Job shop (ex. Copy center making a single copy of a student term paper)
Batch shop (ex. Copy center making 10,000 copies of an ad piece for a business)
Assembly Line (ex. Automobile manufacturer)
Continuous Flow (ex. Petroleum manufacturer)
Exhibit 5.10 These are the major stages of product and process life cycles IV. Continuous Flow III. Assembly Line II. Batch I. Job Shop Low Volume, One of a Kind Multiple Products, Low Volume Few Major Products, Higher Volume High Volume, High Standard- ization Commercial Printer French Restaurant Heavy Equipment Automobile Assembly Burger King Sugar Refinery Flexibility (High) Unit Cost (High) Flexibility (Low) Unit Cost (Low)
A virtual factory can be defined as a manufacturing operation where activities are carried out not in one central plant, but in multiple locations by suppliers and partner firms as part of a strategic alliance
Example: Suppose you want to purchase a new computer that will cost $5,000. It will be used to process written orders from customers who will pay $25 each for the service. The cost of labor, electricity and the form used to place the order is $5 per customer. How many customers will we need to serve to permit the total revenue to break-even with our costs?