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Middle Eastern dryland cropping systems. Colin Piggin

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane.

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • 1. Development and promotion of zero tillage in Iraq and Syria Colin Piggin, Atef Haddad, Yaseen Khalil ICARDA, SyriaDevelopment of conservation cropping systems in the drylands of northern Iraq (2005-11) WCCAPartnersSyria - ICARDA Brisbane, AustIraq - Ministry of Agriculture, University of Mosul 26-29 Sept 2011Australia - UniWA, UniAdelaide, AgWA
  • 2. Middle Eastern dryland cropping systems Characteristics • excessive cultivation • grazing/burning of stubbles • late sowing (Dec-Jan) Consequences • low yields (<1t/ha for wheat) Syria Iraq
  • 3. ZT is the key to conservation cropping- minimal soil disturbance- stubble retentionWidely adopted around the worldLittle awareness/adoption in ME region
  • 4. Logical R&D program to promote ZT • verification and adaptation research 1. does ZT work? 2. what are benefits of early sowing? 3. are special varieties needed for ZT? • addressing the major constraint 4. local availability of effective, affordable ZT seeders • promoting awareness, experience and uptake 5. demonstrations and ZT evaluation by farmers on-farm
  • 5. Zero tillage (ZT) and CC systemconventional cultivation (CC) • 1-3+ cultivations - mouldboard, disc, chisel • seeding – seed drill or broadcasting above disc plowZT system• seeding into uncultivated soil under stubble
  • 6. Verification and adaptation research 1. Does ZT work?Long term Trial (commenced 2006-07 at ICARDA)Cereal-legume rotationTreatments (0.5ha plots x 3 replicates)Tillage - conventional cultivation - zero-tillDate of sowing - early - late
  • 7. Lentil on wheat stubble – C16 2007-08Zero-till 29 April 08 Conventional till Early sowing 28-29 Nov 07 Late sowing 23 Dec 07
  • 8. Barley on lentil stubble - C16 2008-09Zero-till 2 June 09 Conventional till Early sowing 22 Oct 08 Late sowing 6 Dec 08
  • 9. 1. Does ZT work? R/F 222mm R/F 291mm 4.00 3.74 ZT 3.41 3.37 3.35 3.50 CC Grain yield (t/ha) 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.29 1.08 1.00 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.00 29-No v-07 23-Dec-07 22-Oct-08 6-Dec-08 Date of sowing Lentil Barley Sig main effects: T**; DOS** Sig effects: DOS**; TxDOS** LSD = 0.15 t/h a fo r T an d 0.20 LSD = 0.28 t/h a between T o r t/h a fo r DOS 0.16 t/h a with in TLentil response/ha: Straw Grain Barley response/ha GrainCC/late vs ZT/early 1227kg 615kg CC/late vs ZT/early 390kg $261 $716 $80
  • 10. Verification and adaptation research 2. The importance of early sowing?Grain yield responses to time of sowing in lentil and barley under ZT and CC C16 long-term trial Tillage Early Late Delay/loss Loss/day Lentil 2007-08 28 Nov 07 23 Dec 07 24 days CC 1077 kg 670 kg 407 kg 17.0 kg ZT 1285 kg 810 kg 475 kg 19.8 kg Barley 2008-09 22 Oct 08 6 Dec 08 45 days CC 3406 kg 3346 kg 60 kg 1.3 kg ZT 3737 kg 3373 kg 364 kg 8.1 kg
  • 11. Yields over 5 years - C16 2006-11 315mm 222mm 291mm 270mm 259mm NS T*; D** D**; Tx D** D* NS 4.0 CC Early 3.5 CC Late 3.0 ZT EarlyGrain yield (t/ha) 2.5 ZT Late 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Wheat 06-07 Lentil 07-08 Barley 08-09 Wheat 09-10 Lentil 10-11 Crop and year Generally - ZT ≥ CC - early ≥ late planting
  • 12. Verification and adaptation research 2009-10 3. are special varieties needed for ZT?10 lines/varieties under ZT vs CC 19-20Nov09CerealsBread wheat, durum wheat, barley, oatsLegumesChickpea, lentil, faba bean, peas 15May; 19June10DetailsReplicates: 4Seed rate: 100kg/haPlot size: 1.62m * 10mHarvest area: 3 rows*0.275m*8m
  • 13. Grain yield (t/ha) 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 0 1 2 3 Alanda_01 Arabi Abiad Arta ER/Apm Furat_2 Nawair_1 Barley Rihane_03 Saida Suran_2 WI2291 Cham_6 Daira_4 Damara_5 Hamam_4 Jawhara 19 Khider_1 Rama_2 Bread wheat Shamiekh_5 Shihab_2 Zafir_10 Amidacol_1 Ammar_8Crop and variety Azeghar_2 Feda_98 Hourani_27 Lahn Hokan Maamouri_3 Durum wheat Miki_3 Om Rabi_5 Yones Brusher Carrolop Euro ICARDA Check ICARDA Short wheat, durum wheat and oats at ICARDA Syria 2009-10 Oats ICARDA Tall Kangaroo Mitika Possum Effect of tillage on grain yield (kg/ha) of 10 varieties of barley, bread Wintaro Significant effects: C**; CxV** No significant TxCxV interactions ZT CT Tillage
  • 14. Addressing constraints4. Local availability of effective, affordable ZT seeders - Syria • ICARDA and workshop visits - Mar/Apr 08 • experimental manufacture of local ZT seeders ZT seeder fabrication ICARDA visits Workshop visits
  • 15. Local ZT seeders: first production in Syria - Sept 2008Amazon – imported ($60000) Local seeders (3PL; 2.3m) El Bab - local • narrow points • widely spaced spring tines • seed/fertilizer delivery • price ≈ $1400-2500 Qabbasin - localIndian – imported ($2500) Kamishley - local
  • 16. ZT seeders comparisons 2008-09 Yield of wheat, barley, lentil and chickpea with different ZT seeders sown early and late 3.5 3 2.5 Barley early 2 Barley lateYield t/ha Chickpea early Chickpea late 1.5 Lentil early Lentil late 1 Wheat early Wheat late 0.5 0 Kamishley PW Kamishly AlBab Qabbaseen Amazone Indian ZT seeder Significant effects: Seeders NS Early > late for barley, wheat and chickpea
  • 17. ZT seeder advances in Syria - 2009-10 Responding to feedback - 4m wide - trailed or 3PL - wider tine spacing3-point linkage - more robust construction Trailed- $4000 - $5500- El Bab - Qabassin
  • 18. 4. Local availability of effective, affordable ZT seeders - IraqFarmer innovation – ZT modification of local Rama (John Shearer) seeder Lead farmers - Sinan Jalili - Yasser Fathi - Gazee Fatehi Fabricating and testing tines/points 2009-10 2007-08 Sowed 1025ha with 3 seeders Testing depth, soil throw, backfill from points
  • 19. Fabrication of ZT modification kits in Iraq 2010-11 ZT openers –wide tine spacing Press wheelsZT points/openers
  • 20. ZT modification of local seeders in Ninevah 2010-11 18 farmers Modification cost: $1200/seeder
  • 21. Promoting awareness, experience and uptake 5. Demonstrations and ZT evaluation by farmers on-farmMaara Syria on-farm testing 2006-09 Afrin ZT CCEl Bab Musselmiya
  • 22. 3.50 Comparison of ZT and CC Grain Yields in Farmer Demonstrations Syria 2008-09 3.00 2.50 ZT CTGrain Yield t/ha 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 university Roubel Roubel Moh Basem Abo Nadim Ali A. Elewi Ali A. Elewi Toma Khano Farm Sharo Sharo Ebrahim Ebrahim Basha Basha
  • 23. Participatory extension of conservation cropping in Syria 2009-11  ACIAR-ICARDA Iraq Project GCSAR  NARES o Research Commission (GCSAR) NGOs o Directorate of Extension ACIAR- Extension o Aleppo University ICARDA  NGO o Aga Khan Foundation  Private sector Manufacturers Farmers o farmers o seeder manufacturers o Syrian Libyan Company (SYLICO) o private consultants Stakeholder meeting 6 August 2009
  • 24. ZT extension working groups 2009-11
  • 25. Syria on-farm ZT testing 2009-11 Field days Kamishley field day 22Apr10Farmer experience• ZT gave better yields with lower costs than CC Farmer planting Farm visits/training Kannasar 4Nov09 Hani Debah 9Apr10 Ali Alewi Kamishley 800ha wheat CC ZT Extension training visit 22Apr10 Sulamiya 14Oct09 Edriss Saleh10Apr10
  • 26. Demonstrations 2005/06 – 2010/11 ZT, varieties, early sowing, low seed ratesLocations• High Rainfall(>450mm)Al ShikhanRabeeaAl Qush• Moderate Rainfall(200-400mm)Al Hamdania  ICARDATel KiefBaashiqa• Low Rainfall(<200mm)Tel AbtaAl HatraAl Mahalabya• Supp Irrigation:Rabeea (HRA)Al Nimrud (MRA)Hummaidat (LRA)
  • 27. Baashika MRA planting 2006-07 19 January 2007
  • 28. LRA barley 2006-07 500 Z.T Chisel 400 Con. 300Kg/hectar 200 100 0 Local black (C.V.) Zanbaka (C.V.) Local black (C.V.) Zanbaka (C.V.) Local black (C.V.) Zanbaka (C.V.) Alhatra Location Tell Abta Location Almahalabia Location Fig(1) Effect of planting methods on grains yields (Kg/hectar) of Barley in LRA lacation
  • 29. Iraq on-farm demonstration and testing 2007-11 Farmer experience Field days • ZT gave better yields with lower costs than CC Farmer plantingFarmer-modified ZT seeder Farm inspections Field day in Alshykhan Tel Kief MRA 3 Feb 10Syrian 4m ZT seeder
  • 30. Iraq and Syria Increases in ZT farmers, area and seeders 06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11Iraq Farmers 12 16 18 31 ≈50 Area (ha) 52 252 492 1806 ≈6000 Seeders Manufactured 3 India 2 Iraq 4 Syria 1 Iraq, 14 Syria* Farmer modified 1 2 18Syria Farmers 3 6 43 119 ≈350 Area (ha) 15 30 2075 4918 ≈15,000 Seeders Man. for ICARDA 1 India 3 Syria 6 Syria 2 Syria Man. for farmers 2 Syria 4 Syria ≈20 Syria Farmer modified 2 3* 14 Syrian ZT seeders for Ninevah funded by USA Ambassador
  • 31. Conservation cropping R & D in Iraq and SyriaConclusions (2005-11)• ZT more productive, profitable and sustainable than CC• early planting important in achieving high yields – facilitated by ZT• no special varieties indicated for ZT – no VxT interaction for any crops• local ZT seeders effective and affordable• participatory R&D effectively raising awareness, experience, adoption• strong prospects for wide ZT adoption over next 5-10 years• MOA in Iraq/Syria adopting ZT as recommended cropping system
  • 32. Farmer attraction to ZT system - some indicative returns and savings for wheat Operation Change Return or saving ($/ha) Iraq SyriaUse ZT +500 kg/ha wheat 350 200Stop plowing 2 → 0 times 50 50Reduce seed rate 300 → 100 kg/ha 140 80 ---------- ---------- 540 330
  • 33. Increasing dryland crop productivity and profitability ZT guidelines and technology options for farmers• stop plowing• keep as much stubble as possible (don’t burn)• use ZT for all crops• control pre-sowing weeds with glyphosate (if necessary)• plant early (November)• use best adapted current varieties• use optimum seed rate (50-100 kg/ha cereals; 100-150kg/ha for pulses)• sow at optimum depth (4-6cm)• use optimum management (fertility, weed/disease/pest control, rotations)• stubbles can be grazed (OM/nutrients returned) – doesn’t negate ZT benefits

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