Definition of Staffing "Staffing is the function by which managers build an organization through the recruitment, selection, and development of individuals as capable employees" - McFarland It is the process of determining human resource needs, recruiting, selecting, training and developing human resources for jobs created by an organization. The managerial function of hiring and developing the required personnel to fill in various positions in an organization.
Nature of Staffing Function Staffing is an important managerial function- Staffing function is the most important managerial act along with planning, organizing, directing and controlling. Staffing is a pervasive activity- As staffing function is carried out by all mangers and in all types of concerns where business activities are carried out. Staffing is a continuous activity- This is because staffing function continues throughout the life of an organization due to the transfers and promotions that take place.
The basis of staffing function is efficient management of personnel- Human resources can be efficiently managed by a system or proper procedure, that is, recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, providing remuneration, etc. Staffing helps in placing right men at the right job. It can be done effectively through proper recruitment procedures and then finally selecting the most suitable candidate as per the job requirements. Staffing is performed by all managers depending upon the nature of business, size of the company, qualifications and skills of managers,etc. In small companies, the top management generally performs this function. In medium and small scale enterprise, it is performed especially by the personnel department of that concern.
Importance of Staffing1. Key to other managerial functions. Staffing function is very closely related to other managerial areas of the business. It greatly influences the direction and control in the organization. The effectiveness of other managerial functions depends on the effectiveness of the staffing function.2. Building healthy human relationships. Staffing function helps to build proper human relationships in the organization. Smooth human relations are the key to better communication and co-ordination of managerial efforts in an organization.3. Human resources development. Skilled and experienced staff is the best asset of a business concern. The staffing function helps developing this asset for the business. It inculcates the corporate culture into the staff which in turn ensures smooth functioning of all the managerial aspects of the business.
4. Long Term effect. Staffing decisions have long term effect on the efficiency of an organization. Qualified, efficient and well motivated staff is an asset of the organization. Staffing function assumes special significance in the context of globalization which demands high degree of efficiency in maintaining competitiveness.5. Potential contribution. Staff selection should be based on the ability of the prospective employees to meet the future challenges that the organization need to address. Therefore the potential contribution of the staff in their anticipated future roles should also be taken into account in staff selection.
Staffing may refer to: Employment agency Human resources Recruitment
•Employment Agency It is an organization which matches employers to employees. In all developed countries there is a publicly funded employment agency and multiple private businesses which also act as employment agencies.
•Human Resources Human resources is the set of individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector or an economy. "Human capital" is sometimes used synonymously with human resources, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view; i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used include "manpower", "talent", "labor", and simply "people".
•Recruitment Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting a qualified person for a job. All companies in any industry can benefit from contingency or retain professional recruiters or outsourcing the process to recruitment agencies.
1. Human resources planning It is the process of identifying human resources needs and planning for recruitment and retention programs. The planned output of any organization will require a systematic deployment of human resources at various levels. To be able to do this, the manager will have to involve himself with human resources planning.
The very first step in staffing is to plan the manpower inventory required by a concern in order to match them with the job requirements and demands. Therefore, it involves forecasting and determining the future manpower needs of the concern.
It involves three activities:A. Forecasting - assessment of future human resources needs in relation to the current capabilities of the organization
B. Programming - translating the forecasted human resources needs to personnel objectives and goals.C. Evaluation and Control - refers to monitoring human resource action plans and evaluating their success.
HR planning may also involve job analysis Job analysis - determines what kind of people should be recruited and helps management in maintaining the same recruitment standards throughout the company. - the outputs of job analysis are job descriptions and job specifications.
2 Phases of Job Analysis Job descriptions -refers to the content of the job, specifically job title, code number, division/department, place and hours of work, nature of the job, duties and responsibilities inherent in the job, methods and tools used, the person the worker is responsible to, funds and properties responsible for, compensation and benefits and hazards and risks.
Job specification -enumerates the qualifications required of the incumbent of each job. It indicates the educational qualifications, work experience, psychological traits particularly the mental and personality characteristics, health status, special qualifications like age, gender, status, and special skills that are necessary if the incumbent is to perform the job well.
2. Recruitment Refers to attracting qualified persons to apply for vacant positions in the company so that those who are best suited to serve the company may be selected. It is identifying and attracting capable applicants for employment it ends with the submission of applications by the aspirants.
Once the requirements are notified, the concern invites and solicits applications according to the invitations made to the desirable candidates. This is the process of attracting qualified job applicants by using advertisements, employment agencies or word of mouth. The common methods of advertising include in employment sections of newspapers and increasingly through online recruitment websites. The talent pool for a new job can come from external recruiting (outside the business) or internal (considering existing employees for promotion or a change of duties.)
Internal and External Recruiting Internal recruiting -when the business looks to fill the vacancy from within its existing workforce. Filling up the vacant positions in this manner imply the following company policies:1. ) allowing transfers from one department to another or transfers from one branch location to another and2. ) promoting from within.
External recruiting -when the business looks to fill the vacancy from any suitable applicant outside the business.
Advantages and Disadvantagesof Internal and External Recruiting
Internal recruiting Advantages Disadvantages Cheaper and quicker to Limits the number of recruit . potential applicants People already familiar with No new ideas can be the business and how it introduced from outside the operates business Provides opportunities for promotion with in the May cause resentment business – can be motivating amongst candidates not Business already knows the appointed strengths and weaknesses of Creates another vacancy candidates which needs to be filled
External recruiting Advantages Disadvantages Outside people bring in new Longer process ideas More expensive process due Larger pool of workers from to advertisements and which to find the best interviews required candidate Selection process may not be People have a wider range of effective enough to reveal the experience best candidate
Sources of applicantsA. Organizations current employees -some current employees may be qualified to occupy positions higher than the one’s they are occupying.B. Schools -representatives of companies may interview applicants inside campuses through conducting job affairs.C. Recruitment firms -a certain company may seek potential applicants from recruitment agenciesD. Competitors -although this will sound unethical to some, a company may pirate an employee who is currently working on the company’s competitor by offering more benefits or a higher salary.
Methods of recruitmentA. Newspaper advertising -the company may place an advertisement to newspapers and other local media to invite applicants.B. Referrals from employees -current employees may recommend relatives and friends who may be qualified to apply.C. Walk-ins
D. Campus recruiting -include job postings on school bulletin boards, delivering career opportunities talks to graduating students or campus interviews to selected graduating students. Some firms allow their executives to teach in certain universities on company time in order to attract applicants.E. Special events recruitingF. Online recruitment -offers access to a wider pool of applicants and can save time and money
3. Selection The process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual who is best suited for a particular position. It is choosing the fit candidates from the applications received in the process of recruitment. The purposes of selection are to evaluate each candidate and to pick the applicant who is best suited for the position available.
The selection process3.1. Review of application blank - provides basic employment information to gather certain basic selection data and can be used to screen out unqualified.3.2. Employment interview - is done by asking series of relevant questions to the job candidate. This will determine the ability of an applicant to organize his ideas. -this is critical step in the recruiting and hiring process since it provides the hiring supervisor the opportunity to review candidate’s qualifications and to determine their suitability for the position. -it also provides candidates with the chance to learn about the position and its requirements and present information on their skills and experience.
Interviewing methods are: Unstructured or non-directive type -interviewer asks questions as they come to mind, no set format to follow, and it can take various directions. Structured or directive type -the questions and acceptable responses are specified in advance and the responses are rated for appropriateness of content. All applicants are generally asked the same set of questions. Computer-assisted interviewing -computer helps the interviewer ask the right questions to gain additional information or check concerns flagged by the computer.
3.3. Testing -involves an evaluation of the future behavior or performance of an individual. There are different types of tests that may be administered depending on the requirement of the position: a. Psychological test is an objective, standard measure of a sample behavior; b. Aptitude test is one method of determining the future behavior of an individual which is used to measure a person’s capacity or potential ability to learn; c. Performance test is also used to measure a person’s current knowledge of a subject; d. Personality test is administered to measure the personality traits such as dominance, sociability and conformity; e. To measure a person’s interest in various fields, the interest test may be applied; f. Physical examination is given to assure that the health of the applicant is adequate to meet the requirements of the job.
Other types of tests Tests of cognitive abilities -tests in this group include tests of general reasoning ability (intelligence) and tests of specific mental abilities like memory and inductive reasoning. Test of motor and physical abilities -motor abilities usually measured are finger dexterity, manual dexterity, speed of arm movement and reaction to time.
Measuring personality and interests -personality tests can measure basic aspects of an applicant’s personality such as introversion, stability and motivation. Achievement tests or proficiency test -this is basically to measure what a person has learned.
3.4. Background investigation and reference checking -this is to verify the accuracy of factual information previously provided by the applicant and to uncover damaging background information such as criminal records and suspended driver’s licenses. (personal references, school records and previous employment records)3.5. Physical examination -this is to determine if the applicant qualifies for the physical requirements of the position and to discover any medical limitations that should be taken into account in placing the applicant.3.6. Final employment decision -this is the decision to accept or reject the applicant based on the result of the physical examination and a value of judgment based on all the information gathered in the previous steps.
oDifference between Recruitment and Selection Recruitment Selection Attracting maximum number Picking the best among of applicants so as to have them. more options. Includes rejection and fewer Known as a positive process candidates are selected or as it contains only the process sometimes even not a single of creating the application candidate is selected. pool. High skills are must to select High skills are not essentials. only those who are really fit for the job.
4. Hiring It happens when the company finally selects the best applicant that meets the stated job specifications. The newly hired employee may still be on a contractual basis or may immediately become a permanent employee. What is certain is that, once hired, the person will already receive a salary.
5. Induction and Orientation This refers to the assistance given to the newly hired employees in adjusting to the new work environment which encompasses the people around him, the facilities of the organization, the programs and services, and the technology used in the production of goods and delivery services. It is done to familiarize the selected applicant about the company’s rules, procedures, training plans and the different equipment used in the organization. A related term, induction, is also provided to give the new employee information about the company, his duties, responsibilities and benefits..
Two types of orientation Formal orientation - it is use when there is a group of new workers that are regularly taken in periodically. -this is usually calendared and is considered an important event in organization. -usually it consists of the following activities; tour of the office/plant, film showing of the history, philosophy and structure of the organization, a review of job description, a general assembly where a short discussion on benefits, programs and services takes place.
Informal orientation -the new employee is assisted by another employee of the same department where the former is assigned to work. -a quick tour of the work setting and an introduction to key people with who he will be interfacing.
6. Training and Development Represents a planned effort by an organization to facilitate employees learning of job-related behaviors. Refers to the learning that is provided in order to improve the performance of the present job. The company may send the employee in various seminars and graduate studies.
Training is a part of incentives given to the workers in order to develop and grow them within the concern. Training is generally given according to the nature of activities and scope of expansion in it. Along with it, the workers are developed by providing them extra benefits of in-depth knowledge of their functional areas. Development also includes giving them key and important jobs as a test or examination in order to analyze their performances.
Forms of trainingA. On-the-job training (OJT), an experienced employee is asked to take a new employee “under his or her wing” and show the newcomer how to perform job duties.B. Orientation training includes lectures, films, audiovisual techniques, and simulations.C. Programmed and computer assisted instruction, in which the employee works at his or her own pace to learn material from a text that includes exercise and quizzes to enhance learning.D. Conference and case discussion groups in which participants analyze cases or discuss topics assisted by a training leader.
oDifference between Training and Development Training Development Non-Managerial personnel. Managerial personnel. Technical and mechanical The idea behind the process fields are emphasized in the of development is to enhance process of training . the conceptual ideas. It is given to the personnel for Preparing the personnel for specific job. variety of jobs. A short-term process . Long-term process.
7. Performance Appraisal It is the process of evaluating the job accomplishment of the employees. It is the assessment of the extent to which job and organization objectives have been achieved. Comprises the steps of observing and assessing employees performance, recording the assessment, and providing feedback to the employee.
Generally, HRM professionals concentrate on two things to make performance appraisal a positive force in their organization: 1. the accurate assessment of performance through the training of managers and the development of assessment systems such as rating scales, and 2. the performance appraisal interview in which managers can provide feedback that will reinforce good performance and motivate employee development. Performance appraisal interview – most corporations provide formal feedback in the form of an annual performance interview with the employee.
Reasons why performance evaluation should be made: To determine merit pay increases. To help employees plan for future performance goal. To asses the promotional potential of employees.
8. Employment Decisions After evaluating the performance of employees, the management will now be ready to make employment decisions.
A. Monetary rewards -these are given to employees whose performance is at par or above standard requirements.B. Promotion from within -helps companies retain and develop productive employees. -it provides challenging assignments, prescribes new responsibilities, and helps employees grow by developing their abilities.
-one approach to promotion from within is jobposting which means that positions are announced tobulletin boards or in company publications as openingoccur.-another approach is employee resource charts whichare designed to identify likely successors for eachmanagement position.
C. Transfer -this is a movement of a person to a different job at the same or similar level of responsibility in the organization. -transfers are made to provide growth opportunities for the persons involved or to get rid of poor performing employees.D. Demotion -this is a movement from one position to another which has less pay or responsibility attached to it. -is used as a form of punishment or as a temporary measure to keep an employee until he is offered a higher position.
9. Separations It is either a voluntary or involuntary termination of an employee. a. Voluntary -the organization’s management must find the real reason. If the presence of a defect in the organization is determined, corrective action is necessary. b. Involuntary or termination -is the option that the management exercises when an employee’s performance is poor. This is usually made after training efforts fail to produce positive results.