Recruitment & Selection by Raja Rao Pagidipalli


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Recruitment & Selection by Raja Rao Pagidipalli

  1. 1. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 1RECRUITMENT & SELECTIONRAJA RAO PAGIDIPALLIM.B.A.(HRM), M.A.(ENG), M.Phil, (Ph.D)
  2. 2. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 2RECRUITMENT & SELECTIONIntroduction to Recruitment:Once the required number and the kind of human resources are determined, themanagement has to find the places where required human resources are/will beavailable and also work out strategies for attracting them towards the organizationbefore selecting suitable candidates for jobs. This process is generally known asrecruitment. Some people use the term ‘recruitment’ for employment. These two are notone and the same. Recruitment is only one of the steps in the entire employmentprocess. Some others use the term recruitment for selection. These two terms aredifferent. Technically speaking, the function of recruitment precedes the selectionfunction and it includes only finding, developing the sources of prospective employeesand attracting them to apply for jobs in an organization, whereas the selection is theprocess of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidatesattracted(i.e., recruited).Recruitment Definition:Recruitment is defined as “a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet therequirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attractingthat manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficientworkforce.” Edwin B.Flippo defined recruitment as “the process of searching forprospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.”These definitions can be analyzed by discussing the processes of recruitment throughsystems approach.Objectives of Recruitment: The objectives of recruitment are:i. To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit thepresent and future organizational strategies,ii. To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company,iii. To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization,iv. To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to thecompany,v. To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’svalues,vi. To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits,vii. To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent,viii. To search for talent globally and not just within the company,ix. To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum,
  3. 3. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 3x. To anticipate and find people for positions that does not exist yet.Employee Recruitment Methods: Recruitment can be in two different ways¯ Internal recruitment is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from withinits existing workforce.¯ External recruitment is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from anysuitable applicant outside the business.Internal Recruitment Sources:They include those who are employed in the organisation or those who were in the pastemploy (but quit voluntarily or due to retrenchment) and would return if theorganisation likes to re-employ. The advantage in looking for internal resources is thatthey provide opportunities for better deployment and utilisation of existing humanresources through planned placements and transfers. It will also motivate peoplethrough planned promotions and career development when vacancies exist in highergrades. The law provides preferences to retrenched employees when vacancies arise infuture.Internal recruitment methods are not only cost efficient, they also support employeesatisfaction and moral. Before looking outside of the company for talent, take the time tolook at the current employees. Nothing causes more dissatisfaction than havingsomeone new take the position that an employee has been working to get promoted to.Promoting within requires less training and transition. Here are two ways to accomplishthis:Job postings – post open positions for employees to apply for before external hires areconsidered.Skills inventory – have HR keep a record of employee skills. Review the inventory toidentify any employees that might qualify for the job. Invite them to apply.Internal Recruitment – Advantages1.Cheaper and quicker to recruit2. People already familiar with the business and how it operates3. Provides opportunities for promotion with in the business – can be motivating4. Business already knows the strengths and weaknesses of candidatesInternal Recruitment - Disadvantages :1.Limits the number of potential applicants2.No new ideas can be introduced from outside the business3.May cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed4.Creates another vacancy which needs to be filled
  4. 4. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 4External RecruitmentThe External Recruitment is the source of the fresh blood for the organization. Asa very critical HR Process, the external recruitment process has to be set up verycarefully. The external recruitment is a process, which is very sensitive to changes on theexternal market and the managers are very sensitive about that as well.The most popular ways of recruiting externally are:Job centres – These are paid for by the government and are responsible for helpingthe unemployed find jobs or get training. They also provide a service for businessesneeding to advertise a vacancy and are generally free to use.Job advertisements – Advertisements are the most common form of externalrecruitment. They can be found in many places (local and national newspapers, noticeboards, recruitment fairs) and should include some important information relating tothe job (job title, pay package, location, job description, how to apply-either by CV orapplication form). Where a business chooses to advertise will depend on the cost ofadvertising and the coverage needed (i.e. how far away people will consider applying forthe jobRecruitment agency – Provides employers with details of suitable candidates for avacancy and can sometimes be referred to as ‘head-hunters’. They work for a fee andoften specialise in particular employment areas e.g. nursing, financial services, teacherrecruitmentPersonal recommendation – Often referred to as ‘word of mouth’ and can be arecommendation from a colleague at work. A full assessment of the candidate is stillneeded however but potentially it saves on advertising cost.Unsolicited applicants – most business will have unsolicited resumes. Make surethese resumes are kept and filed. Review these before beginning to advertise. The rightcandidate might very well be in that file.Events – job fairs, open houses. These are costly to run but can produce excellentresults. The number of positions available can best determine if it is worth theinvestment.Campus Placements – co-op programs and job placement programs are a great wayto bring in new employees. Contact local colleges or universities to see if there is anopportunity to work together.
  5. 5. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 5Modern Sources of Recruitment: A number of modern recruitment sources arebeing used by the corporate sector in addition to traditional sources.ÿ Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications,attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. They are alsoaware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. Assuch, they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the joband their friends or relatives. Hence, the HR managers of various companiesdepend on the present employees for reference of the candidates for various jobs.This source reduces the cost and time required for recruitment. Further, thissource enhances the effectiveness of recruitment. HR managers offer variousincentives/rewards including cash incentives to the current employees forreferring the best candidates.Modern external sources include: Walk in and consult in, head-hunting, body-shopping, mergers and acquisitions, tele-recruitment and outsourcing.Ï Walk-in: The busy organizations and the rapid changing companies do not findtime to perform various functions of recruitment. Therefore, they advise thepotential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a priorapplication on a specified date, time and at a specified place. The suitablecandidates from among the interviewees will be selected for appointment afterscreening the candidates through tests and interviews.Ï (ii) Consult-in: The busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential jobseekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. Thecompanies select the suitable candidates from among such candidates throughthe selection process.Ï (iii) Head-hunting: The companies request the professional organizations tosearch for the best candidates particularly for the senior executive positions. Theprofessional organizations search for the most suitable candidates and advise thecompany regarding the filling up of the positions. Head-hunters are also called‘search consultants’.Ï (iv) Body shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech traininginstitutes develop the pool of human resources for the possible employment. Theprospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates.Otherwise, the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers toplace their human resources. These professional and training institutions arecalled ‘body shoppers’ and these shopping is also known as employee leasing
  6. 6. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 6activity. The leasing firms employ the people and lease them for the use byvarious needy companies for payment of a commission.Ï (v) Mergers & Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers,and take-overs help in getting human resources. In addition, the companies doalso have alliances in sharing their human resources on ad-hoc basis.It does mean that the company with surplus human resources offers the servicesof their employees to other needy organizations.Ï (vi) E-Recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunicationshelped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organizationsadvertise the job vacancies through the World Wide Web (www). The job seekerssend their applications through e-mail using the Internet. Alternatively, jobseekers place their CVs in the world wide web/internet, which can be drawn bythe prospective employers depending upon their requirements.External Recruitment Sources: Organisations may look for people outside it. Entrylevel jobs are usually filled by new entrants from outside. Also in the followingcircumstances organisations may resort to outside sources:Ï a. when suitably qualified people are not available.Ï b. when the organisation feels it necessary to impart new blood for fresh ideas.Ï c. when it is diversifying into new avenues andÏ d. when it is merging with another organisation.External Recruitment – Advantages¯ Outside people bring in new ideas¯ Larger pool of workers from which to find the best candidate¯ People have a wider range of experienceExternal Recruitment - Disadvantages :Longer processMore expensive process due to advertisements and interviews requiredSelection process may not be effective enough to reveal the best candidateRecruitment Strategies: The recruitment strategies formulated by the companiesinclude:In-sourcing or Outsourcing: Companies recruit the candidates, employ them, trainand develop them and utilize the human resources of these candidates. This strategy is
  7. 7. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 7called ‘in-sourcing’. Companies formulate and implement this strategy when thecompany’s growth is stable. Some organizations employ and develop the candidateswith a view to provide the human resources to other companies which concentrate onmanufacturing, servicing and such other activities. Some manufacturing and servicecompanies depend for their human resource requirements on such externalorganizations whose core business is to provide human resources. This strategy is called‘outsourcing’. Most of the IT companies follow this strategy. Even manufacturingcompanies also depend on outsourcing for the running the non-core business likecanteens, hospitals, office maintenance, security, house-keeping, plant maintenance etc.outsourcing strategy is more suitable for both the fast growing and diversifyingcompanies.Vast and Fast Source: The fast developing IT industry and high technology orientedindustry invariably require vast human resources within the short span of time. The beststrategy to get vast human resources immediately is through internet.Recruitment Policy: Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the HRpolicy of the same organization. In other words, the former is a part of the latter.However, recruitment policy by itself should take into consideration the government’sreservation policy, policy Regarding sons of soil etc., HR policies of other organizationsregarding merit, internal sources, social responsibility in absorbing minority sections,women etc. recruitment policy should commit itself to the organization’s HR policy likeenriching the organization’s human resources or serving the community by absorbingthe weaker sections and disadvantaged people of the society, motivating the employeesthrough internal promotions, improving the employee’s loyalty to the organization byabsorbing the retrenched or laid-of employees or casual/temporary employees ordependents of present/former employees etc.Limitations for Recruitment – Challenges:Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation ) Act, 1986: This Act replacesthe Employment of Children Act, 138, and seeks to prohibit the engagement ofchildren below 14 years of age in certain employment and to regulate theconditions of work of children in certain other employment. Penalties forcontravening the provisions are fine and imprisonment.2. The Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act,1959: The Act requires all employers to notify vacancies (with certainexemptions) occurring in their establishments to the prescribed employmentexchanges before they are filled3. The Apprentices Act, 1961: The Act seeks to provide for the regulation andcontrol of training apprentices and for matters connected therewith. The Actprovides for a machinery to lay down syllabi and prescribe period of training,
  8. 8. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 8reciprocal obligations for apprentices and employers etc. The responsibility forengagement of apprentices lies solely with the employer. An apprentice is not aworkman.4. The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970: This Actseeks to regulate the employment of contract labour in certain establishmentsand to provide for the abolition in certain circumstances. The Act applies to everyestablishment / contractor employing 20 or more persons.5. Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976: This Act seeks to providefor the abolition of bonded labour system with a view to preventing the economicand physical exploitation of the weaker sections of society.6. The Inter-state Migrant Workmen Act, 1979: This Act safeguards theinterests of the workmen who are recruited by contractors from one state forservice in an establishment situated in another state and to guard against theexploitation of such workmen by the contractors.7. The Factories Act, 1948, the Mines Act, 1952, etc. : Certain legislation,like the Factories Act and the Mines Act prohibit employment of women (in nightwork, underground work etc.) and children (below 14 years of age) in certaintypes of jobs.8. Reservations for Special Groups: In pursuance of the constitutionalprovisions, statutory reservations and relaxed norms have been provided ineducation and employment to candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes andScheduled Tribes in central and state services including departmentalundertakings, government corporations, local bodies and other quasi –government organisations. Most state governments have issued policy directivesextending the reservations to notified backward communities also.9. Sons -of -the-Soil: The question of preference to local population in thematter of employment has become more complex toady than ever before. TheGovt. of India has recognised the main elements of the arguments on behalf ofthe sons of the soil and laid down certain principles in the matter of recruitmentto its public sector projects, whose implementation, however, is left to theundertakings themselves.10. Displaced Persons: Whenever major projects are set up, large tracts ofland are acquired for the purpose, displacing several hundred households in eachcase. Payment of compensation for land was at one time considered a sufficientdischarge of obligation towards persons who are dispossessed of land. This alonedid not solve the question of earning livelihood.Realistic Job Preview:A Realistic Job Preview is an approach that enables the communication of aspects of ajob to prospective applicants before the applicant accepts the offer of a position.
  9. 9. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 9For a RJP to be effective, it is critical to allow employees to obtain a balanced view of thepositive and negative aspects of the position. Discrepancies between the applicant of theposition and the actual operational requirements of the job role may lead to lowercommitment levels and increased turnover. A RJP works by providing applicants withinformation that clarifies their expectations and allows them to have a more realisticperspective of the role. By providing a well designed and consistent RJP process to allpotential employees, the organization can reduce turnover and increase commitment byallowing the employer to match job requirements with the applicant’s qualities and theapplicant to match their personal needs with the position requirements and theorganizational culture.Research on the effects of utilizing a RJP has demostrated cost savings due to increasedperformance and job survival; decreased levels in turnover by better meeting employeeexpectations, improving their ability to cope, providing a perception of honesty for theorganization and allowing them to self-select themselves for the position. In addition,there is also increased post-employment job satisfaction by giving them preparation tocope with the demands of the position and making them feel that the employer has beenhonest in their recruitment process.Using Realistic Job Previews for recruitmentBy providing applicants with an insight into the job vacancy – both the attractive andless attractive aspects of the role – many candidates decide for themselves that the job isnot for them. The Realistic Job Previews (RJP) helps the applicant to really thinkthrough whether the new role is for them – whether they will fit into the organisationand enjoy the role.The Realistic Job Preview should be used to: Help unsuitable applicants withdrawthemselves before the formal recruitment process takes place. Ensure such ‘self-elimination’ is seen in a positive, brand aligned and advisory way. These applicants mayalso be customers and it is important to treat them with dignity.The benefits of Realistic Job PreviewRealistic Job Previews can help with volume recruitment by removing around 15% ofapplicants through clarifying and clearly stating the job requirements, therebyincreasing the quality of applications received. It also reduces resignation rate ofrecruits and ensures candidates finally selected are likely to align well with the valuesand culture of the organization.Selection:Selection is a process of measurement, decision making and evaluation. The goal of aselection system is to bring in to the organisation individuals who will perform well on
  10. 10. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 10the job. To have an accurate and fair selection system, an organisation must use reliableand valid measures of job applicant characteristics. In addition, a good selection systemmust include a means of combining information about applicant characteristics in arational way and producing correct hire and no-hire decisions. A good personnelselection system should add to the overall effectiveness of the organisation.Organisations vary in the complexity of their selection system. Some merely skimapplications blanks and conduct brief, informal interviews, whereas others take toresting, repeated interviewing, background checks and so on. Although the latter systemis more costly per applicant, many benefits are realised from careful, thorough selection.An organisation needs to have members who are both skilled and motivated to performtheir roles. Either such members can be identified by careful selection or attempts canbe made to develop them after hire by extensive training. Thus cursory selection maygreatly increase training and monitoring costs, whereas spending more on the selectionprocess will reduce these post-hire expenses.Selection procedure:Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about thecandidate’s qualifications, experience, physical and mental ability, nature andbehaviour, knowledge, aptitude and the like for judging whether a given applicant issuitable or not for the job. Therefore, the selection procedure is not a single act but isessentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information can besecured through various selection techniques. At each step, facts may come to lightwhich are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employee specifications.Steps in Scientific Selection Process(i) Job Analysis, (ii) Recruitment. (iii) Application Form, (iv) Written Examination, (v)Preliminary Interview (iv) Business Games (vii) Tests. (viii) Final Interview. (ix) MedicalExamination (x) Reference Checks. (xi) Line Manager’s Decision. (xii) Job offer (xiii)Employment.Job Analysis: Job analysis is the basis of selecting the right candidate. Everyorganization should finalize the job analysis, job description, job specification andemployee specifications before proceeding to the next stop of selection.Human Resource Plan: Every company plans for the required number of and kind ofemployees for a future date. This is the basis for recruitment function.Recruitment: Recruitment refers to the process of searching for prospective employeesand stimulating then to apply for jobs in an organization. It is the basis for theremaining techniques of the selection and the latter varies depending upon the former.It develops the applicants’ pool.
  11. 11. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 11Development of Bases for Selection: The Company has to select the appropriatecandidates from the applicants’ pool. The company develops or borrows the appropriatebases/techniques for screening the candidates in order to select the appropriatecandidates for the jobs.Application Form: Application Form is also known as application blank. Thetechnique of application bank is traditional and widely accepted for securinginformation from the prospective candidates. It can also be used as a device to screenthe candidates at the preliminary level. Many companies formulate their own style ofapplication forms depending upon the requirement of information based on the size ofthe company, nature of business activities, type and level of the job etc. Information isgenerally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal backgroundinformation, Educational attainments, Work experiences, Salary , Personal details andReferences.Written Examination: The organizations have to conduct written examination forthe qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks soas to measure the candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations, to know thecandidates’ attitude towards the job, to measure the candidates’ aptitude, reasoning,knowledge in various disciplines, general knowledge and English language.Preliminary Interview: The preliminary interview is to solicit necessary informationfrom the prospective applicants and to assess the applicant’s suitability to the job. Thismay be conducted by an assistant in the personnel department. The information thusprovided by the candidate may be related to the job or personal specifications regardingeducation, experience, salary expected, aptitude towards the job, age, physicalappearance and other physical requirements etc. Thus, preliminary interview is usefulas a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidates. If a candidatesatisfied the job requirements regarding most of the areas, he may be selected forfurther process. Preliminary interviews are short and known as stand-up interviews orsizing-up of the applicants or screening interviews. However, certain required amount ofcare is to be taken to ensure that the desirable workers are not eliminated. Thisinterview is also useful to provide the basic information about the company to thecandidate.Business Games: Business games are widely used as a selection technique forselecting management trainees, executive trainees and managerial personnel at junior,middle and top management positions. Business games help to evaluate the applicantsin the areas of decision-making identifying the potentialities, handling the situations,problem-solving skills, human relations skills etc. Participants are placed in ahypothetical work situation and are required to play the role situations in the game. The
  12. 12. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 12hypothesis is that the most successful candidate in the game will be the most successfulone on the job.Group Discussion: The technique of group discussion is used in order to securefurther information regarding the suitability of the candidate for the job. Groupdiscussion is a method where groups of the successful applicants are brought around aconference table and are asked to discuss either a case study or a subject-matter. Thecandidates in the group are required to analyses, discuss, find alternative solutions andselect the sound solution. A selection panel then observes the candidates in the areas ofinitiating the discussion, explaining the problem, soliciting unrevealing informationbased on the given information and using common sense, keenly observing thediscussion of others, clarifying controversial issues, influencing others, speakingeffectively, concealing and mediating arguments among the participants andsummarizing or concluding apply. The selection panel, based on its observation, judgesthe candidates’ skill and ability and ranks them according to their merit. In some cases,the selection panel may also ask the candidates to write the summary of the groupdiscussion in order to know the candidates’ writing ability as well.Test: Psychological tests play a vital role in employee selection. A psychological test isessentially an objective and standardized measure of sample of behavior from whichinferences about future behavior and performance of the candidate can be drawn.Objectivity of tests refers to the validity and reliability of the instruments in measuringthe ability of the individuals. Objectivity provides equal opportunity to all the jobseekers without any discrimination against sex, caste etc. standardization of test refersto uniformity of the total behavior of the prospective employee on the job.Types of Test: Tests are classified into six types. They are Aptitude tests, Achievementtests , Situational tests, Interest tests, Personality tests and Multidimensional testing.Aptitude tests: These tests measure whether an individual has the capacity or latentability to learn a given job if given adequate training. Aptitudes can be divided intogeneral and mental ability or intelligence and specific aptitudes such as mechanical,clerical, manipulative capacity etc.Emotional Quotient (EQ): Most of the organizations realized that emotionalinvolvement and commitment of the employees determine their contribution to thecompany rather than their intelligence quotient. As such, emotional quotient (EQ) isused as important criteria in the employee selection process.Achievement Tests: These tests are conducted when applicants claim to knowsomething as these tests are concerned with what one has accomplished. These tests aremore useful to measure the value of a specific achievement when an organization wishes
  13. 13. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 13to employ experienced candidates. These tests are classified into: (a) Job knowledgetest: and (b) Work sample test.Situational test: This test evaluates a candidate in a similar real life situation. In thistest, the candidate is asked either to cope with the situation or solve critical situations ofthe job.Interest tests: These tests are inventories of the likes and dislikes of candidates inrelation to work, job, occupations, hobbies and recreational activities. The purpose ofthis test is to find out whether a candidate is interested or disinterested in the job forwhich he is a candidate and to find out in which area of the job range/occupation thecandidate is interested. The assumption of this test is that there is a high correlationbetween the interest of a candidate in a job and job success. Interest inventories are lessfaked and they may not fluctuate after the age of 30.Personality Tests: These tests prove deeply to discover clues to an individual’s valuesystem, his emotional reactions and maturity and characteristic mood. They areexpressed in such traits like self-confidence, tact, emotional control, optimism,decisiveness, sociability, conformity, objectivity, patience, fear, distrust, initiative,judgment dominance of submission, impulsiveness, sympathy, integrity, stability andself-confidence.Cognitive Ability Tests: These tests measure mathematical and verbal abilities.Popularly known tests of this category include Graduate Record Examination (GRE) andScholastic Aptitude Test (SAT).Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: this is a comprehensive test including generalinformation, arithmetic, similarities, vocabulary, picture completion, picturearrangement, object assembly and similar items.Wonderlic Personnel Test: This test includes perceptual, verbal and arithmetic.Polygraph Tests: The polygraph is an instrument that records changes in breathing,blood pressure, pulse and skin response associated with sweating of palms and plotsthese reactions on paper.Multi-dimensional Testing: However, the need for multi-skills is being felt by mostof the companies’ consequent upon globalization, competitiveness and the consequentcustomer-centred strategies. Organization have to develop multi-dimensional testing inorder to find out whether the candidates possess a variety of skills or not, candidate’sability to integrate the multi-skills and potentiality to apply them based on situationaland functional requirement.
  14. 14. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 14Employment Interview: Final interview is usually followed by testing. This is themost essential step in the process of selection. In this step, the interviewer matches theinformation obtained about the candidate thorough various means to the jobrequirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during theinterview.Various Types of interviews: 1.Priliminary Interview 2.Core Interview 3.Decision-Making InterviewPriliminary Interview: Informal Interview & Unstructured InterviewÏ Informal Interview: This is the interview which can be conducted at any placeby any person to secure the basic and non-job related information. theinteraction between the candidate and the personnel manager when the formermeets the latter to enquire about the vacancies or additional particulars inconnection with the employment advertisement is an example of informalinterview.Ï Unstructured Interview: In this interview, the candidate in given the freedomto tell about himself by revealing his knowledge on various items/areas, hisbackground , expectations, interest etc. Similarly, the interviewer also providesinformation on various items required by the candidate.Core Interview: It is normally the interaction between the candidate and the lineexecutive or experts on various areas of no knowledge, skill, talent etc. this interviewmay take various forms like: Background Information Interview, Job and ProbingInterview, Stress Interview, Stress Interview, Group Discussion Interview, Formal andStructured Interview, Panel Interview & Depth Interview.Background Information Interview: This interview is intended to collectthe information which is not available in the application blank and to check thatinformation provided in the application blank regarding education, place ofdomicile, family, health, interests, hobbies, likes, dislikes and extracurricularactivities of the applicant.Job and Probing Interview: This interview aims at testing the candidate’s jobknowledge about duties, activities, methods of doing the job, critical/problematicareas, methods of handling those areas etc.Stress Interview: This Interview aims at testing the candidate’s job behaviourand level of withstanding during the period of stress and strain. The interviewer
  15. 15. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 15tests the candidate by putting him under stress and strain by interrupting theapplicant from answering, criticising his opinions, asking questions pertaining tounrelated areas, keeping silent for unduly long periods after he has finishedspeaking etc. stress during the middle portion of the interview gives effectiveresults. Stress interview must be handled with utmost care and skill. This typeinterview is often invalid, as the interviewee’s need for a job and his previousexperience in such type of interviews may inhibit his actual behaviour under suchsituations.Group Discussion Interview: There are two methods of conducting groupdiscussion interviews, viz. group interview method and discussion interviewmethod. All the candidates are brought into one room, i.e., the interview roomand are interviewed one by one under group interview. This method helps a busyexecutive to save valuable time and gives a fair account of the objectivity of theinterview to the candidates. Under the discussion interview method, one topic isgiven for discussion to the candidates who assemble in one room and they areasked to discuss the topic in detail. This type of interview helps the interviewer inappraising certain skills of the candidates like initiative, interpersonal skills,dynamism, presentation, leading, comprehension, collaboration etc. Interviewersare at ease in this category of interview because of its informality and flexibility.But it may fail to cover some significant portions of the candidates’ backgroundand skills.Formal and Structured Interview: In this type of interview, all theformalities, procedures like fixing the value, time, panel of interviewers, openingand closing, intimating the candidates officially etc. are strictly followedarranging and conducting the interview. The course of the interview ispreplanned and structured, in advance, depending on job requirements, thequestions for discussion are structured and experts are allotted different areasand questions to be asked. There will be very little room for the interviewers todeviate from the questions prepared in advance in a sequence.Panel Interview: A panel of experts interviews each candidate, judges hisperformance individually and prepares consolidated judgment. This type ofinterview is known as panel interview. Interviews for middle level and seniorlevel managers are normally conducted by the panel of experts.Depth Interview: In this interview, the candidate would be examinedextensively in core areas of job skills and knowledge. Experts test the candidate’sknowledge in depth. Depth interviews are conducted for specialist jobs.
  16. 16. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 16Information technology brought significant developments in the selection processof employees. The vital development is on-line interview.Decision-Making Interview:After the candidates are examined by the experts including the line managers of theorganization in the core areas of the job, the head of the department/section concernedinterviews the candidates once again, mostly through informal discussion. Theinterviewer examines the interest of the candidate in the job, organization,reaction/adaptability to the working conditions, career planning, promotionalopportunities, work adjustment and allotment etc. the Personnel Manager alsointerviews the candidates with a view to find out his reaction/acceptance regardingsalary, allowances, benefits, promotions, opportunities etc.The head of the department and the personnel manager exchange the views and thenthey jointly inform their decision to the chairman of the interview board, who finallymakes the decision about the candidates’ performance and their ranks in the interview.Most of the organizations have realized recently that employees’ positive attitudematters much rather than employees’ skills and knowledge. Employees with positiveattitude contribute much to the organization. Hence the interviewers look for thecandidates with the right attitude while making final decision.Medical examination: – Applicants who have crossed the above stages are sent for aphysical examination either to the company’s physician or to a medical officer approvedfor the purpose.Reference checks: – The applicant is asked to mention in his application form thenames and addresses of two or three persons who know him well.Final approval: – The shortlisted candidates by the department are finally approvedby the executives of the concerned department. Employment is offered in the form ofappointment letter mentioning the post, the rank, the grade, the date by which thecandidate should join and other terms and conditions in brief.HR InterviewThe goal of an HR interview is to determine the potential job performance of anapplicant based on the answers that they give to questions. The HR interview isexcellent for jobs that will require applicants to have communication skills. It will alsoallow the company to obtain important information that is related to the client. Duringthe HR interview, the applicant will be able to demonstrate how much they know abouta particular task.
  17. 17. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 17The HR interview is designed to make sure the best candidates are selected. Theinterview will also allow the human resources department to determine if theapplicant can work well with the other employees. However, there are a numberof disadvantages to the HR interview process. The evaluations that are made bythe HR department will often be subjective. The decision on whether or not theywill hire the applicant is generally made during the first few minutes of theconversation. The rest of the interview is used by the HR department todetermine if the decision is valid.Ï There are a number of ways that can be used to make the HR interview moresuccessful. The use of stereotypes should be reduced as much as possible. Sex andrace should not play a role in the selection process of the company. Studies haveshown that interviewers who do not have an advanced knowledge of the job aremuch more likely to use stereotypes than those who do understand the jobrequirements.ÿ The questions that are asked during the interview should always be related to thejob. When applicants are asked questions which are not related to the job, thiscan damage the credibility of the company. To solve these problems, it isimportant for a company to make sure they train their employees, especiallythose who will be interviewing applicants. The interviewer must haveinterpersonal skills. They should not make quick decisions about those theyinterview, and they should never use stereotypes. The emphasis should never beplaced on any one characteristic, especially if the job requires the applicant to beskilled in multiple areas.¯ Reliability of the Interview: In the interview context, reliability is consensus,or agreement, between two interviewers on their assessment of the samecandidates. This is called Interrater Reliability. Research shows that it is ratherweak.¯ Similarity Error: Interviewers are positively predisposed to candidates whoare similar to them (in hobbies, interests, personal background). They arenegatively disposed to candidates who are unlike them.¯ Contrast Error: When several candidates are interviewed in succession, raterstend to compare each candidate with the preceding candidates instead of anabsolute standard. Thus an average candidate can be rated as higher than averageif he or she comes after one or two poor candidates and lower than average if heor she follows an excellent candidate.¯ First Impression Error: Some interviewers tend to form a first impression ofcandidates rather quickly, based on a review of the application blank or on thefirst few moments of the interview. Thus, this impression is based on relativelylittle information about the candidate. Nevertheless the initial judgment is
  18. 18. Human Resource Management – M.B.A. PRINCER a j a R a o P a g i d i p a l l i Page 18resistant t change as more information or contradictory information is acquired.In addition, the interviewer may choose subsequent questions based on the firstimpression, in an attempt to confirm the positive or negative impression.¯ Traits Rated and Halo Error: Halo error occurs when either the interviewer’soverall impression or strong impression of a single dimension spreads toinfluence his or her rating of other characteristics. For instance, if a candidateimpresses the interviewer as being very enthusiastic, the interviewer might tendto rate he candidate high on other characteristics, such as job knowledge, loyaltyand dependability.Placement: Placement refers to assigning rank and responsibility to an individual,identifying him with a particular job. If the person adjusts to the job and continues toperform per expectations, it means that the candidate is properly placed. However, if thecandidate is seen to have problems in adjusting himself to the job, the supervisor mustfind out whether the person is properly placed as per the latter’s aptitude and potential.Usually, placement problems arise out of wrong selection or improper placement orboth. Therefore, organizations need to constantly review cases of employeesexpectations / potential and employee related problems such as turnover, absenteeism,accidents etc., and assess how far they are related to inappropriate placement decisionsand remedy the situation without delay.Induction: Induction refers to the introduction of a person to the job and theorganization. The purpose is to make the employee feel at home and develop a sense ofpride in the organization and commitment to the job. The induction process is alsoenvisaged to indoctrinate, orient, acclimatize, and acculturate the person to the job andthe organization. The basic thrust of Induction training during the first one or few weeksafter a person joins service in the organization is to:þ introduce the person to the people with whom he worksþ make him aware of the general company policies that apply to him as also theþ specific work situation and requirements,þ answer any questions and clarify any doubts that the person may have about thejob and the organization ……andþ provide on-the-job instructions, check back periodically howthe person is doing and offer help, if required.