Recruitment & Selection


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Recruitment & Selection

  1. 1. RECRUITMENTMeaning Of RecruitmentAccording to Edwin B. Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching the candidatesfor employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation". Recruitmentis the activity that links the employers and the jobseekers. A few definitions of recruitment are: A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. Theprocess begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications aresubmitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected. It isthe process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement ofstaffing schedule and to employ effectivemeasures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selectionof an efficient working force.Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create apool of prospective employees for the organisation so that the management can select theright candidate for the right job from this pool. Themain objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process.Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool ofqualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacanciesdo not exist. Usually, the recruitment process starts when a mangerinitiates an employee requisition for a specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.RECRUITMENT NEEDS ARE OF THREEPLANNEDi.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy. ANTICIPATEDAnticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an organization can predict bystudying trends in internal and external environment.UNEXPECTEDResignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs.The Purpose and Importance of Recruitment are given below: Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organisation. Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidatesfor the organisation. Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunctionwith its personnel planning and job analysis activities.
  2. 2. recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number ofvisibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Help reduce theprobability that job applicants once recruited and selected willleave the organization only after a short period of time. Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the compositionof its workforce. Begin identifying and prepa ring potential job applicants who will be appropriatecandidates. Increase organization and individual effectiveness of variousrecruitingtechniques and sources for all types of job applicantsThe recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource departmentand recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength andthe recruitment strategic advantage for the organisations. Recruitment processinvolves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conductingthe interviews and requiresmany resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows:Identifying the vacancy:The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receivingrequisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain:•Posts to be filled•Number of persons•Duties to be performed •Qualifications require • Preparing the job description and person specification. • Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees (Advertising etc). • Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics. • Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates. • Conducting the interview and decision making
  3. 3. 1. Identify vacancy 2. Prepare job description and person specification 3. Advertising the vacancy 4. Managing the response 5. Short-listing 6. Arrange interviews 7. Conducting interview and decision makingThe recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the finalinterviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointmentformalities.Sources Of RecruitmentEvery organisation has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processesfrom two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within theorganisation itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions)to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitmentcandidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as theexternal sources of The recruitment.
  4. 4. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENTInternal Sources Of RecruitmentSome Internal Sources Of Recruitments are given below:1. TRANSFERSThe employees are transferred from one department to another according to theirefficiency and experience.2. PROMOTIONSThe employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits andgreater responsibility based on efficiency and experience.3. Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to theirperformance.4. Retired and Retrenched employees may also be recruited once again in case of shortageof qualified personnel or increase in load of work. recruitment such people save time andcosts of the organisations as the people are already aware of the organisational culture andthe policies and procedures.5. The dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees arealso done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependenton the mercy of others.External Sources Of Recruitment
  5. 5. Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely usedsource of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach.2. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTESVarious management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a goodsource of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They providefacilities for campus interviews and placements. This source isknown as Campus Recruitment.3. PLACEMENT AGENCIESSeveral private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of clientcompanies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment ofexecutives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (RecruitmentProcess Outsourcing) 4. EMPLOYMENT-EXCHANGES Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates. 5. LABOUR-CONTRACTORS Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labour for construction jobs. 6. UNSOLICITED-APPLICANTS Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organisation. 7. EMPLOYEE-REFERRALS-/-RECOMMENDATIONS Many organisations have structured system where the current employees of the organisation can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organisation. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates. Recruitment Management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some organizations these are formal agreements to give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended by the trade union.RECRUITMENT AT FACTORY GATEUnskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever apermanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanentvacancies.Factors Affecting RecruitmentThe recruitment function of the organisations is affected and governed by a mix ofvarious internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the
  6. 6. factors that can be controlled by the organisation. And the external factors arethose factors which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The internal andexternal forces affecting recruitment function of an organisation are: FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENTRecruitment Policy Of a CompanyIn todays rapidly changing business environment, a well defined recruitment policy isnecessary for organizations to respond to its human resource requirements in time.Therefore, it is important to have a clear and concise recruitment policy in place, whichcan be executed effectively to recruit the best talent pool for the selection of the rightcandidate at the right place quickly. Creating a suitable recruitment policy is the firststep in the efficient hiring process. A clear and concise recruitment policy helps ensure asound recruitment process.It specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementationof recruitment programme. It may involve organizational system to be developed forimplementing recruitment programmes and procedures by fillingup vacancies with best qualified people.COMPONENTS OF THE RECRUITMENT POLICY • The general recruitment policies and terms of the organisation • Recruitment services of consultants • Recruitment of temporary employees • Unique recruitment situations • The selection process • The job descriptions
  7. 7. • The terms and conditions of the employmentA recruitment policy of an organisation should be such that: • It should focus on recruiting the best potential people. • To ensure that every applicant and employee is treated equally with dignity and respect. • Unbiased policy. • To aid and encourage employees in realizing their full potential. • Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection. • Weight age during selection given to factors that suit organization needs. • Optimization of manpower at the time of selection process. • Defining the competent authority to approve each selection. • Abides by relevant public policy and legislation on hiring and employment relationship. • Integrates employee needs with the organisational needs.FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY • Organizational objectives • Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors. • Government policies on reservations. • Preferred sources of recruitment. • Need of the organization. • Recruitment costs and financial implications.Recent Trends in RecruitmentThe following trends are being seen in recruitment: OUTSOURCINGIn India, the HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade now. A companymay draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms help theorganisation by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of theorganisation and creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by theorganisation. Outsourcing firms develop their human resource pool by employing peoplefor them and make available personnel to various companies as per their needs. In turn,the outsourcing firms or the intermediaries charge the organisations for their services.
  8. 8. Advantages of outsourcing are: 1. Company need not plan for human resources much in advance. 2. Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage 3. turning the managements focus to strategic level processes of HRM 4. Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding the unsuitable resumes/candidates. 5. Company can save a lot of its resources and time • POACHING/RAIDING "Buying talent" (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the organisations today. Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the organisation might be a competitor in the industry. A company can attract talent from another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions, better than the current employer of the candidate. But it is seen as an unethical practice and not openly talked about. Indian software and the retail sector are the sectors facing the most severe brunt of poaching today. It has become a challenge for human resource managers to face and tackle poaching, as it weakens the competitive strength of the firm. • E-RECRUITMENT Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. E- recruitment is the use of technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i.e. CV through e mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CVs in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements. Advantages of recruitment are: o Low cost. o No intermediaries o Reduction in time for recruitment. o Recruitment of right type of people. o Efficiency of recruitment process.The buzzword and the latest trends in recruitment is the "E-Recruitment". Also known as"Online recruitment", it is the use of technology or the web based tools to assist therecruitment processes. The tool can be either a job website like, theorganisations corporate web site or its own intranet. Many big and small organizations areusing Internet as a source of recruitment. They advertise job vacancies through worldwideweb. The job seekers send their applications or
  9. 9. curriculum vitae (CV) through an e-mail using the Internet. Alternatively jobseekers place their CVs in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employeesdepending upon their requirements.The internet penetration in India is increasing and has tremendous potential. According toa study by NASSCOM - "Jobs is among the top reasons why new users will come on to theinternet, besides e-mail." There are more than 18 millionresumes floating online across the world.The two kinds of e-recruitment that an organisation can use is -Job portals - i.e. posting the position with the job description and the jobspecification on the job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the sitecorresponding to the opening in the organisation. Creating a complete online recruitment/application section in the companiesown website. - Companies have added an application system to its website, where thepassive job seekers can submit their resumes into the database of the organisation forconsideration in future, as and when the roles become available.Resume Scanners: Resume scanner is one major benefit provided by the job portals to theorganisations. It enables the employees to screen and filter the resumes through pre-defined criterias and requirements (skills, qualifications,experience, payroll etc.) of the j ob.Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the employees facilitatingthe just-in-time hiring by the organisations. Also, the jobs can be posted on the site almostimmediately and is also cheaper than advertising in the employment newspapers.Sometimes companies can get valuable references through the "passers-by" applicants.Online recruitment helps the organisations to automate the recruitment process, save theirtime and costs on recruitments.Online recruitment techniques • Giving a detailed job description and job specifications in the job postings to attract candidates with the right skill sets and qualifications at the first stage. • E-recruitment should be incorporated into the overall recruitment strategy of the organisation. • A well defined and structured applicant tracking system should be integrated and the system should have a back-end support. • Along with the back-office support a comprehensive website to receive and process job applications (through direct or online advertising) should be developed.Therefore, to conclude, it can be said that e-recruitment is the "Evolving face ofrecruitment."Advantage & Disadvantage Of E-Recruitment
  10. 10. Recruitment Vs SelectionBoth recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process.The differences between the two are:1. The recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment andstimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation WHEREAS selection involves theseries of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing themost suitable persons for vacant posts.2. The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable theselection of best candidates for the organisation, by attracting more and more employees toapply in the organisation WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to choose theright candidate to fill the various positions in the organisation.3. Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to applyWHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of theunsuitable candidates.4. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREASselection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidatethrough various interviews and tests.5. There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS selectionresults in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee.Types Of Job Seekers1. Quid Pro QueThese are the people who say that " I can do this for you, what can you give me" Thesepeople value high responsibilities, higher risks, and expect higher rewards, personaldevelopment and company profiles doesnt matter to them.2. I-will-be-with-youThese people like to be with big brands. Importance is given to brands. They are notbothered about work ethic, culture mission etc.3. I-will-do-you-what-you-wantThese people are concerned about how meaningful the job is and they definemeaning parameters criteria known by previous job.4.-Where-do-you-want-me-to-comeThese people observe things like where is your office, what atmosphere do you offer.Career prospects and exciting projects dont entice them as much. It is the responsibility ofthe recruiter to decide what the employee might face in given job and thus take decision. Agood decision will help cut down employee retention costs and future recruitment costs.
  11. 11. Internal Factors Affecting RecruitmentThe internal factors or forces which affecting recruitment and can becontrolled by the organisation are 1. RECRUITMENT POLICYThe recruitment policy of an organisation specifies the objectives of recruitment andprovides a framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involveorganizational system to be developed for implementing recruitmentprogrammes and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people.FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY• Organizational objectives• Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors.Government policies on reservations.• Preferred sources of recruitment.• Need of the organization.• Recruitment costs and financial implications. 2. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNINGEffective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existingmanpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of employees to berecruited and what qualification they must possess. 3. SIZE OF THE FIRMThe size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization isplanning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring morepersonnel, which will handle its operations. 4. COSTRecruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source ofrecruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for eachcandidate.GROWTH AND EXPANSIONOrganization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding its operations.
  12. 12. SELECTIONIntroductionThe size of the labour market, the image of the company, the place of posting, the nature of job, thecompensation package and a host of other factors influence the manner of aspirants are likely torespond to the recruiting efforts of the company. Through the process of recruitment the company triesto locate prospective employees and encourages them to apply for vacancies at various levels.Recruiting, thus, provides a pool of applicants for selection.Definition To select means to choose. Selection is the process of pickingindividuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organisation. The basic purpose is tochoose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualifiedcandidates.PurposeThe purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements ofthe job in an organisation best, to find out which job applicant will be successful, if hired. To meet thisgoal, the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age,qualifications, skills, experience, etc. the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates.The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants throughsuccessive stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched to a job is very importantbecause it is directly affects the amount and quality of employees work. Any mismatch in this regardcan cost an organisation a great deal of money, time and trouble, especially, in terms of training andoperating costs. In course of time, the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration.He may even circulate negative information about the company, causing incalculable harm to thecompany in the long run. Effective election, therefore, demands constant monitoring of the fitbetween people the job.The ProcessSelection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be successfully cleared before theapplicant proceeds to the next one. The time and emphasis place on each step will definitely vary fromone organisation to another and indeed, from job to job within the same organisation. The sequence ofsteps may also vary from job to job and organisation to organisation. For example some organisationsmay give more importance to testing while others give more emphasis to interviews and referencechecks. Similarly a single brief selection interview might be enough for applicants for lower levelpositions, while applicants for managerial jobs might be interviewed by a number of people.STEPS IN SELECTION PROCESS
  13. 13. 1. ReceptionA company is known by the people it employs. In order to attractpeople with talents, skills and experience a company has to create afavourable impression on the applicants right from the stage of reception. Whoever meets theapplicant initially should be tactful and able to extend help in a friendly and courteous way.Employment possibilities must be presented honestly and clearly. If no jobs are available at that pointof time, the applicant may be asked to call back the personnel department after some time.2. Screening InterviewA preliminary interview is generally planned by large organisations to cut the cost of selection byallowing only eligible candidates to go through the further stages in selection. A junior executive fromthe Personnel Department may elicit responses from the applicants on important items determining thesuitability of an applicant for a job such as age, education, experience, pay expectations, aptitude,location, choice etc. this courtesy interview as it is often called helps the department screen outobvious misfits. If the department finds the candidate suitable,a prescribed application form is given to the applicants to fill and submit.3.Application Blank
  14. 14. Application blank or form is one of the most common methods usedto collect information on the various aspects of the applicants academic, social, demographic, workrelated background and references. It is a brief history sheet of employees background.Usefulness of Application Blank or FormApplication blank is highly useful selection tool, in that way it servesthree important purposes:1. It introduces the candidate to the company in a formal way.2. It helps the company to have a cross-comparison of the applicants;the company can screen and reject candidates if they fail to meet the eligibility criteria at this stageitself.3. It can serve as a basis to initiate a dialogue in the interview.4.Selection TestingSelection tests or the employment tests are conducted to assess intelligence, abilities, andpersonality trait.A test is a standardized, objective measure of a persons behaviour, performance or attitude. It isstandardised because the way the tests is carried out, the environment in which the test isadministered and the way the individual scores are calculated- are uniformly applied. It is objectivein that it tries to measure individual differences in a scientific way givingvery little room for individual bias and interpretation. Some of them are1. Intelligence Tests: These are mental ability tests. They measure theincumbents learning ability and the ability to understand instructions and make judgements. Thebasic objective of such test is to pick up employees who are alert and quick at learning things sothat they can be offered adequate training to improve their skills for the benefit of the organization.2. Aptitude Test: Aptitude test measure an individuals potential to learncertain skills- clerical, mechanical, mathematical, etc. These tests indicate whether or not anindividual has the capabilities to learn a given job quickly and efficiently. In order to recruitefficient office staff,aptitude tests are necessary3. Personality Test: The definition of personality, methods of measuringpersonality factors and the relationship between personality factors and actual job criteria has beenthe subject of much discussion. Researchers have also questioned whether applicants answer all theitems truthfully or whether they try to respond in a socially desirable manner. Regardless of theseobjections, many people still consider personality as an important component of job success.4. Simulation Tests: Simulation exercise is a tests which duplicate manyof the activities and problems an employee faces while at work.5. Graphology Test: Graphology involves using a trained evaluator toexamine the lines, loops, hooks, stokes, curves and flourishes in a persons handwriting to assessthe persons personality and emotional make-up.6. Polygraph (Lie-Detector) tests: the polygraph records physicalchanges in the body as the tests subject answers a series of questions. It records fluctuations inrespiration, blood pressure and perspiration on a moving roll of graph paper. The polygraphoperator forms a judgement as to whether the subjects response was truthful or deceptive byexamining the biological movements recorded on the paper.
  15. 15. TEST AS SELECTION TOOL:Tests are useful selection devices in that they uncover qualifications and talents that cant bedetected otherwise. They can be used to predict how well one would perform if one is hired, whyone behaves the way one does, what situational factors influence employee productivity, etc. Testsalso provide unbiased information that can be put to scientific and statistical analysis.However, tests suffer from sizeable errors of estimate. Most psychological tests also have onecommon weakness, that is, we cant use scales which have a known zero point and equal intervals.An intelligence test, for example starts at an arbitrary point, where a person may not be able toanswer question properly. This does not mean that the person is totally lacking in intelligence.Likewise, a person who is able to answer all the 10 questions correctly cannot be called twice asintelligent as the one who was able to answer only 5.SELECTION INTERVIEW: Interview is the oral examination of candidates for employment.This is the most essential step in the selection process. In this step the interviewer matches theinformation obtained about the candidates through various means to the job requirements and tothe information obtained through his own observations during the interview.Interview gives the recruiter an opportunity To size up the candidate personally; To ask question that are not covered in the tests; To make judgments on candidates enthusiasm and intelligence; To assess subjective aspects of the candidate - facial expressions,appearance, nervousness and so forth; To give facts to the candidates regarding the company, its policies,etc. and promote goodwill towards the company.Types of interviews:Several types of interviews are commonly used depending on the nature and importance of theposition to be filled within an organization.In a non directive interview the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind. There is no specificformat to be followed.In a patterned interview, the employer follows a pre-determined sequence of questions. Here theinterviewee is given a special form containing questions regarding his technical competence,personality traits, attitudes, motivation, etc.In a structured or situational interview, there are fixed job related questions that are presented toeach applicant.In a panel interview several interviewers question and seek answers from one applicant. The panelmembers can ask new and incisive questions based on their expertise and experience and elicitdeeper and more meaningful expertise from candidates.
  16. 16. Interviews can also be designed to create a difficult environment where the applicants confidencelevel and the ability to stand erect in difficult situations are put to test. These are referred to as thestress interview. This is basically an interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable by aseries of, often, rude, annoying or embarrassing questions.Steps in interview process:Interview is an art. It demands a positive frame of mind on part of the interviewers. Interviewersmust be treated properly so as to leave a good impression about the company in their minds. HRexperts have identifiedcertain steps to be followed while conducting interviews:PREPARATION:• Establishing the objective of the interview• Receiving the candidates application and resume• Keeping tests score ready, along with interview assessment forms• Selecting the interview method to be followed• Choosing the panel of experts who would interview the candidates• Identifying proper room for environment1.RECEPTION: The candidate should be properly received and led intothe interview room. Start the interview on time.2.INFORMATION EXCHANGE:• State the purpose of the interview, how the qualifications are goingto be matched with skills needed to handle the job.• Begin with open-ended questions where the candidate gets enoughfreedom to express himself.• Focus on the applicants education, training, work experience, etc.Find unexplained gaps in applicants past work or college record andelicit facts that are not mentioned in the resume.3.EVALUATION: Evaluation is done on basis of answers and justification given by the applicantin the interview.4. PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL EXAMINATION: After the selectiondecision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to
  17. 17. undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate being declared fitafter the physical examination.5.REFERENCE CHECKS: Once the interview and medical examination of the candidate isover, the personnel department will engage in checking references. Candidates are required to givethe names of 2 or 3 references in their application forms. These references may be from theindividuals who are familiar with the candidates academic achievements or from the applicantsprevious employer, who is well versed with the applicants job performance and sometimes fromthe co-workers.HIRING DECISION:The line manager has to make the final decision now - whether to select or reject a candidate aftersoliciting the required information through different techniques discussed earlier. The line managerhas to take adequate care in taking the final decision because of economic, behavioral and socialimplications of the selection decisions. A careless decision of rejecting a candidate would impairthe morale of the people and they suspect the selection procedure and the very basis of selection ina particular organization.A true understanding between line managers and personnel managers should be established so asto facilitate good selection decisions. After taking the final decision, the organization has tointimate this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates. Theorganization sends the appointment order to the successful candidateseither immediately or after sometime depending upon its time schedule.Interviewing Mistakes: May have been influenced by cultural noise, snap judgments, haloeffect, stereotyping, first impression etc.STRATEGIES FOR SUCESSFUL RECRUITMENTSTEP 1: ENSURE AN UP-TO-DATE JOB DESCRIPTIONA clear, accurate and up-to-date job description is crucial to ensuring a good person-job fit. It isworthwhile spending some time making sure that the job description matches the everyday realityof the job.STEP 2: EVALUATE THE RECRUITMENT STRATEGYPeriodically evaluating the effectiveness of your recruitment strategy, such as the type of sourcesused for recruiting, can be a useful activity. For instance, a cost-benefit analysis can be done interms of the number of applicants referred, interviewed, selected, and hired. Comparing theeffectiveness of applicants hired from various sources in terms of job performance and absenteeismis also helpful. One could also examine the retention rates of workers who were hired fromdifferent sources.