Week 4: Getting TogetherExplaining Theories of Mediated Communication
 Mass communication vs. mediated communication   Mass communication: concerned with the media, and    complex organizati...
 Daft & Lengel Premise: as new communication technologies develop, the decision about the best way to send a message bec...
 Media richness refers to a medium’s information  carrying capacity Medium richness is determined by four  characteristi...
 How Ambiguous is the Message?   Ambiguity: possibility of multiple interpretations   Ambiguous messages run a greater ...
Richer Media               • Face-to-Face               • Video Conferencing               • Telephone               • Tex...
 Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch Premise: UGT maintains that because humans have options and free will, individuals will make...
 Assumptions of UGT  1.    Audience members actively use various media to        fulfill certain needs        Media itse...
Gratification                     Selected ExamplesEntertainment                     • Listening to music to set a mood   ...
 McCombs & Shaw Premise: news media have an agenda; news media tells audiences what “news” to consider as important.
 Two assumptions   News media have an agenda   Most people desire help when trying to understand and    evaluate politi...
 Framing the news   Gatekeepers select, emphasize, elaborate, and even    exclude news stories or parts of news stories ...
 Issues and Individuals Most Affected   Despite media’s ability to influence, an individual’s    thoughts, opinions, and...
 Gerbner Premise: Cultivation theory predicts that viewers who watch lots of TV will overestimate the occurrence of real...
 Assumptions:  1.   Television has become central to American life and       culture  2.   TV influences audience percept...
 Focus on Violence   Definition:   “Overt expression of physical force (with or without    weapon, against self or othe...
 Symbolic double jeopardy   Research illustrates an imbalance with regard to who is    victimized   Minority persons ar...
 Viewers’ attitudes are cultivated in two ways:    1.   Mainstreaming    2.   Resonance    The result? Mean World Syndro...
Explaining Theories of Culture
 Culture: one’s identification with and acceptance into a group that shares symbols, meanings, experiences, and behavior ...
 Hofstede Premise: Research revealed that there are five dimensions that can be used to explain, differentiate, and rank...
 Individualism—Collectivism   Extent to which cultures value and privilege individual’s    success over the group’s succ...
 Uncertainty Avoidance (High—Low)   Extent to which appreciate or avoid unstructured,    unclear, or unpredictable situa...
 Power Distance (High—Low)   Extent to which people with little power in society    consider inequity normal and accepta...
 Masculinity—Femininity   Emphasizes the relationship between biological sex and    what is considered sex-appropriate b...
 Time Orientation: Long-term—Short-term   Extent to which cultures value a long-term or short-term    approach to planni...
 Maltz & Borker Mulac, Bradac, and Gibbons Premise: gender is socially constructed; biological sex differences in commu...
 Sex – biological classification (male or female) Gender – psychological and social associations of  femininity and masc...
 Research shows little support for the myth that men  and women differ in communication behavior simply  because of biolo...
Theoretical Examinations of Gender    Theory            Main Idea    Standpoint        Men and women have different experi...
 Twenge & Campbell Premise: because each generation is influenced by specific events, members of a generation share symb...
Four generations in the today’s workplace   Generations    Selected Characteristics   Veterans       Value respect, discip...
 Ting-Toomey Premise: theory explains and predicts the cultural differences associated with conflict management
 Face: desired self-image   Positive face   Negative face   Individuals try to balance their own positive and    negat...
 Face + Cultural Orientation   Individualism—Collectivism      Individualistic cultures: emphasize negative face      ...
 Conflict   North American conflict styles: vary on assertiveness    and cooperation (Thomas & Kilmann, 1977)      1.   ...
 Face + Culture + Conflict Management Ting-Toomey’s cross cultural research adds 3 conflict styles based on self and oth...
Oblige                                       Integrate                     (High)                                  AvoidOt...
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COM310-Week 4 Lecture Slides

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COM310-Week 4 Lecture Slides

  1. 1. Week 4: Getting TogetherExplaining Theories of Mediated Communication
  2. 2.  Mass communication vs. mediated communication  Mass communication: concerned with the media, and complex organizations that distribute messages to the public  Mediated communication: any communication in which something exists between the source and the receiver  All mass communication is mediated, but not all mediated communication is mass communication.
  3. 3.  Daft & Lengel Premise: as new communication technologies develop, the decision about the best way to send a message becomes increasingly complex
  4. 4.  Media richness refers to a medium’s information carrying capacity Medium richness is determined by four characteristics: 1. Speed of feedback (synchronous or asynchronous) 2. Ability to personalize the message 3. Availability of multiple cues 4. Language variety
  5. 5.  How Ambiguous is the Message?  Ambiguity: possibility of multiple interpretations  Ambiguous messages run a greater risk of being misunderstood  Communication effectiveness = match between message ambiguity and richness of the medium selected
  6. 6. Richer Media • Face-to-Face • Video Conferencing • Telephone • Texting, Instant Messaging • E-mail • Recordings • Memos, Letters • Bulk Mail, Brochures, Pamphlets, FlyersLeaner Media
  7. 7.  Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch Premise: UGT maintains that because humans have options and free will, individuals will make specific decisions about which media to use and when to use them
  8. 8.  Assumptions of UGT 1. Audience members actively use various media to fulfill certain needs  Media itself is not passive, involuntary, or coerced; media offers options 2. Mass communication is not something that “happens to you” ; a person must identify his or her need and make a media choice  Audience members choose a medium and allow themselves to be swayed, changed, and influenced. 3. Third, media outlets compete with other available means of satisfying personal needs
  9. 9. Gratification Selected ExamplesEntertainment • Listening to music to set a mood • Playing on Facebook because you’re boredInformation • Seeking advice about practical matters, like how to cook a turkey (Food Network)Personal identity • Reading Vogue or Esquire so you know how to dress and be considered stylishPersonal relationships & social • Listening to the Sports Radio Networkinteraction on your drive to work so you can talk about it with coworkers
  10. 10.  McCombs & Shaw Premise: news media have an agenda; news media tells audiences what “news” to consider as important.
  11. 11.  Two assumptions  News media have an agenda  Most people desire help when trying to understand and evaluate politics and political reality Criteria for Measuring Media’s Agenda  Length  Position
  12. 12.  Framing the news  Gatekeepers select, emphasize, elaborate, and even exclude news stories or parts of news stories to create a certain effect Elements of Framing Selection What stories are chosen? Emphasis What focus is taken? Elaboration What is added to develop story? Exclusion What stories or aspects of stories are not covered?
  13. 13.  Issues and Individuals Most Affected  Despite media’s ability to influence, an individual’s thoughts, opinions, and actions are not predetermined  Certain issues and situations are more likely to influence audience thought:  Political issues  Individual’s need for orientation: depends on topic’s relevance and person’s uncertainty about the issue  Gatekeepers selectively determine an agenda for what’s news
  14. 14.  Gerbner Premise: Cultivation theory predicts that viewers who watch lots of TV will overestimate the occurrence of real-life violence, thereby perceiving the world as a “mean and scary” place
  15. 15.  Assumptions: 1. Television has become central to American life and culture 2. TV influences audience perceptions of social reality, thereby shaping American culture in terms of how individuals reason and relate with others 3. Television’s effects are limited
  16. 16.  Focus on Violence  Definition:  “Overt expression of physical force (with or without weapon, against self or others) compelling action against one’s will on pain of being hurt and/or killed or threatened to be so victimized as part of the plot” (p. 280) Violence index  Objective research instrument; uses content analysis to measure the prevalence, frequency, and role of characters that are involved in TV violence
  17. 17.  Symbolic double jeopardy  Research illustrates an imbalance with regard to who is victimized  Minority persons are significantly less visible on TV than in real life, and  Minority TV characters are much more likely to be portrayed as victims of violence.
  18. 18.  Viewers’ attitudes are cultivated in two ways: 1. Mainstreaming 2. Resonance The result? Mean World Syndrome  Heavy TV viewers more likely to develop  Cynical, fearful outlook  World is “mean and scary place”
  19. 19. Explaining Theories of Culture
  20. 20.  Culture: one’s identification with and acceptance into a group that shares symbols, meanings, experiences, and behavior  Cross-cultural communication  Intercultural communication
  21. 21.  Hofstede Premise: Research revealed that there are five dimensions that can be used to explain, differentiate, and rank various cultures
  22. 22.  Individualism—Collectivism  Extent to which cultures value and privilege individual’s success over the group’s success or vice versa  Low-context communication  High-context communication
  23. 23.  Uncertainty Avoidance (High—Low)  Extent to which appreciate or avoid unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable situations  Low uncertainty avoidance cultures: more inclined to take risks, innovate, and value “thinking outside of the box”  High uncertainty avoidance cultures maintain strict codes of behavior, and support a belief in absolute truths
  24. 24.  Power Distance (High—Low)  Extent to which people with little power in society consider inequity normal and acceptable  Low power distance cultures value minimization of power distances  High power distance cultures accept power as a scarce resource
  25. 25.  Masculinity—Femininity  Emphasizes the relationship between biological sex and what is considered sex-appropriate behavior  Masculine cultures: rely on distinct sex roles for men and women  Feminine cultures: fewer rigid roles for behavior based on biological sex
  26. 26.  Time Orientation: Long-term—Short-term  Extent to which cultures value a long-term or short-term approach to planning the future  Long-term orientation: associated with thrift, savings, and perseverance  Short-term orientation: associated with desire for immediate gratification
  27. 27.  Maltz & Borker Mulac, Bradac, and Gibbons Premise: gender is socially constructed; biological sex differences in communication are minimal; gender differences in communication do exist when examined as a separate construct
  28. 28.  Sex – biological classification (male or female) Gender – psychological and social associations of femininity and masculinity; may or may not correlate with biological sex
  29. 29.  Research shows little support for the myth that men and women differ in communication behavior simply because of biological sex Gender research shows difference between masculine and feminine communication styles:  A feminine communication style is positively related to:  Romantic relationship satisfaction  Positive and collaborative strategies for dealing with jealousy  Decreased loneliness among long-distance friends
  30. 30. Theoretical Examinations of Gender Theory Main Idea Standpoint Men and women have different experiences that Theory shape the way they view the world. Because of these variations, men and women communicate differently Tannen’s Gender Women use communication to establish Styles connections with others, whereas men use communication to establish or maintain power over others Muted Group Because men have more power in society, language Theory and meaning is biased toward a male perspective on life. Women must adapt and use male language or go unheard
  31. 31.  Twenge & Campbell Premise: because each generation is influenced by specific events, members of a generation share symbols, meanings, experiences, and behavior that is distinct from other generations
  32. 32. Four generations in the today’s workplace Generations Selected Characteristics Veterans Value respect, discipline; work is obligation; formal (1922-1945) communication; autocratic leadership Baby Boomers Value optimism, involvement; work is for self- (1946-1964) fulfillment; face-to-face communication, meetings; consensual leadership Generation X Values cynicism, informality; work as entrepreneurial; (1965-1980) direct communication; comfortable with technology; confrontational leadership Millenials Value clarity, flexibility; work as mechanism for success; (1980-2000) constant communication/contact; relies on technology to communicate; passive/aggressive leadership
  33. 33.  Ting-Toomey Premise: theory explains and predicts the cultural differences associated with conflict management
  34. 34.  Face: desired self-image  Positive face  Negative face  Individuals try to balance their own positive and negative face needs while also attending to their partner’s face needs
  35. 35.  Face + Cultural Orientation  Individualism—Collectivism  Individualistic cultures: emphasize negative face  Collectivistic cultures: emphasize positive face  Power Distance  Low power distance cultures prefer to view individuals as equals  High power distance cultures rely on hierarchy and status difference
  36. 36.  Conflict  North American conflict styles: vary on assertiveness and cooperation (Thomas & Kilmann, 1977) 1. Avoid 2. Accommodate 3. Compete 4. Compromise 5. Collaborate
  37. 37.  Face + Culture + Conflict Management Ting-Toomey’s cross cultural research adds 3 conflict styles based on self and other face concern 1. Emotionally expressive 2. Passive-aggressive 3. Third-party help
  38. 38. Oblige Integrate (High) AvoidOther-Face Concern Compromise Passive Emotional Aggression Expression Third-Party Help Dominate (Low) (Low) Self-Face Concern (High) Collectivist Cultures Individualist Cultures Used by Both Cultures

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