TOK Ch. 6, p. 211-236Team 1: 211-215Team 2: 216-220Team 3: 221-225Team 4: 226-230Team 5: 231-233Team 6: 233-236      Week ...
Where are we Going?• Activity: Telephone    – Defining History through      transmission and reliability• Core Principles ...
Activity: History Telephone• Teams of four1. Each Student chooses an   important event from the   week and writes a detail...
He who controlsthe present,controls the past.He who controlsthe past, controlsthe future
Historical Method Vocabulary• Historiography• Metacognition• Historical Method• Social Evolutionism• Cycle Theory• Critici...
Questions to Consider• Can one have  sufficient knowledge  of an event without  direct, sensory  experience?• Is all knowl...
Core Principles of History•   Olden-Jørgensen (1998) and    Thurén (1997)     1. Human Sources: Relics or         Narrativ...
External and Internal Criticism1.   When was the     source, written or     unwritten, produced     (date)?2.   Where was ...
Timeline of Historical Thought• Hellenic   – 5th c. : Herodotus writes on the actions and     characters of men. Focus on ...
Timeline of Historical Thought• Chinese – 8th c.: Annals of   Confucius – 7th-5th c.: Zuo Zhuan   as narrative history – 3...
Timeline of Historical Thought• Christendom   – 1st c. : Luke-Acts and the     Apostolic Age   – 2nd-3rd c.: NT     canon,...
Timeline of Historical Thought•   Islamic     – 7th c.: Focus on Hadith and       Muhammads life     – 9th – 13th c. : al-...
Timeline of Historical Thought•   Modern Era     – 18th c. : Enlightenment, Whig School         • Voltaire: emphasis on sp...
Timeline of Historical Thought• Modern Era   – 20th c.: Marxist school and     class struggle to history      • Materialis...
Cyclical or Linear?• Is history an analysis  of time paralleling  the science of  time?• Is history an analysis  of patter...
People or Events?• Is history a study of  important people  who influence events  and cause change in  society?• Is histor...
History as Propaganda• How is history  effected by the  dominance of one  sub-culture to  another?• Is history always  wri...
Originalism vs. Revisionism• A form of cycle  theory in histiography• “today’s winners will  be tomorrow’s losers”• Consid...
TOK Questions•   Citing specific    examples, analyze the quote:    “History tells us more about the    person who wrote i...
Reading Discussion• TOK Ch. 6, p. 211-236   – Give a brief overview of your     section with reference to page     numbers...
History and Education• Focus on Civic instruction:  how is historical  education important to  the general polis, and  how...
TOK Questions•   Citing specific    examples, analyze the quote:    “History tells us more about the    person who wrote i...
TOK Questions•   Citing specific    examples, analyze the quote:    “History tells us more about the    person who wrote i...
History Socratic Seminar• Using one of the  three TOK questions,  complete the  following:  – Select an appropriate    and...
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
07. historical method
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07. historical method

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07. historical method

  1. 1. TOK Ch. 6, p. 211-236Team 1: 211-215Team 2: 216-220Team 3: 221-225Team 4: 226-230Team 5: 231-233Team 6: 233-236 Week 7: Historical Method PP: Team 1-3: Georg Hegel Team 4-6: Michel Foucault AIO: Just War Theory
  2. 2. Where are we Going?• Activity: Telephone – Defining History through transmission and reliability• Core Principles – External and Internal Criticism – Thesis, Anti-Thesis, Synthesis• History of… History – Ancient – Western – Non-Western – Enlightenment• People v. Events• Cyclical v. Linear• History as Propaganda• History and Education
  3. 3. Activity: History Telephone• Teams of four1. Each Student chooses an important event from the week and writes a detailed account (dates, etc.)2. With a partner, trade accounts verbally and from memory (do not read it). Do not show your writing.3. Trade partners, tell your previous partner’s account.4. Write down your second partner’s account.5. Compare to original account. What was left out? Inserted? Errors?
  4. 4. He who controlsthe present,controls the past.He who controlsthe past, controlsthe future
  5. 5. Historical Method Vocabulary• Historiography• Metacognition• Historical Method• Social Evolutionism• Cycle Theory• Criticism• Objectivity v. Subjectivity• Synthesis• Revisionism• Teleology
  6. 6. Questions to Consider• Can one have sufficient knowledge of an event without direct, sensory experience?• Is all knowledge historical in nature (residing in the past)?• How does history interact with the other areas of knowing?
  7. 7. Core Principles of History• Olden-Jørgensen (1998) and Thurén (1997) 1. Human Sources: Relics or Narratives. Relics are more credible. 2. Any source may be corrupted. Originality increases reliability 3. Proximity in time/space to even increases accuracy. 4. Primary > Secondary Sources 5. Number of independent sources increase credibility 6. Sources are created with bias. Supplemented with opposite motivations. 7. Less direct interest of witness or source increases credibility
  8. 8. External and Internal Criticism1. When was the source, written or unwritten, produced (date)?2. Where was it produced (localization)?3. By whom was it produced (authorship)?4. From what pre-existing material was it produced (analysis)?5. In what original form was it produced (integrity)?6. What is the evidential value of its contents (credibility)?
  9. 9. Timeline of Historical Thought• Hellenic – 5th c. : Herodotus writes on the actions and characters of men. Focus on Divine determination of historical events – 4TH c. : Poleis histories from local historians, including lists (Olympics) and civic records. • Thucydides writes on Athenian/Spartan war using rationalistic elements, as well as distinguishing cause and origin. • Xenophon creates character narratives• Roman – 3rd C.: Polybius on the rise of Rome – 2nd c.: Latin replaces Greek tradition. Julius Caesar, Cicero, and Cato the Elder introduce political thought and autobiography – 1st c.: Plutarch, Suetonius, and Tacitus introduce biography as branch of history
  10. 10. Timeline of Historical Thought• Chinese – 8th c.: Annals of Confucius – 7th-5th c.: Zuo Zhuan as narrative history – 3rd-1st c.: Zhan Guo Ce as historical of war. Sima Qian and the Shiji
  11. 11. Timeline of Historical Thought• Christendom – 1st c. : Luke-Acts and the Apostolic Age – 2nd-3rd c.: NT canon, Constantine I • Emphasis on written sources over oral histories • Shift from initially from politics to religion and society • Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History – 4th-10th c.: Middle Ages chronicles and annals – 13th c.: Renaissance focus on states and nations
  12. 12. Timeline of Historical Thought• Islamic – 7th c.: Focus on Hadith and Muhammads life – 9th – 13th c. : al-Tabari and Birujni development of comprehensive world history and Indology • Developed archeological methodology to study ancient cultures – 14th -15th c. : Ibn Khaldun developed first historiograhpical study • Rise and fall of nations • Observations of the roles of the state in history • Rational principles governing interpretation of past events
  13. 13. Timeline of Historical Thought• Modern Era – 18th c. : Enlightenment, Whig School • Voltaire: emphasis on spirit of nations and local customs • “My chief object is not political or military history, it is the history of the arts, of commerce, of civilization – in a word: of the human mind” • Critical of theological, emphasizing economics, culture and political History – 19th c. : Scientific Method, Annales School • Critical approach, focus on politics and diplomacy (rejecting cultural themes of Voltaire) • Hard sources, not speculation or rationalization. • Hegel: focus on “dialectic clash” between thesis, antithesis and synthesis. • Darwin and Social Evolutionism
  14. 14. Timeline of Historical Thought• Modern Era – 20th c.: Marxist school and class struggle to history • Materialist history – Annales School: shift away from individual subjects to geography, climatology and demography. – 21st c.: Nayef Al-Rodhan and “Sustainable History” as part of an analysis of geo-cultural global politics.
  15. 15. Cyclical or Linear?• Is history an analysis of time paralleling the science of time?• Is history an analysis of patterns throughout time that repeat towards understanding present/future?
  16. 16. People or Events?• Is history a study of important people who influence events and cause change in society?• Is history a study of important events. What defines “important”. What quality do these events take (positive or negative?)
  17. 17. History as Propaganda• How is history effected by the dominance of one sub-culture to another?• Is history always written by the victors? How does one determine history when competing accounts exist?
  18. 18. Originalism vs. Revisionism• A form of cycle theory in histiography• “today’s winners will be tomorrow’s losers”• Consider American Indian, Slave tradition, and modern Ethnic, Feminist, and LGBTQ studies.
  19. 19. TOK Questions• Citing specific examples, analyze the quote: “History tells us more about the person who wrote it than about the people being written about” . Reference at least two areas of knowing and two ways of knowing.• How does one’s historical “lens” into the past affect both the educational use, and the political use, of history in the present?• What teleology, if any, exists in the potential patterns of history? Reference two areas of knowing.
  20. 20. Reading Discussion• TOK Ch. 6, p. 211-236 – Give a brief overview of your section with reference to page numbers. – Decide on the 5 specific and important TOK observations from your section. Avoid menial facts. – Develop a Problem of Knowledge question from your section. – Is it something you would want to research in the future? Does it affect your extended essay or TOK assessment focus?
  21. 21. History and Education• Focus on Civic instruction: how is historical education important to the general polis, and how does it impact good citizenry?• How are textbooks developed, revised, selected, and administered to students?• How is the starkness of the past often filtered towards age appropriate or other goal-oriented approach?
  22. 22. TOK Questions• Citing specific examples, analyze the quote: “History tells us more about the person who wrote it than about the people being written about” . Reference at least two areas of knowing and two ways of knowing.• How does one’s historical “lens” into the past affect both the educational use, and the political use, of history in the present?• What teleology, if any, exists in the potential patterns of history? Reference two areas of knowing.
  23. 23. TOK Questions• Citing specific examples, analyze the quote: “History tells us more about the person who wrote it than about the people being written about” . Reference at least two areas of knowing and two ways of knowing.• How does one’s historical “lens” into the past affect both the educational use, and the political use, of history in the present?• What teleology, if any, exists in the potential patterns of history? Reference two areas of knowing.
  24. 24. History Socratic Seminar• Using one of the three TOK questions, complete the following: – Select an appropriate and controversial historical event. – Select at least two areas of knowing beyond the historical. – Present a peer- reviewed article on the topic for discussion from these areas of knowing.

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