Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Descriptive research design

27,683 views

Published on

Brief explanation of descriptive research design.

Published in: Education

Descriptive research design

  1. 1. Descriptive Research Design BY: PRATEEK KAKKAR
  2. 2. Meaning  Descriptive research methods are used when the researcher wants to describe specific behavior as it occurs in the environment. There are a variety of descriptive research methods available, the nature of the question that needs to be answered drives which method is used. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the "what" question (what are the characteristics of the population or situation being studied?).  The characteristics used to describe the situation or population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories. Eg: Periodic Table.
  3. 3. Types of Descriptive Research  Observational Method  Case Study Method  Survey Method
  4. 4. Observational Method  Observational research (or field research) is a type of correlational (i.e., non-experimental) research in which a researcher observes ongoing behavior.  There are a variety of types of observational research, each of which has both strengths and weaknesses.  3 Approaches of Observational Research:  Covert observation  Overt observation  Researcher participation
  5. 5. 3 Approaches of Observational Research Covert Observation • The researchers do not identify themselves. Either they mix in with the subjects undetected, or they observe from a distance. The advantages of this approach are: (1) It is not necessary to get the subjects’ cooperation, and (2) The subjects’ behavior will not be contaminated by the presence of the researcher. Overt Observation • The researchers identify themselves as researchers and explain the purpose of their observations. • The problem with this approach is subjects may modify their behavior when they know they are being watched. Researcher Participation • The researcher participates in what they are observing so as to get a finer appreciation of the phenomena.
  6. 6. Case Study Method  Case studies are analyses of persons, events, decisions, periods, projects, policies, institutions, or other systems that are studied holistically by one or more method.  The case that is the subject of the inquiry will be an instance of a class of phenomena that provides an analytical frame — an object — within which the study is conducted and which the case illuminates and explicates.
  7. 7. Strengths & Limitations of Case study Method Strengths  Provides detailed (rich qualitative) information.  Provides insight for further research.  Permitting investigation of otherwise impractical (or unethical) situations. Limitations  Can’t generalize the results to the wider population.  Researchers own subjective feeling may influence the case study (researcher bias).  Difficult to replicate.  Time consuming.
  8. 8. Survey Method  A survey is defined as a brief interview or discussion with individuals about a specific topic. Survey research is often used to assess thoughts, opinions, and feelings. Survey research can be specific and limited, or it can have more global, widespread goals.  A survey consists of a predetermined set of questions that is given to a sample. With a representative sample, that is, one that is representative of the larger population of interest, one can describe the attitudes of the population from which the sample was drawn.  3 Techniques of Survey Research are:  Questionnaires  Interviews  Survey
  9. 9. Techniques of Survey Research Questionnaires • A series of written questions a participant answers. • This method gathers responses to questions that are essay or agree/neutral/disagree style. Interviews • Questions posed to an individual to obtain information about him or her. • This type of survey is like a job interview, with one person asking another a load of questions. Survey • Brief interviews and discussions with individuals about a specific topic. • A survey is a quick interview, with the surveyor asking only a few questions.

×