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Descriptive research design


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Brief explanation of descriptive research design.

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Descriptive research design

  1. 1. Descriptive Research Design BY: PRATEEK KAKKAR
  2. 2. Meaning  Descriptive research methods are used when the researcher wants to describe specific behavior as it occurs in the environment. There are a variety of descriptive research methods available, the nature of the question that needs to be answered drives which method is used. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the "what" question (what are the characteristics of the population or situation being studied?).  The characteristics used to describe the situation or population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories. Eg: Periodic Table.
  3. 3. Types of Descriptive Research  Observational Method  Case Study Method  Survey Method
  4. 4. Observational Method  Observational research (or field research) is a type of correlational (i.e., non-experimental) research in which a researcher observes ongoing behavior.  There are a variety of types of observational research, each of which has both strengths and weaknesses.  3 Approaches of Observational Research:  Covert observation  Overt observation  Researcher participation
  5. 5. 3 Approaches of Observational Research Covert Observation • The researchers do not identify themselves. Either they mix in with the subjects undetected, or they observe from a distance. The advantages of this approach are: (1) It is not necessary to get the subjects’ cooperation, and (2) The subjects’ behavior will not be contaminated by the presence of the researcher. Overt Observation • The researchers identify themselves as researchers and explain the purpose of their observations. • The problem with this approach is subjects may modify their behavior when they know they are being watched. Researcher Participation • The researcher participates in what they are observing so as to get a finer appreciation of the phenomena.
  6. 6. Case Study Method  Case studies are analyses of persons, events, decisions, periods, projects, policies, institutions, or other systems that are studied holistically by one or more method.  The case that is the subject of the inquiry will be an instance of a class of phenomena that provides an analytical frame — an object — within which the study is conducted and which the case illuminates and explicates.
  7. 7. Strengths & Limitations of Case study Method Strengths  Provides detailed (rich qualitative) information.  Provides insight for further research.  Permitting investigation of otherwise impractical (or unethical) situations. Limitations  Can’t generalize the results to the wider population.  Researchers own subjective feeling may influence the case study (researcher bias).  Difficult to replicate.  Time consuming.
  8. 8. Survey Method  A survey is defined as a brief interview or discussion with individuals about a specific topic. Survey research is often used to assess thoughts, opinions, and feelings. Survey research can be specific and limited, or it can have more global, widespread goals.  A survey consists of a predetermined set of questions that is given to a sample. With a representative sample, that is, one that is representative of the larger population of interest, one can describe the attitudes of the population from which the sample was drawn.  3 Techniques of Survey Research are:  Questionnaires  Interviews  Survey
  9. 9. Techniques of Survey Research Questionnaires • A series of written questions a participant answers. • This method gathers responses to questions that are essay or agree/neutral/disagree style. Interviews • Questions posed to an individual to obtain information about him or her. • This type of survey is like a job interview, with one person asking another a load of questions. Survey • Brief interviews and discussions with individuals about a specific topic. • A survey is a quick interview, with the surveyor asking only a few questions.