4. The Industrial Revolution


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4. The Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution
  2. 2. Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Why in England and western Europe and not somewhere else in the world? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it that all these forces came together in England and not in France, Spain, or Germany? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes <ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to innovation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Population Growth <ul><li>Population begins to grow especially in England </li></ul><ul><li>What are some possible explanations for this growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the population more urban or rural? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Population Growth <ul><li>Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of potato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 more times more food per acre than the crops it replaced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnips, Legumes, and Clover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy on soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed animals (milk available) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Population Growth <ul><li>Agricultural Revolution Leads to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More dependable food supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends cyclical famine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better nutrition leads to longer lifespan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More positive outlook on life </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Population Growth <ul><li>Dependable food supplies + good job opportunities = Younger average age of marriage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earlier marriage increases the birthrate per couple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early 19 th century 40% of England under the age of 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Migration from countryside to cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Enclosure Act of 1801 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Thomas Malthus “The glass is always half full” <ul><li>Population checked by disease, famine, and war </li></ul><ul><li>Workers falling wages due to the inevitable crisis large populations face </li></ul><ul><li>Need to improve their condition by practicing self-restraint and abstinence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marry later to decrease birth rate </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Changes in Trade <ul><li>Bettering Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Cottage Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Tooth for Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar Cane from plantations most profitable item in international trade </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Openness to Invention <ul><li>Prizes offered for inventions that would solve major problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method for determining longitude while sailing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the belief that human beings can understand the world around them called? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the discoveries or inventions that allowed Britain and the rest of the world to expand their production? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Great Britain <ul><li>More “fluid” society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less centralized government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer bureaucrats and officials to stand in the way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Put new technology into practice faster than anywhere else in the world </li></ul><ul><li>No barriers between trade within country leads to regional specialization </li></ul>
  12. 12. Great Britain <ul><li>Largest Merchant Marine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who had previously held this distinction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great water travel </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in commercial trade higher than other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is this true? What are some factors that lead to this? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patent system </li></ul>
  13. 13. Continental Europe <ul><li>What were some of the factors that kept the continental European states from achieving the same level of success as the British? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Outcomes <ul><li>Rich get richer and the poor get poorer </li></ul><ul><li>England becomes the major power in Europe through its successful trade </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism beats out mercantilism as the way to run a country </li></ul>