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  • 1. Histoplasma capsulatum •  Fungi kingdom •  Causes histoplasmosis, or http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp Darling's Disease •  Resides in soil •  An infection transmitted by airborne spores •  Most people are asymptomatic •  Acute phase, non-specific respiratory symptoms •  If untreated, chronic phase may include prolonged cough, fever, pericarditis, meningitis •  Antifungal medications are used to treat severe cases •  250,000 cases in US annually
  • 2. Neisseria
gonorrhoeae
 Lymphocyte (gonococcus) 
 Streptococci Leukocyte Diplococci •  Gram
(‐)
 http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/defect/images/ •  Shape
is
cocci
(meaning
spherical): 
 Neisseria-gonorrhoeae.jpg –  
Gonococcus;
diplococci
(two
cocci)
or
streptococci
(string
of
cocci).
 •  Invades
space
between
columnar
epithelial
cells:

 –  Located
in
the
oral‐pharyngeal
area,
eyes,
rectum,
urethra,
opening
of
 the
cervix,
and
external
genitals
of
prepubertal
females.
 •  N.
gonorrhoeae
is
pathogenic.
 •  Causes
gonorrhea,
an
STI;

 –  Males
experience
painful
urinaGon
and
a
pussy
discharge;
females
 may
experience
abdominal
pain
and
PID.
 •  Cool
Info:
 –  Named
by
Galen
A.D.
150:
gon
=
semen
+
rhea
=
flow;
N.
gonorrhoeae
 aQaches
to
mucosa
cells
via
fimbriae;
all
infants’
eyes
are
treated
with
 anGbioGcs
at
birth
as
a
preventaGve
measure.

  • 3. Bordatella
pertussis

 •  Gram
negaGve
 •  coccobacillus
 •  Only
known
reservoir
are
humans
and
possibly
other
 higher
primates,
specifically
colonizes
the
cilia
of
 their
respiratory
epithelium
 •  Pathogenic
 •  Whooping
Cough,
characterized
by
fever
and
 coughing
in
first
stage,
prolonged
coughing
ending
in
 a
“whooping”
sound.

 •  Aerobic
 •  Slow
incubaGon
period
(3‐6
days)