Student Work Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

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  • 1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
    Mariela, Lisa, Isaiah and Michelle
  • 2. Relevant Terms
    • Cardiomyopathy- a heart muscle disease
    • 3. Arrhythmia- Abnormal heart rhythms
    • 4. Hypertrophied- to be thickened
    • 5. HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY (HOCM)
    • 6. IDIOPATHIC HYPERTROPHIC SUBAORTIC STENOSIS (IHSS)
    Other Names
  • 7. Things to Know About The Heart
    • The general function of the heart is to pump out blood to the body.
    • 8. The right side of the heart consists of the right atrium, the tricuspid valve and the right ventricle.
    • 9. Deoxygenated blood enters through the right side.
    • 10. Then it travels through the pulmonary semi lunar valve into the lungs.
    • 11. Now it is oxygenated blood.
  • Things to Know - Continued
    • The blood then travels back into the heart through the left pulmonary veins.
    • 12. Then it travels through the left atrium, bicuspid valve and the left ventricle.
    • 13. Then it goes through the aortic semi lunar valve and out through the aorta.
    • 14. Now the blood is distributed throughout the body.
  • What is HCM?
    • The irregular growth/thickening of the heart muscle, it affects the main blood pumping muscle
    • 15. The more thick it becomes, the heart stiffens and the pumping chamber shrinks
    • 16. The thickening interferes with the hearts capability to deliver blood to the body
    myocardium
  • 17. Jesse Marunde
    • International Strongman competitor
    • 18. He collapsed July 25, 2007 after a training session
    • 19. After his workout, his breathing became labored. He became disjointed and stopped breathing
    • 20. He died at the age of 27 because of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Normal heart vs. Hypertrophied heart
  • 21. Inheritance/Causes of HCM
    • It is usually inherited, so it develops when you are a child
    • 22. It is seen in all ages but it is more severe when you inherit it as a child
    • 23. It also may develop because of high blood pressure or aging
    • 24. Otherwise the causes are unknown
    • 25. There are two ways of inheritance:
    • 26. 60-70% of people develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by inheriting a gene that predisposes them to the disease
    • 27. Another way is called a sporadic case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is not inherited from either parent
  • Risk Factors of HCM
    • Drop in blood pressure during exercise
    • 28. Family history of cardiac arrest
    • 29. History of unexplained fainting
    • 30. Life-threatening heart rhythms
    • 31. Severe heart muscle thickness
    • 32. History of arrhythmia with fast heart rate
  • Maintaining HCM
    • Lifestyle changes
    • 33. Fluid and sodium restrictions: If heart failure symptoms are present. Alcohol and caffeine may need to be restricted
    • 34. Exercise: Noncompetitive aerobic activities. Heavy weight lifting and high-intensity sports are not recommended
    • 35. Regular follow-up visits: Patients must follow up with their doctor on a regular basis to monitor it
  • Symptoms of HCM
    • Chest pain or pressure that occurs after or during exercise, rest or after meals
    • 36. Shortness of breath and fatigue
    • 37. Syncope (fainting)
    • 38. Palpitations (fluttering in the chest)
    • 39. Light-headedness
    • 40. Dizziness
    • 41. Sensation of feeling the heartbeat
    • 42. Patients may not have symptoms; sudden collapsing or death may occur
    • 43. This is most likely to happen to young patients
  • Diagnosis
    • It depends on your medical history. A doctor will ask you about your symptoms and family history
    • 44. When a doctor gives a physical exam they will listen to your heart, people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy generally have a heart murmur
    • 45. Echocardiogram, blood tests, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, exercise stress echo test, 24-hour Holter Monitor(heart monitor), cardiac catheterization and MRIs are tests used to find it
  • Treatment
    • The treatment depends on the following:
    • 46. Narrowing in the outlet tract (path blood leaves heart)
    • 47. Hearts functioning
    • 48. Age and level of activity of patient
    • 49. Presence of arrhythmias
    • 50. Treatment is used to reduce symptoms and prevent heart failure and cardiac death. A patient may need to stay in the hospital until they are stable.
  • Treatment- Continued
    • Medications used are beta-blockers and calcium blockers
    • 51. If people have arrhythmias they will have to take anti-arrhythmic medications
    • 52. Pacemakers are sometimes used
    • 53. If blood flow is severely blocked than surgical myectomy is done to remove the thickest part
    • 54. Implantable-cardioverter defibrillator may be needed to prevent sudden death
  • Complications
    People with HCM who have a higher risk for sudden cardiac death include:
    Patients who have a family history of sudden cardiac death
    Young patients who have had several episodes of syncope (fainting)
    Patients who experience an abnormal blood pressure response with exercise
    Patients who have a history of arrhythmia with a fast heart rate
    Patients with severe symptoms and poor heart function
    • Heart failure may develop if the disease progresses
    • 55. the heart's lower chambers are not able to pump blood effectively enough to meet the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients
    Atrial fibrillation is a common complication of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    interferes with the normal pumping of the heart
    cause blood clots to develop in the heart, which can break off and travel through the bloodstream (systemic embolism)
    may cause a stroke, heart attack, or blocked blood flow to an arm or leg.
  • 56. Stats
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy affects an estimated 600,000 to 1.5 million Americans, or one in 500 people or 0.20%.
    It is more prevalent than multiple sclerosis, which affects one in 700 people.
    544,000 people in USA have HCM.
    About 50% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy will have a first-degree relative who also has the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • 57. Sources
    • http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/cardiomyopathy/DS00519/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print
    • 58. http://tnation.tmuscle.com/free_online_forum/sports_body_training_performance_bodybuilding_strength/jesse_marunde_autopsy_findings
    • 59. http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/disorders/hcm/default.aspx
    • 60. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000192.htm#Causes,%20incidence,%20and%20risk%20factors
    • 61. WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise (2006,18,12). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - symptoms. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from www.webmd.com Web site: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/tc/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-symptoms