Student Work Hypertrophic CardiomyopathyPresentation Transcript
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Mariela, Lisa, Isaiah and Michelle
Cardiomyopathy- a heart muscle disease
Arrhythmia- Abnormal heart rhythms
Hypertrophied- to be thickened
HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY (HOCM)
IDIOPATHIC HYPERTROPHIC SUBAORTIC STENOSIS (IHSS)
Things to Know About The Heart
The general function of the heart is to pump out blood to the body.
The right side of the heart consists of the right atrium, the tricuspid valve and the right ventricle.
Deoxygenated blood enters through the right side.
Then it travels through the pulmonary semi lunar valve into the lungs.
Now it is oxygenated blood.
Things to Know - Continued
The blood then travels back into the heart through the left pulmonary veins.
Then it travels through the left atrium, bicuspid valve and the left ventricle.
Then it goes through the aortic semi lunar valve and out through the aorta.
Now the blood is distributed throughout the body.
What is HCM?
The irregular growth/thickening of the heart muscle, it affects the main blood pumping muscle
The more thick it becomes, the heart stiffens and the pumping chamber shrinks
The thickening interferes with the hearts capability to deliver blood to the body
International Strongman competitor
He collapsed July 25, 2007 after a training session
After his workout, his breathing became labored. He became disjointed and stopped breathing
He died at the age of 27 because of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Normal heart vs. Hypertrophied heart
Inheritance/Causes of HCM
It is usually inherited, so it develops when you are a child
It is seen in all ages but it is more severe when you inherit it as a child
It also may develop because of high blood pressure or aging
Otherwise the causes are unknown
There are two ways of inheritance:
60-70% of people develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by inheriting a gene that predisposes them to the disease
Another way is called a sporadic case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is not inherited from either parent
Risk Factors of HCM
Drop in blood pressure during exercise
Family history of cardiac arrest
History of unexplained fainting
Life-threatening heart rhythms
Severe heart muscle thickness
History of arrhythmia with fast heart rate
Fluid and sodium restrictions: If heart failure symptoms are present. Alcohol and caffeine may need to be restricted
Exercise: Noncompetitive aerobic activities. Heavy weight lifting and high-intensity sports are not recommended
Regular follow-up visits: Patients must follow up with their doctor on a regular basis to monitor it
Symptoms of HCM
Chest pain or pressure that occurs after or during exercise, rest or after meals
Shortness of breath and fatigue
Palpitations (fluttering in the chest)
Sensation of feeling the heartbeat
Patients may not have symptoms; sudden collapsing or death may occur
This is most likely to happen to young patients
It depends on your medical history. A doctor will ask you about your symptoms and family history
When a doctor gives a physical exam they will listen to your heart, people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy generally have a heart murmur
Echocardiogram, blood tests, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, exercise stress echo test, 24-hour Holter Monitor(heart monitor), cardiac catheterization and MRIs are tests used to find it
The treatment depends on the following:
Narrowing in the outlet tract (path blood leaves heart)
Age and level of activity of patient
Presence of arrhythmias
Treatment is used to reduce symptoms and prevent heart failure and cardiac death. A patient may need to stay in the hospital until they are stable.
Medications used are beta-blockers and calcium blockers
If people have arrhythmias they will have to take anti-arrhythmic medications
Pacemakers are sometimes used
If blood flow is severely blocked than surgical myectomy is done to remove the thickest part
Implantable-cardioverter defibrillator may be needed to prevent sudden death
Complications People with HCM who have a higher risk for sudden cardiac death include: Patients who have a family history of sudden cardiac death Young patients who have had several episodes of syncope (fainting) Patients who experience an abnormal blood pressure response with exercise Patients who have a history of arrhythmia with a fast heart rate Patients with severe symptoms and poor heart function
Heart failure may develop if the disease progresses
the heart's lower chambers are not able to pump blood effectively enough to meet the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients
Atrial fibrillation is a common complication of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy interferes with the normal pumping of the heart cause blood clots to develop in the heart, which can break off and travel through the bloodstream (systemic embolism) may cause a stroke, heart attack, or blocked blood flow to an arm or leg.
Stats Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy affects an estimated 600,000 to 1.5 million Americans, or one in 500 people or 0.20%. It is more prevalent than multiple sclerosis, which affects one in 700 people. 544,000 people in USA have HCM. About 50% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy will have a first-degree relative who also has the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise (2006,18,12). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - symptoms. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from www.webmd.com Web site: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/tc/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-symptoms