Urinary System Notes

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Urinary System Notes

  1. 1. Urinary System
  2. 2. Kidneys: external <ul><li>1. Paired, located between T12-L3 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Convex lateral surface </li></ul><ul><li>4. Concave medial surface </li></ul><ul><li>5. Covered by 3 layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Renal fascia, c.t. = outside adipose capsulea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Adipose capsule = middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Renal capsule, c.t. = innermost   </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Kidneys: internal <ul><li>1. Cortex: This is where the blood is filtered. The filtrate flows into medulla </li></ul><ul><li>2. Medulla is composed of 8-15 conically-shaped Renal Pyramids. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Renal Papillae are surrounded by funnel-shaped tubes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Renal Blood Vessels <ul><li>Aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Renal Artery </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerulus = a mass of capillaries. Some of the plasma    (= filtrate) leaves the blood stream at this point </li></ul><ul><li>Renal vein </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior Vena Cava </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nephrons <ul><li>Functional units of kidney. The nephrons modify the filtrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLOMERULUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RENAL TUBULE.                 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Urine Flow <ul><li>The urine flows into a Collecting Duct which ends at the tip of the renal pyramid The urine flows next into the minor calyx--> major calyx---> </li></ul><ul><li> renal pelvis---> </li></ul><ul><li>ureter---> </li></ul><ul><li>bladder---> urethra </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ureters <ul><li>Paired, tubular organs, 10&quot; long </li></ul><ul><li>Histology: 3 layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Mucosa - innermost, transitional epi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Muscularis - middle, 2-3 layers of smooth muscle (peristalsis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Adventitia - c.t. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Urinary Bladder <ul><li>Urine reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>Histology: 3 layers </li></ul><ul><li>  1. Mucosa - inner, transitional epi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Large folds = rugae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Smooth area = trigone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  2. Muscularis - 3 layers of smooth muscle = Detrusor Muscle. The muscle is modified at neck of bladder = Internal Sphincter (involuntary)  </li></ul><ul><li>  3. Serosa </li></ul>
  9. 9. Urethra <ul><li>Muscular tube - from bladder to body's exterior </li></ul><ul><li>  Pierces urogenital diaphragm. The skeletal muscle there is modified to form the External Sphincter (voluntary) around Urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Female urethra - 1 ½ inches long </li></ul><ul><li>Male urethra - 8 inches long </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostatic - through prostate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranous - from prostate to bulb of penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penile (Spongy) - through penis   </li></ul></ul>

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