Student Work Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

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Student Work Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

  1. 1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)<br />Mariela, Lisa, Isaiah and Michelle<br />
  2. 2. Relevant Terms<br /><ul><li>Cardiomyopathy- a heart muscle disease
  3. 3. Arrhythmia- Abnormal heart rhythms
  4. 4. Hypertrophied- to be thickened
  5. 5. HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY (HOCM)
  6. 6. IDIOPATHIC HYPERTROPHIC SUBAORTIC STENOSIS (IHSS) </li></ul>Other Names<br />
  7. 7. Things to Know About The Heart<br /><ul><li>The general function of the heart is to pump out blood to the body.
  8. 8. The right side of the heart consists of the right atrium, the tricuspid valve and the right ventricle.
  9. 9. Deoxygenated blood enters through the right side.
  10. 10. Then it travels through the pulmonary semi lunar valve into the lungs.
  11. 11. Now it is oxygenated blood. </li></li></ul><li>Things to Know - Continued<br /><ul><li>The blood then travels back into the heart through the left pulmonary veins.
  12. 12. Then it travels through the left atrium, bicuspid valve and the left ventricle.
  13. 13. Then it goes through the aortic semi lunar valve and out through the aorta.
  14. 14. Now the blood is distributed throughout the body.</li></li></ul><li>What is HCM?<br /><ul><li>The irregular growth/thickening of the heart muscle, it affects the main blood pumping muscle
  15. 15. The more thick it becomes, the heart stiffens and the pumping chamber shrinks
  16. 16. The thickening interferes with the hearts capability to deliver blood to the body</li></ul>myocardium<br />
  17. 17. Jesse Marunde<br /><ul><li>International Strongman competitor
  18. 18. He collapsed July 25, 2007 after a training session
  19. 19. After his workout, his breathing became labored. He became disjointed and stopped breathing
  20. 20. He died at the age of 27 because of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy</li></li></ul><li>Normal heart vs. Hypertrophied heart<br />
  21. 21. Inheritance/Causes of HCM<br /><ul><li>It is usually inherited, so it develops when you are a child
  22. 22. It is seen in all ages but it is more severe when you inherit it as a child
  23. 23. It also may develop because of high blood pressure or aging
  24. 24. Otherwise the causes are unknown
  25. 25. There are two ways of inheritance:
  26. 26. 60-70% of people develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by inheriting a gene that predisposes them to the disease
  27. 27. Another way is called a sporadic case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is not inherited from either parent</li></li></ul><li>Risk Factors of HCM<br /><ul><li>Drop in blood pressure during exercise
  28. 28. Family history of cardiac arrest
  29. 29. History of unexplained fainting
  30. 30. Life-threatening heart rhythms
  31. 31. Severe heart muscle thickness
  32. 32. History of arrhythmia with fast heart rate</li></li></ul><li>Maintaining HCM<br /><ul><li>Lifestyle changes
  33. 33. Fluid and sodium restrictions: If heart failure symptoms are present. Alcohol and caffeine may need to be restricted
  34. 34. Exercise: Noncompetitive aerobic activities. Heavy weight lifting and high-intensity sports are not recommended
  35. 35. Regular follow-up visits: Patients must follow up with their doctor on a regular basis to monitor it</li></li></ul><li>Symptoms of HCM<br /><ul><li>Chest pain or pressure that occurs after or during exercise, rest or after meals
  36. 36. Shortness of breath and fatigue
  37. 37. Syncope (fainting)
  38. 38. Palpitations (fluttering in the chest)
  39. 39. Light-headedness
  40. 40. Dizziness
  41. 41. Sensation of feeling the heartbeat
  42. 42. Patients may not have symptoms; sudden collapsing or death may occur
  43. 43. This is most likely to happen to young patients</li></li></ul><li>Diagnosis<br /><ul><li>It depends on your medical history. A doctor will ask you about your symptoms and family history
  44. 44. When a doctor gives a physical exam they will listen to your heart, people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy generally have a heart murmur
  45. 45. Echocardiogram, blood tests, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, exercise stress echo test, 24-hour Holter Monitor(heart monitor), cardiac catheterization and MRIs are tests used to find it</li></li></ul><li>Treatment<br /><ul><li>The treatment depends on the following:
  46. 46. Narrowing in the outlet tract (path blood leaves heart)
  47. 47. Hearts functioning
  48. 48. Age and level of activity of patient
  49. 49. Presence of arrhythmias
  50. 50. Treatment is used to reduce symptoms and prevent heart failure and cardiac death. A patient may need to stay in the hospital until they are stable.</li></li></ul><li>Treatment- Continued<br /><ul><li>Medications used are beta-blockers and calcium blockers
  51. 51. If people have arrhythmias they will have to take anti-arrhythmic medications
  52. 52. Pacemakers are sometimes used
  53. 53. If blood flow is severely blocked than surgical myectomy is done to remove the thickest part
  54. 54. Implantable-cardioverter defibrillator may be needed to prevent sudden death</li></li></ul><li>Complications<br />People with HCM who have a higher risk for sudden cardiac death include:<br />Patients who have a family history of sudden cardiac death <br />Young patients who have had several episodes of syncope (fainting) <br />Patients who experience an abnormal blood pressure response with exercise <br />Patients who have a history of arrhythmia with a fast heart rate <br />Patients with severe symptoms and poor heart function <br /><ul><li>Heart failure may develop if the disease progresses
  55. 55. the heart's lower chambers are not able to pump blood effectively enough to meet the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients</li></ul>Atrial fibrillation is a common complication of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy<br />interferes with the normal pumping of the heart<br />cause blood clots to develop in the heart, which can break off and travel through the bloodstream (systemic embolism)<br />may cause a stroke, heart attack, or blocked blood flow to an arm or leg.<br />
  56. 56. Stats<br />Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy affects an estimated 600,000 to 1.5 million Americans, or one in 500 people or 0.20%. <br />It is more prevalent than multiple sclerosis, which affects one in 700 people. <br />544,000 people in USA have HCM.<br />About 50% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy will have a first-degree relative who also has the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy<br />
  57. 57. Sources<br /><ul><li>http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/cardiomyopathy/DS00519/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print
  58. 58. http://tnation.tmuscle.com/free_online_forum/sports_body_training_performance_bodybuilding_strength/jesse_marunde_autopsy_findings
  59. 59. http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/disorders/hcm/default.aspx
  60. 60. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000192.htm#Causes,%20incidence,%20and%20risk%20factors
  61. 61. WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise (2006,18,12). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - symptoms. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from www.webmd.com Web site: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/tc/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-symptoms</li>

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