Challenges for Geotechnical Engineering Education


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Challenges for Geotechnical Engineering Education

  1. 1. Challenges for Geotechnical Engineering Education J.N.Jha*, K.S.Gill*, A.K.Chaudhary** *Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India **National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India
  2. 2. Index <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Current Status of Geotechnical Engineering courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested improvements/incorporation in Curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Geotechnical Engineering Teaching Process. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing aspects of Geotechnical Engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>World population (2050): 9 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in population: </li></ul><ul><li>Underdeveloped/developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>State of Infrastructure: critical </li></ul><ul><li>e.g India </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>11 th Five Year Plan (HT) </li></ul><ul><li>Investment on infrastructure: </li></ul><ul><li>Rs. 14,50,000 Crores </li></ul><ul><li>Housing Sector & Maintenance of Roads: Rs. 1,22,000 crores </li></ul><ul><li>Construction & Development of Airports: Rs. 40,000 crores </li></ul><ul><li>Ports: Rs. 60,000 crores </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Requirement of Civil Engineers: 70,000 per year (Indian Express) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of Civil Engineers: </li></ul><ul><li>18,700 per year </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Engineers with Geotechnical Engineering specialization: </li></ul><ul><li>5.9% of ASCE Members (Geotech. engineering as interest area) </li></ul><ul><li>Total no. of IGS Members: <5,000 </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Number of institutes offering M.Tech. (Geotechnical Engineering)<100 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual intake (M. Tech. Geotechnical Engineering)<1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Actual admission (M. Tech): (Geotechnical Engineering)<50% of intake </li></ul>
  7. 7. Current Status of Geotechnical Engineering Courses (UG) <ul><li>Very few course teach critical state of Soil Mechanics. </li></ul><ul><li>Little evidence that Modern Technology & Technique such as Video films or Computer Simulation is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate use of demonstration and illustrative experiment to convey the fundamental behaviour of Soil Mechanics. </li></ul><ul><li>Required: Adequate course curriculum & interesting delivery system needed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Basic Soil Mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Geotechnical Engg. (Field/constructional problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Geotechnical Engg. Lab.-I </li></ul><ul><li>Geotechnical Engg. Lab-II </li></ul><ul><li>(Demonstrative & Illustrative experiments) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic soil mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Geotechnical Engineering </li></ul>Suggested Existing
  9. 9. Suggested improvements/incorporation in Curriculum <ul><li>Risk Assessment and Financial aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Modelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital image analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Case histories and practical projects. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Risk Assessment and Financial Aspects <ul><li>Risk Assessment and Financial aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of peoples die (collapsing excavation) is six times number of injuries (Any construction work). </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: Death due to lack of shoring system or inadequate shoring. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Risk (Geotechnical Engg.) <ul><li>Caves in: Collapse- Total or Partial (trench, deep test pits, large boring) </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesionless soil/Seepage of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Encounter of bad air (Buildup of gas from decomposing organics/lack of Oxygen). </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment risk (Break of drilling equipment/bursting of high pressure hose). </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic risk (Exposure of toxic waste). </li></ul><ul><li>Utility risk (Drilling equip. punctured gas). </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection risk (Caisson/Deep excavation). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Financial Loss (Geotechnical Engineers) <ul><li>Vulnerable to financial loss </li></ul><ul><li>(Reason: Unknown soil condition) </li></ul><ul><li>Good Engineering Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Specify frequency and spacing of borings. </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to explore the subsurface completely. </li></ul><ul><li>Some uncertainty remains about subsurface condition. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>If problem develops at any stage: </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to perform complete or diligent subsurface investigation </li></ul><ul><li>How to mitigate ? </li></ul><ul><li>To buy insurance (Error-and-omissions insurance expensive) </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation of liability clause in contract (Not always judgment proof) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Geotechnical Engineers must be trained to evaluate the safety of engineering operations at field. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety aspects and possible financial loss during subsurface investigation must be incorporated in curriculum at some stage of the course at UG level. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Physical Modelling <ul><li>Key limitation of reduced scale physical model is quantitative interpretation of experimental data . </li></ul><ul><li>Modern geotechnical centrifuge modeling addresses this limitation. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure maximum benefit identify a strategic approach for introducing simulation technique into the courses </li></ul>
  16. 16. Advantages (Physical Modelling) <ul><li>Complex non-linear geotechnical mechanism and phenomena can be portrayed (otherwise difficult to visualize). </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to observe the physical sense of fundamental mechanism governing the Geotechnical system. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to observe failure mechanism by testing small scale model to collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>(Not possible in traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Geotechnical Lab. Session) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Possible to find deviation between predicted and actual performance of geotechnical system through back analysis of physical model- experiments. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Digital Image Analysis <ul><li>Current Education Curriculum emphasize behaviourist learning </li></ul><ul><li>( Research :Visual input contribute learning more significantly) </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary to strengthen the curriculum by incorporating projects ( Application of IT ) that </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cultivate hands on experience. </li></ul><ul><li>2.As well as to visualize the materials conceptually in broader concept. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Use of Digital Image Analysis can supplement the traditional teaching method. (To effectively communicate complex concepts) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Case History and Practical Projects <ul><li>Case histories play an important role in developing the engineering approach and engineering judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies should include not only the failure structure and treatment of such failure projects but some important successful projects also (Hover Dam, Panama Canal). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Advantages <ul><li>Appreciation of significant features and mechanism of problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Idealization and simplification of problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of relevant geotechnical parameters. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Geotechnical Engineering (teaching process) <ul><li>Upgradation of curriculum focuses only on course content, rarely discusses the innovative teaching process. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-oriented approach more effective then the tradition teaching approach. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Laboratory Experiments <ul><li>Present curriculum discusses the testing procedure only. </li></ul><ul><li>Geotechnical engg. students are expected to develop understanding of geotechnical problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable to demonstrate experiments and tests through Modern Technology which enables comparison with theoretical analysis. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Audio-Visual Aids <ul><li>Ample scope to use audio-visual aids/IT techniques (Direct Teaching). </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration of laboratory and field testing technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration of fundamental aspects of Soil and Foundation Behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Embankment construction and failure </li></ul><ul><li>Development of slope instability. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure and excavation support. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Role of Computers <ul><li>Means of reducing repetitive computational efforts (stability analysis via method involving slices). </li></ul><ul><li>Means of demonstrating fundamental mechanism of behaviour through computer graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of failure zone beneath foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Seepage through earth dam. </li></ul><ul><li>Deformation pattern in granular material. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Geotechnical Engg. (Marketing Aspects) <ul><li>Geotechnical Engg.: Sample fetching or logging bore holes (general perception). </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest challenge: To create awareness that work of Geotechnical engineers have a direct impact on improving the </li></ul><ul><li>quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Selling geotechnical as a profession to students on large scale so as to attract bright and maximum no. of students for geotechnical engg. Specialization </li></ul>
  27. 27. Conclusion <ul><li>Reorient geotechnical engg. curriculum to attract more Civil engg. students to opt for Geotechnical Engg. Specialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Application of IT in Geotechnical engineering education be made compulsory. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and financial aspects of engg. operation in field must be taught. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Site visit and case history should be part of course programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory work must include demonstration and illustration of fundamental aspect of Soil and Foundation Behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Selling Geotechnical Engg. on a large scale by highlighting the achievements of geotechnical Engineers. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thank you………………. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>