Proper Nouns vs. Common Nouns Proper Nouns represent unique or specific entities.Common Nouns represent a common or general class of entities.
Examples of Proper and Common Nouns Common Noun Proper Noun singer Michael Jackson dog Dalmatian tree Redwood season Fall city New York City country France
Count Nouns vs. Mass Nouns Count Nouns can take a plural, can beformed with a numeral, quantifier and an indefinite article. Mass Nouns can be counted, yet isgenerally taken as a whole and cannot be formed with numerical words.
Examples of Count and Mass Nouns Count Nouns Mass Nouns Pencil (five pencils, a pencil) FurnitureSword (three swords, every sword) Grass Ant (an ant, most ants) Gravel Day (two days, several days) Oxygen Weekend (few weekends) Food Course (eight courses, a course) Air
Concrete Nouns vs. Abstract NounsConcrete Nouns refer to physical entities that can be observed by at least any of the five senses. Abstract Nouns refer to ideas orconcepts that are not observable by any of the five senses.
Examples of Concrete and Abstract Nouns Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Ball Justice Chair Sin Friend Love Sound Happiness Cloud Solidarity Pet Intimacy
Collective Nouns Collective Nouns refer to groups ofentities or individuals that are treated as a single collective. In other words, collective nouns treatplural entities or individuals as singular.
Examples of Collective Nouns• a Flock of Geese• a Herd of Cows• an Army of Ants• a Regiment of Navy SEALS• a Troupe of Musicians• an Audience of Watchers• a Pack of Cigarettes
PRONOUNA word or form that substitutes for a noun.In other words, the pronoun takes the place of a noun in a sentence.
General examples of Pronouns• He • We• She • There• It • Mine• They • Themselves• Them • Myself• You • This• I • That
Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns denote a specificentity in a sentence. This type of pronoun speaks in three different persons: The First Person (I, me, we) The Second Person (You) The Third Person (He, She, It, They)
List of Personal Pronouns• I • It• Me • Him• We • Her• Us • They• You • Them• He• She
Examples of the usage of Personal Pronouns• Ryan went to Canada last week. He is staying there for a month.• Dianne and I are going to visit her mom.• She was thrilled at the notion of having her clothes washed without paying anything.• The award was given to them for the outstanding performance.
Subjective Pronouns vs. Objective PronounsSubjective Pronouns are pronouns used as the subject of the sentence. (I, You, He, She, It, We, They)Objective Pronouns are pronouns used as the object of the sentence. (Me, You, Him, Her, It, Us, Them)
Examples of using Subjective and Objective Pronouns• He bought a cake for her.• We filed a suit against them for uttering libellous words.• The committee was astounded with Rose’s performance. They gave her a perfect score.• They delivered the evidence to the court to incriminate you.
Possessive Pronouns Possessive Pronouns indicatepossession or ownership. These types of pronouns are the only ones that can act syntactically as nouns.
List of Possessive Pronouns• My (Subjective) • Her (Subjective)• Mine (Objective) • Hers (Objective)• Our (Subjective) • Its• Ours (Objective) • Their (Subjective)• Your (Subjective) • Theirs (Objective)• Yours (Objective) • Whose• His • One’s
Examples of the usage of Possessive Pronouns• My property was finally sold last week.• That pink dress is hers.• We tried to advance, but their defence was impenetrable.• A prize will be given to the person whose ticket is drawn.• This lot isn’t yours; it is ours.• Your dog tried to bite me.
Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns distinguish a particular individual or group from all others of the same class or category.In other words, Demonstrative Pronouns indicate that out of a list of possible candidates, a selection is made.
List of Demonstrative Pronouns• This• That• Those• These• Here• There
Examples of the usage of Demonstrative Pronouns• This week has been the best so far.• Out of all the contestants, I liked that group the most.• These dishes are among the best that I have ever tasted.• Here are the papers that you have requested.• I finally found it among these stacks.
Indefinite PronounsIndefinite Pronouns refer to a general category of nouns.
Specific vs. Non-Specific Indefinite PronounsSpecific Indefinite Pronouns point to a particular individual or group. (All, Each, Few, Some, Neither, Both, Either, Many, One, Several)
Specific vs. Non-Specific Indefinite PronounsNon-Specific Indefinite Pronouns do not specify any particular individual or group.(Anybody, Anything, Everyone, Nobody,No One, Something, Somebody, Anyone, Everybody, None, Nothing)
Examples of using Indefinite Pronouns (Specific)• All of you have been selected for the event.• Some of these things might actually prove useful in the future.• Neither of them passed in the examination.• Several cars were piled up along the highway.
Examples of using Indefinite Pronouns (Non-Specific)• Anybody may have gotten in and stolen the necklace.• Someone is looking for you.• Everyone screamed frantically after their favourite Rock star entered the stage.• There is nothing that can bother me today.
Relative PronounsRelative Pronouns refer back to any noun that was previously mentioned in the sentence.In other words, Relative Pronouns reduce the noun redundancy in a sentence.
Examples of using Relative Pronouns• The contestant who reaches the goal first will be declared the winner.• I was alarmed after the shark that bit someone from the southern shore was reported to have been sighted near the beach.• Rica, who always stops by to say hello, has gone on vacation.
Interrogative PronounsInterrogative Pronouns refer to nouns by form of a question.In other words, Interrogative Pronounsask which noun is meant in a sentence.
List of Interrogative Pronouns• Who (Used as a subject)• Whom (Used as an object)• Whose• What• Which• + “ever”
Examples of using Interrogative Pronouns• Who can lay a charge on this man? Is there sufficient evidence?• What in the blazes is going on here?• Whose laptop is that sitting on the dining table?• To whom did you send the letter?• Which of these apples is ripe?
VERBA word that signifies action, occurrence or state of being.
General examples of Verbs• Run • Exhume• Walk • File• Jump • Try• Think • Repeat• Spy • Leap• Fall • Light• Win • Smell
Intransitive Verbs Intransitive Verbs are not directly followed by a noun, adjective or noun phrase.In other words, Intransitive Verbs do notneed a direct object to receive an action.
Examples of using Intransitive Verbs• Jane went to the store to buy some supplies.• You lied when you told me that you were going to the play.• She wept when she found out that her husband died in the plane crash.• Whenever the ice cream truck passes by, my son sits in front of the house.
Linking Verbs Linking Verbs cannot be followed by adverbs; rather, they are alwaysproceeded by nouns or adjectives. Mostcommon used Linking verbs are seem, become, appear, look and remain.
Examples of using Linking Verbs• John appeared exhausted from the fight.• You look weary; can we do anything to cheer you up?• In order to make a change, you must become more than a man.• The food tastes good. What did you put in it?
Transitive VerbsTransitive Verbs are followed by nouns or noun phrases. In other words, Transitive Verbs need a direct object to receive the action.
Examples of using Transitive Verbs• I want that piece of cake sitting on top of the table.• Ryan fought Carlos for her affection.• This is amazing! You painted a masterpiece.• John wrote Shirley a love letter.• Mae wasn’t able to attend the meeting because she cleaned the house.
“Be” Verbs “Be” Verbs precede nouns or adjectivesin a sentence, turning them into predicate nouns/adjectives that function similar to those connected by linking verbs.
“Be” (preceded by a modal)• I will be taking the plane to Los Angeles.• Peter jumped in to rescue the little girl trapped in the water.• We will be there once we confirm that everything is alright.• Jane rode the afternoon flight to be in San Antonio before the evening.
Is (Present Tense, Singular, Third Person)• John is not going to the meeting; he ran into an old friend.• The committee is taking drastic measures to salvage the company’s reputation.• She is going on vacation in Hawaii.• Mathematics is one of the subjects that I so love.
Am (Present Tense, Singular, First Person)• I am not visiting today; I have something important that I should take care of first.• John said, “I am going to the store later to buy some groceries.”• I am giving this for the benefit of the children in Africa.• I am already here.
Are (Present Tense, Plural, All Persons, Singular Second Person)• We are looking forward to hearing from you.• They are planning a strategy for the next assault.• You are not supposed to be here.• We are taking this moment to remind everyone of the upcoming events that have already been scheduled.
Was (Past Tense, Singular, First and Third Persons)• I was in the military before; I learned survival techniques there.• She was looking for you earlier, but she might have gone somewhere else.• He was a good man and everybody in the community liked him.• It was an awkward moment when they kissed each other.
Were (Past Tense, Plural, All Persons, Singular Second Person)• We were trying to reach you but for some reason your lines were out.• They were trying to enter through the west gate, but we dispatched forces there and defeated them.• You were like this before but now you have changed.• They were amazed at his performance.
Been (preceded by has/have/had)• It has been years since we last saw each other.• Try asking the ward on the east wing; they may have been looking for him there.• I have not been in China.• You must have been dreaming when you said you saw Clara.
Being (Gerund or Continuous form)• Being on time is one of the qualities that I am looking for in my employees.• You are being careless; you should take caution more often.• Being well-built and strong is essential if you are to win this competition.• She is being aggressive in taking that position.
The Simple TenseSimple Tense indicates an action in its purest form.Simple Tense verbs have no other form than its original.
Simple TenseVerb Past Form Present Form Future FormWalk Walked Walk Will WalkRun Ran Run Will RunFly Flew Fly Will FlyDo Did Do Will Do
The Perfect TensePerfect Tense indicates an action that is completed. A perfect tense verb is formed bypreceding the past participle form of the verb with “have”.
Perfect TenseVerb Past Form Present Form Future FormWalk Have Walked Have Walked Will Have WalkedRun Have Run Run Will Have RunFly Have Flown Have Flown Will Have FlownDo Have Done Have Done Will Have Done
The Progressive TenseProgressive Tense indicates an action that is continually occurring.A perfect tense verb is formed by the“be” verb being followed by the base form of the verb + “ing” (gerund).
Progressive TenseVerb Past Form Present Form Future FormWalk Was Walking Is/Am/Are Walking Will Be Walking Is/Am/AreRun Was Running Will Be Running RunningFly Was Flying Is/Am/Are Flying Will Be FlyingDo Was Doing Is/Am/Are Doing Will Be Doing
The Perfect Progressive TensePerfect Progressive Tense indicates an action that is occurring in a particular length of time. A perfect progressive tense verb is formed through:“have” + “be” + base verb form + “ing”
Perfect Progressive TenseVerb Past Form Present Form Future Form Had Been Have Been Will Have BeenWalk Walking Walking Walking Had Been Have Been Will Have BeenRun Running Running Running Will Have BeenFly Had Been Flying Have Been Flying Flying Will Have BeenDo Had Been Doing Have Been Doing Doing
Active vs. Passive VoiceThe Active Voice indicates that the subject is performing the action.The Passive Voice indicates that theaction is being done to the subject.
Examples of using the Active and Passive Voices Active Voice Passive Voice I saw the car. The car was seen by me. The flight to New York was taken byWe took the flight to New York. us. They believed in the case. The case was believed by them. You did not close the door. The door was not closed by you.
ADJECTIVEA word that describes or qualifies a noun or a pronoun.
Examples of using Adjectives• She was so appreciative of the beautiful dress that I gave her.• I plan on visiting the Grand Canyon, one of the most magnificent places on earth.• Dianne, who was gorgeous, was flocked by a bunch of boys at the prom.• This amazing sight is one to see.
ADVERB A word that qualifies or changes themeaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb.In other words, adverbs typically answerquestions such as how, what way, when, where and to what extent.
General examples of Adverbs• Respectfully • Almost• Bountifully • Likely• Here • Intuitively• Tomorrow • Completely• Outside • Usually• Inside • Now• Eternally • Later
Prepositions of TimePrepositions of Time show relationships between a word and a period of time.
List of Prepositions of Time• In (Long Periods) • To• At (Time) • For• On (Dates/Days)• During• Until• Since• From
Examples of Using Prepositions of Time• I was born in 1985.• We have lived in this neighborhood since the 1980’s.• He slept during the film showing.• I’ll meet you at 6 PM.• On March 16, 1521, Magellan discovered the Philippines.
Prepositions of PlacePrepositions of Place show relationships between a word and a location.
List of Prepositions of Place• In (Closed Space) • Among• At (Specific Point) • Under• On (Surface) • Over• After • Beside• Behind • Beneath• In Front Of • Above• Between • Below
Examples of Using Prepositions of Place• This person lives in California.• His address is at 24th Street, Richton Hills.• She was playing on the trampoline.• I found the key under the doormat.• We were stuck behind enemy lines.• They were almost crushed between the two trucks.
Prepositions of Movement Prepositions of Movement showrelationships between a word and a movement to a specific direction.
List of Prepositions of Movement• To • Down• Through • Over• Across • Off• Along • Towards• Around • Up• Away From • Past• Into • Round
Examples of Using Prepositions of Movement• He went to the supermarket to get some food.• It was a tough journey through the woods.• We literally sailed across the seven seas.• I though the Tower of Pisa was leaning towards the East.
INTERJECTION A word that denotes or expressesemotion or sentiment in a sentence.
General examples of Interjections• Hello • Uh-huh• Oh • Well• Ah • Alas• Err • Dear• Hi • Hey• Hmm • Woah• Uh • Ouch
Examples of using Interjections• Hello! How are you?• I was, uh, walking along the street when I, uh, saw her.• Hmm… This appears to be a complicated issue indeed.• Alas! I should never have let him leave.• Ouch! Take that pointy thing away from me.
CONJUNCTION A word that connects two words,phrases, clauses or sentences together.
General examples of Conjunctions• And • So• Or • Therefore• But • So That• Yet • Also• Nor • Though• Either…Or • Unless• Neither…Nor • For
Coordinating ConjunctionsCoordinating Conjunctions connect twoor more words, clauses or sentences of equal syntactic importance.
List of Coordinating Conjunctions• And (expresses positive non-contrast)• But (expresses contrast or exception)• Or (expresses alternatives)• Nor (expresses negative non-contrast)• For (expresses reason)• Yet (expresses contrast or exception)• So (expresses consequences)
Examples of Using Coordinating Conjunctions• I was afraid so I hid.• They did not come for the weather was bad.• You can try going to the police or you can also resolve this by yourself.• Winning the race is important but your son’s birthday is priceless.• She stood by and watched with horror.
Correlative ConjunctionsCorrelative Conjunctions work in pairs to connect two or more words, clauses or sentences of equal weight.
List of Correlative Conjunctions• Either… Or• Neither… Nor• Not Only… But (Also)• Both… And• Whether… Or• Just As… So• So… As
Examples of Using Correlative Conjunctions• A person of Science must not only work under the principle of believing through seeing but also keep his mind open to all possibilities.• Both the decline of the stock market and the cost of war caused the economy to fail.• Whether he comes or he goes isn’t an issue.
Subordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions connectindependent clauses and dependent clauses.
List of Subordinating Conjunctions• As • In Case• Because • Unless• Since • Provided That• Although • As Soon As• Even Though • Until• While • Still• If • While
Examples of Using Subordinating Conjunctions• Your case will stand, provided that you have enough evidence.• He still acts tough, even though everyone saw how cowardly he was during the explosion.• Because of the gas leak, the workers had to go home early.• If it were not for you, I would be dead.
It is always important to notethat in order to create a propersentence, all these parts must work together.