Lecture 1


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Lecture 1

  1. 1. LECTURE 1 PARTS OF SPEECH BS 1st smester ENG 101 By:Tabassum Iqbal
  2. 2. Eight Parts of Speech Nouns Adjectives Conjunctions Interjections
  3. 3. Major Word Classes: These are • Nouns, • Main Verbs, • Adjectives • and Adverbs
  4. 4. Minor Word Classes: These are • Pronouns, • Auxiliary Verbs, • Determiners, • Articles, • Prepositions, • Conjunctions, • and Interjections
  5. 5. Word that names • A Person • An Idea • A Thing • A Place
  6. 6. • A noun is often defined as a word which names a person, place,thing or idea. Here are some examples of nouns: boy, river, friend, Mexico, triangle, day, school, truth, university, idea, John F. Kennedy, movie, aunt, vacation, eye, dream, flag, teacher, class, grammar. John F. Kennedy is a noun because it is the name of a person; Mexico is a noun because it is the name of a place; and boy is a noun because it is the name of a thing.
  7. 7. • Some grammar books divide nouns into 2 groups - proper nouns and common nouns. Proper nouns are nouns which begin with a capital letter because it is the name of a specific or particular person place or thing. Some examples of proper nouns are: Mexico, John F. Kennedy, Atlantic Ocean, February, Monday, New York City, Susan, Maple Street, Burger King. If you see a word beginning with a capital letter in in the middle of a sentence, it is probably a proper noun. Most nouns are common nouns and do not begin with a capital letter.
  8. 8. Kinds of Nouns Common Nouns boy girl Proper Nouns John Mary Singular Nouns boy girl Plural Nouns boys girls Singular Possessive boy’s girl’s Plural Possessive boys’ girls’
  9. 9. COLLECTIVE NOUN • They are words that refer to groups of people, animals, or things each regarded as one whole. • Examples: • Team, crowd, class, flock, army, family, etc
  10. 10. ABSTRACT NOUNS • These are not concrete nouns like other categories. They refer to things, ideas that have no physical existance ie they cannot be touched. • Examples: • Beauty, truth, health, happiness etc
  11. 11. COUNTABLE NOUNS Countable nouns are the names of objects, people, etc. that we can count Example: Book, pen, apple, boy, sister etc
  12. 12. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS • These are the names of the things which we cannot count. • Example • Milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty
  13. 13. Verbs A verb is often defined as a word which shows action or state of being. He rode the horse to victory. He has been sick
  14. 14. Every sentence must have a
  15. 15. • Recognizing the verb is often the most important step in understanding the meaning of a sentence. In the sentence The dog bit the man, bit is the verb and the word which shows the action of the sentence. In the sentence The man is sitting on a chair, even though the action doesn't show much activity, sitting is the verb of the sentence. In the sentence She is a smart girl, there is no action but a state of being expressed by the verb is. The word be is different from other verbs in many ways but can still be thought of as a verb.
  16. 16. Types of verbs • Verbs can be classified, according to their function, into ordinary and auxiliary verbs. • Ordinary verbs: they are the verbs that can be conjugated and have different forms • Example • Play, eat, read, clean etc • Some have three forms: cut cuts cutting • Some have four forms: help, helps,helping,helped • Some have five forms write, writes, wrote, written,writing • And only one verb be has eight forms • Be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being
  17. 17. AUXILARY VERBS • They are the verbs that help ordinary verbs. They are of two types 1. Primary Aux. • The primary aux. can be used as an ordinary verb( as the only verb in a sentence), and can be used as a helping verb ( with an ordinary verb). • I am here. • I am studying. • Be, is, am, are, was, were, being, have, has, had, do, does, did
  18. 18. 2. Modal The modal aux. are: can, shall, will, may, might, must, need, dare, used to, ought to
  19. 19. Relationship between time and verbs • One of the most important things about verbs is their relationship to time. Verbs tell if something has already happened, if it will happen later, or if it is happening now. For things happening now, we use the present tense of a verb; for something that has already happened, we use the past tense; and for something that will happen later, we use the future tense
  20. 20. present Past future Look Looked Will look Move Moved Will move talk talked Will talk
  21. 21. Regular Verbs: • The great majority of English verbs are regular; that is, they have four forms: • The base (the uninflected or unchanged form) play • The—s form plays • The—ing form playing • The—ed form played
  22. 22. Irregular Verbs: • Verbs in which all three parts (the base, the past, the past participle) are identical: let—let—let. • Verbs in which two of the three parts are identical: build—built— built. • Verbs in which all three parts are different: speak—spoke—spoken.
  23. 23. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs: • A verb that requires an object for meaning is called a transitive verb because the action transfers to the object. • A verb that does not require an object for meaning is called an intransitive verb because the action is complete in itself.
  24. 24. For example: (TV) • He poisoned the cat. • Everybody sang the national anthem. • She cleaned her house.
  25. 25. For example: ( ITV) • John wept. • Zubair smokes. • I sleep late at night.
  26. 26. • Such verbs as give, ask, offer, promise, tell etc take two objects i.e. direct object and indirect object. • A verb can be used transitively or intransitively e.g. • He spoke the truth. He spoke haughtily.
  27. 27. ANY QUESTIONS???????