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Internet governance and Development 140305

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I gave a lecture to Government officials and Telco/ISP people from Asian developing countries. About the Internet Goverance. Hosted

I gave a lecture to Government officials and Telco/ISP people from Asian developing countries. About the Internet Goverance. Hosted

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  • 1. Development and Governance of the Internet Where we came from and where we are going to? Challenges and Opportunities BHN APT Seminar Jan 28, 2013 Izumi Aizu iza@anr.org
  • 2. 2 Suggestions  Think hard!  Make your own memo  Prepare comments & questions  Don’t hesitate to ask questions or make comments any time
  • 3. 3May 22 2010 Telecom or Internet? Telecom Network Internet Services Internet Telephony Fixed Line Services Mobile/wireless Services YouTube Facebook Twitter Amazon Blog Skype www Email
  • 4. Four Questions 1. Why did you get involved with Telecom/Communication? 2. What is your professional goal? 3. Which one do you think is more important, Telecom network or Internet services? And why do you think so? 4. Have you heard the term "Internet Governance"? If so, what is your understanding of Internet Governance? What is the problem? 4
  • 5. Wahyu Winarto, Indonesia Why did you get involved with Telecom/Communication? Because I got scholarship from PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia (incumbent telecommunication company in my country) in 1992, then I started to join PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia since 1997. What is your professional goal? I want to be a Professional HR Practitioner, specially in Telecommunication industries. Which one do you think is more important, Telecom network or Internet services? And why do you think so? In my opinion, at this time, internet services become very much important because of emergent of digital economy, but digital economy can only has significant contribution to GDP if there are sufficient telecom network. Have you heard the term "Internet Governance"? If so, what is your understanding of Internet Governance? What is the problem? No, I haven't, but in my perception, it's related to how to govern the internet. In Indonesia we have such law. It's Law of Electronic Information & Transaction. 5
  • 6. O.Babakulov, Uzbekstan Why did you get Telecommunications / Communications? Because, I have grown fond of technology. And then, the modern trends in the global market, there is innovation in the field of information and communication technologies, and their effective use in more efficient management and technological processes in enterprises, the creation of new and expansion of existing markets for goods and services in different areas. Telecommunication services are increasingly intertwined with the concept of the Internet and its availability promotes more intensive exchange of information and knowledge between people, leading to a society based on knowledge. Consequently, the development of telecommunications services, including the Internet contributes to higher living standards. Which one do you think is more important, Telecom network or Internet services?Why do you think so? Because the telecommunications and Internet related to many. Internet - without telecommunication networks represent is difficult. I think so.
  • 7. Aminur Rahman, Bangladesh Why did you get involved with Telecom/Communication? Now is the age of Telecom/ICT. ICT plays the key role in today’s economy. No matter what industry people are in, it’s unlikely that it is untouched by the advent of Telecom/ICT – which is mostly the preserve of techies. Telecom/ ICT jobs can be very rewarding. After all, it’s the hot growth sector of the 21st century. Things are changing constantly. Technology is ever improving. Business models are rushing to keep pace with technological developments, which sometimes can be highly disruptive. If this is the kind of challenge that one enjoys and the kind of environment that he wants to thrive in, then he should consider a career in Telecom/ICT. Moreover, an EEE graduate dreams to innovate and serve in his own field. Considering the described matters I got involved with Telecom/ICT. What is your professional goal? My professional goal is to be a resource personal in Telecom/ICT sector. Especially, I want to be a professional in the management/administration of ICT in a broader sense.
  • 8. Aminur Rahman, Bangladesh, 2 3. Which one do you think is more important, Telecom network or Internet services? And why do you think so? Now a days people talk which is more important, telecom network or internet services? I say both of them are important. As telecom network is obviously necessary for enter into the server to retrieve information, internet services are necessary to make peoples’ life easier using those data communication. Internet services have no meaning if there is no network to use those services. On the contrary, telecom network has no uses if there is no internet services. Now people do not want to talk only, they like to use online services using telecom network and internet services. In some extent, services are more desirable to people rather they bother what network they are using.
  • 9. 4. Have you heard the term "Internet Governance”?If so, what is your understanding of Internet Governance? What is the problem? Yes, I have heard the term “Internet Governance”. Internet governance is the development and application of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet. This article describes how the Internet was and is currently governed, some of the controversies that occurred along the way, and the ongoing debates about how the Internet should or should not be governed in the future. Internet governance should not be confused with E-Governance which refers to technology driven governance. The definition of Internet governance has been contested by differing groups across political and ideological lines. One of the main debates concerns the authority and participation of certain actors, such as national governments, corporate entities and civil society, to play a role in the Internet's governance. A Working group established after a United Nations-initiated World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) proposed the following definition of Internet governance as part of its June 2005 report: Internet governance is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet. Aminur Rahman, Bangladesh, 3
  • 10. Gayan Munasinghe, Sri Lanka 1. Electronic and telecommunication was my favorite subject/topic from my school life to date. Therefore I selected Telecommunication sector as my carrier 2. Updating my knowledge on new telecommunication based technologies to serve the society as possible as I can 3. Telecommunication is the most important. It is the infrastructure to deliver the internet services. There is no internet services at all when there is not a Network. 4. I have heard little bit about internet governance. It says about the requirement of Common way of communication among all the users in the global intranet. 10
  • 11. Vongketh Phitsarath, Laos Why did you get involved with Telecom/Communication? I can face many new difference things, new opportunities & challenges, learning of new knowledge of technologies and can communicate with new peoples. What is your professional goal? To make a positive impact in the company though my expertise and ethics. I also look forward to develop myself in leadership areas and can leading my team to new innovations and growth Which one do you think is more important, Telecom network or Internet services? And why do you think so? Internet service is more importance. It’s the greatest development in the domain of communication industry while it functions as a valuable resource of information. To communicate with unlimited people in the same time. A wide variety of entertainment including video games, music, movies, chat room, news and others can be accessed through the Internet. Business transactions that entails transmission of data from one corner of the world to another such as e- commerce. To community by discussions, express their views and gather valuable knowledge. Beside that it’s more comfortable such as A variety of services are offered via Internet, for example job searching, online banking, buying movie tickets, hotel reservations and consultation services etc. When you avail these services offline, they become more expensive. Have you heard the term “Internet Governance”? No, never
  • 12. Anna Marie Fernando, The Philippines Why did you get involved with Telecom/Communication? I got involved in Telecom/Communication when: a) I worked for the Philippine National Economic Development Agency (the economic think tank government branch of our country) and b) I worked for the Philippine Long Distance Telecommunications Company (the dominant telco player in the Philippines to date). I wanted to get involved in Telecom/Communication because I think it's a economic infrastructure for nation building. As an enabler of a lot of possibilities, I think Telecom/Comms will also provide good learning opportunities for me. What is your professional goal? To have a successful career and find meaning in the work I do.
  • 13. Anna Marie Fernando, The Phillipines, 2 Which one do you think is more important, Telecom network or Internet services? And why do you think so? Both since I think lines between Telecom and Internet is blurring as the ICT sector evolves. Have you heard the term "Internet Governance"? If so, what is your understanding of Internet Governance? What is the problem? Yes, in my reading for the BHN CyberLaw Subject. In my understanding, Internet Governance is about establishing standards and regulations that would promote usage while serving the interest of the consumers. However, I think there's a huge debate on this one because it's difficult to strike a balance between the 2 (e.g. internet regulation on internet libel vs. right to freedom of speech, etc.)
  • 14. 14 In the beginning…  Few people believed that ordinary people will use computers  Very few people believed that people will use computers to communicate  In the Telecom world…Internet was regarded as “dirty”, “not secure”, not suited to serious business  Governments, Telco, ITU, Business, Academia - all main stream people were against the Internet
  • 15. Introduction The user is the center PC enabled people to control computers “Counter-culture” from West Coast “Hackers”, Steven Levy” “Tools for Thought”, Howard Rheingold Linking computers made users more powerful “Virtual Community”, H. Rheingold Internet empowering people & society Free communication, action, inter-action “Smart Mobs”, H. Rheingold
  • 16. ITR at WCIT/ITU • ITR: International Telecommunications Regulation an International Treaty, revised since 1988 version • WCIT: World Conference on International Telecommunication, held in Dubai, Dec 2012
  • 17. New global telecoms treaty agreed in Dubai World Conference on International Telecommunications forges solid new framework for tomorrow’s hyper-connected world News Release by ITU  Dubai, 14 December, 2012 – After two intensive weeks of negotiations, delegates from around the world have agreed a new global treaty that will help pave the way to a hyper- connected world that will bring the power of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to people everywhere.  Over 2,000 delegates were registered for the conference, which was held by ITU at the request of its 193 Member States to renegotiate the International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs), the binding global treaty facilitating global interconnection and interoperability of information and communication services, their efficient operation and their widespread public availability.  The treaty sets out general principles for ensuring the free flow of information around the world. New provisions in the text place special emphasis on future efforts to assist developing countries, on promoting accessibility to persons with disabilities, and on asserting all people’s right to freedom of expression over ICT networks.  Other pioneering new provisions include a Resolution to create a single, globally harmonized number for access to emergency services, new text mandating greater transparency in the prices set for mobile roaming, and new provisions to improve the energy efficiency of ICT networks and help combat e-waste.  Tough issues that provoked considerable debate at the conference included network security, unsolicited bulk content such as spam email, the definition of entities providing services under the terms of the treaty, the principle of non-discriminatory access of countries to each other’s networks, and whether or not to include language on freedom of expression in the Preamble text of the treaty.
  • 18. A true success? Chairman Mohamed Nasser Al Ghanim (UAE) succeeded in breaking a seeming deadlock on Thursday, after discussions late into the night on Wednesday 12th failed to make headway on the few remaining sticking points. Coming back to the meeting on Thursday evening after a tense start to negotiations earlier that day, Mr Al Ghanim presented a new ‘consolidated package’ containing all agreed compromise texts that had been negotiated painstakingly section by section over the past two weeks at Committee, Ad Hoc Group and informal group level. ITU Secretary-General Dr Hamadoun Touré called the signing of the treaty this afternoon a “momentous occasion and historic opportunity to bring connectivity to the two thirds of the world’s people who are still offline.” Speaking to assembled delegates at the closing ceremony this afternoon, he said: “As you look back today on your very intensive, very long days of work, you can hold our heads up high – proud that you have triumphed over adversity and delivered the goods.” He added that he regretted that some countries have so far declined to ratify the treaty, and hoped ITU will continue to work constructively with those nations going forward.
  • 19. Or a true failure? WCIT collapses: US, UK, allies refuse to sign treaty after Africa wins floor vote commsday.com  The International Telecommunications Union and World Conference on International Telecommunications was in crisis as we went to press at 6am AEST, with the United States, the United Kingdom and several of their allies declaring that they would refuse to sign the proposed International Telecommunications Regulations.  The crisis erupted last night when the African bloc attempted to have its preferred form of words over the rights of member states to access telecommunications networks accepted in the treaty. The US and other allies saw the language as an unambiguous attempt to open the ITRs up to governance and content regulation.  Iran took the unprecedented step of calling for a vote, against the oft-stated intentions of the ITU to forge a consensus on the ITRs. The vote was won 77-33 by the African bloc with 6 abstentions.  The US then immediately declared it would not sign the treaty. Ambassador Terry Kramer said “It’s with a heavy heart and a sense of missed opportunities that the US must communicate that it’s not able to sign the agreement in the current form.”  “The Internet has given the world unimaginable economic and social benefit during these past 24 years. All without UN Regulation.”  “We candidly cannot support an ITU Treaty that is inconsistent with the multi-stakeholder model of Internet governance. As the ITU has stated, this conference was never meant to focus on Internet issues. However, today, we’re in a situation where we still have text and resolutions that cover issues on spam and also provisions on Internet governance … the United States continues to believe that Internet policy must be multi-stakeholder driven. Internet policy should not be determined by Member States, but by citizen, communities, and broader society. And such consultation from the private sector and civil society is paramount. This has not happened here.”
  • 20. Countries voted for ITU ITR
  • 21. ITR Signatories Non-signatories
  • 22. Member States signed for ITR AFGHANISTAN ALGERIA AZERBAIJAN ANGOLA SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BAHRAIN BANGLADESH BARBADOS BHUTAN BOTSWANA BRAZIL BELIZE BENIN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM BURKINA FASO BURUNDI CAPE VERDE CAMBODIA CENTRAL AFRICA CHINA COMOROS REPUBLIC OF CONGO COTE D'IVOIRE CUBA DJIBOUTI DOMINICA EL SALVADOR EGYPT GABON GHANA GUATEMALA GUYANA HAITI IRAN INDONESIA IRAQ JAMAICA JORDAN KAZAKHSTAN KOREA KYRGYZSTAN KUWAIT LEBANON LESOTHO LIBERIA LIBYA LUCIA MALAYSIA MALI MAURICE MEXICO MOROCCO MOZAMBIQUE NAMIBIA NEPAL NIGER NIGERIA OMAN PANAMA PAPUA NEW GUINEA PARAGUAY QATAR RUSSIAN FEDERATION RWANDA SENEGAL SIERRA LEONE SINGAPORE SOMALIA SOUTH AFRICA SOUTH SUDAN SRI LANKA SUDAN SWAZILAND TANZANIA THAILAND TOGO TUNISIA TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TURKEY UGANDA UKRAINE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES URUGUAY UZBEKISTAN YEMEN VENEZUELA VIET NAM ZIMBABWE www.itu.int/osg/wcit-12/highlights/signatories.html
  • 23. States not signed for ITR ALBANIA ANDORRA ARMENIA AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA BELARUS BELGIUM COLOMVIA BULGARIA COSTA RICA CANADA CHILE CROATIA CYPRUS CZECH REPUBLIC DENMARK ESTONIA FINLAND FRANCE GAMBIA GEORGIA GERMANY GREECE HUNGARY INDIA IRELAND ISRAEL ITALY JAPAN KENYA LATVIA LIECHTENSTEIN LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG MALAWI MALTA MARSHALL ISLANDS MOLDOVA MONGOLIA MONTENEGRO NORWAY NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND PERU PHILIPPINES POLAND PORTUGAL SERBIA SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA SPAIN SWEDEN SWITZERLAND UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
  • 24. Debate on Internet Governance 24
  • 25. It all began with the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)  Summit: United Nation’s high-level event with Head of States to discuss matters of mutual concerns, mostly global emerging issues  WSIS – proposed by ITU, adopted by GA  1st phase 2003 - in Geneva, 2nd 2005 in Tunis  Objective:  Close the digital divide in developing countries  Take advantage of digital economy for further development  Address new issues of information society
  • 26. “Internet Governance” became the hottest issue  Emerged during prep process in 2002, the hottest of all issues  Developing countries wanted to change the international system around ICANN  “Internet is a global public resource that requires governments to manage”, calling for formal intervention of governments in the management of the Domain Name System, under the UN System by international intergovernmental body “Replace ICANN with ITU”, “UN to take over ICANN”  USA and many Western countries argued for “No regulation” by governments, let private sector to manage Internet resources  Long and winding debate continued among governments as well as business and civil society participants in the preparatory process
  • 27. 2014/4/23 27 What is “Internet Governance”? 1. Governance of Internet infrastructure  Domain Name System, IP number allocation  Standardization process (IETF vs. ITU etc.)  Access – to close digital divide 2. Governance of Social activities over Internet  Illegal & harmful content (for minors)  Spam, cyber security 3. Governance of Information Society  E-commerce, digital economy  Digital culture  Social inclusion – no one should be left behind
  • 28. 28 Working Definition of Internet Governance: “Internet governance is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.” from the WGIG Report
  • 29. Why it became so hot?  Facing new challenges with changing realities  From research network to global Public & Economic infrastructure  Uneven framework with USG holds discretionary power  Historical legacy became political concern  Inadequate current systems  “North” dominates the “South” – less participation in ICANN process from developing countries – appeal made by G8 DOT Force with no result  From governments to civil society  Lack of proper understanding about Internet and ICANN (history, role and functions)  Distrust created by politically motivated actors  ITU to regain control over “telecom”  “Politics” inside UN system  Internet empowers the users/individuals/citizens
  • 30. Politics behind Anti-US, anti globalization  against US dominance in military, technology & economy  Demonstration against WEF, IMF, WTO, G8 Summit… US invasion to Iraq after 911 Competition for world hegemony for digital economy
  • 31. Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) – 2004-05  Outcome of WSIS negotiation on IG  40 members, from South and North, governments, civil society and private sector  Open and closed meetings  Sep 04, Nov 04, Feb, Apr, Jun & July 05  Online consultations  Contributions, questionnaire and forum  Webcast and real-time captures
  • 32. 2006~ Internet Governance Forum(IGF) A “Product” of WSIS Multi-stakeholder set-up Gov, Biz, Civil Society – on equal footing MAG(appointed by SG) 5-year mandate, with scheduled review Greece, Brazil, India, Egypt, Lithuania, Kenya, Azerbaijan Indonesia (2013) http://www.intgovforum.org//
  • 33. IGF Improvement after 5 years UN GA agreed to continue IGF for another 5 years with improvements EcoSoc, CSTD - formed WG to make report on IGF Improvement in 2011 (after negotiation)  CSTD WG Report finalized in Mar 2012  Adopted at CSTD, May 2012 Improve Outcome Shaping, Outreach, Support Developing countries’ participation No major change in nature and structure of IGF  Just adopted at UN GA, Dec 16?
  • 34. Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance 34May 22 2010
  • 35. Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance Proposed by ICANN, co-hosted by Government of Brazil Background:  Snowden revelation on USG monitoring  Dilma Rousseff, President of Brazil, UNGA speech criticizing the US  ICANN needs new framework  ITU Plenipotentiary Conference, Oct 2014 35May 22 2010
  • 36. 2014/4/23 WSIS - Politics of Internet Management 36 Conventional regulatory framework (at ITU)  Governments to regulate; business and technologist participate and form international organization (ITU)  Civil Society/individual users have no role  Inter-national, but not Global Governments Int’l Orgs Technologist Industry Civil Society
  • 37. 2014/4/23 WSIS - Politics of Internet Management 37 Internet governance old model: private sector self management (IETF, ICANN, W3C, Unicode Consortium)  Self-management led by technologists  Engineers, pioneers form “private club” to manage  Looks global, but lacks legal and political legitimacy  Not scalable, little civil society involvement Int’l Orgs Governments Technologists New industry Traditional industry Civil Society Self- management
  • 38. 2014/4/23 38 New Model: Multi-stakeholder governance  Net governance cannot exclude users  Not “consumers” or “mass”, but Netizens who have power  All stakeholders to get involved with proper balance  Minimize government involvement, support participation from civil society and developing countries Government Civil Society (Netizens) Technologists Industry Multi-stakeholder Governance Int’l Orgs
  • 39. 39 My Commitment to Internet Governance  ’80s – promoting PC Networking  ’90s – promoting the Internet  Principle  People to People Communication is the base  For the better society  User centric perspective  Practice  ’96 organized “Netizen Forum” – mailing list discussion, TV live debate  Promoting Internet in Asia ’97-2000 ARN in Malaysia  ’98 – SG for APIA, participated in IFWP  Bring voices from Asia, users and citizens into ICANN formation process (MAC、 AtLarge)  ’99 – promoted Global Internet Y2K Campaign  ’00 – participated in G8 DoT Force representing NPOs from Japan  ’03-05 participated in WSIS, from Civil Society  ’04 - IGTF WGIG process  Network Security, IPv4 depletion, NGN issues
  • 40. Development of Internet History to learn
  • 41. May 22, '10 41 Early history of Computer Networking Internet was not the only game ARPANET 1969 ARPA, US DoD JC Lickrider Com 1970s Uppsala U. /Stockholm U. Jacob Palme Community Memory 1972 Berkrey, US Mark Szpakowski UUCP 1977 Bell Lab CBBS 1978 Generated many “hobbyists” Christensen/Suess UseNet 1979 U. North Carolina/Duke U. Source of “Netizen” Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES) 1979 Computer Conferencing, NJIT Murray Turoff The Source 1979 Online Utility CompuServe 1980 Forum TCP/IP 1982 CNRI Vint Cerf/ Bob Khan Confer U Michigan/MTS Bob Parnes CoSy 1983 U. of Guelph, Canada Alastair Mayer Fidonet 1983 Linking BBS globally Jenkins? Well 1985 Whole Earth Review S. Barnd etc BITNET 1981 City U. of NY / Yale U. I. Fuchs / G. Freeman World-wide Web 1980-90 CERN Tim Berners-Lee Mosaic 1993 NCSA Marc Andreesen
  • 42. May 22, '10 42 Some Pioneers  Vannever Bush: “As you may think”  Douglas Engelbart: ARC, NLS, Mouse, Word Processor, Computer Conference  J.C.R. Licklider/ Robert Taylor: “Computers for communications”  Vint Cerf/Robert Kahn/Dave Farber/Larry Landwieber/Jun Murai/Kilnam Chon/Jon Postel/Steve & Dave Clocker/Daniel Karrenburg – Built 1st Internet  Rick Adams- UUNet – 1st Commercial ISP  Frank Burns/Lisa Kimball/Jeff Shapard/Joi Ito – MetaNet/ENA (Electronic Networking Association)
  • 43. Internet became the main stream 1992 “Information Super Highway” Al Gore Presidential campaign INET92 in Japan 1993 National Information Infrastructure (NII) UN online 1994 Global Information Infrastructure (GII) APII/KII, proposed by President Kim of Korea at APEC Mosaic/Netscape, Yahoo Japanese PM office, US Whitehouse online 1995 NSF backbone quietly retired, Commercial Internet to bloom NRI, Iran’s first ISP online Amazon.com, eBay, Vatican, Canadian Gov online 1996 “Internet Boom” in Japan, NTT:OCN started E*Trade IPO 1997 Clinton “E-Commerce” strategy 1998 ICANN est.
  • 44. May 22, '10 Internet History & Governance 44 “ICT for Development” 1991- Networking Training Workshop at INET etc, 1992 Sustainable Development Network Program (SDNP), by UNDP as outcome of Earth Summit 1993 Asia Pacific Networking Group (APNG) (APCIRN ’91) 1995 “GII Summit” by G7, Brussels, EU: “Information Society” 1995 PAN Asia Networking /IDRC Singapore Mongolia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Sri-Lanka, China… 1996 Information Society and Development, South Africa 1996 Acacia, IDRC 1996 Multimedia Super Corridor (Malaysia) SingaporeONE (Singapore) 1997 APDIP by UNDP 2000 Okinawa Summit, IT Charter, DoT Force 2001 DoT Force Genoa Action Plan
  • 45. 45 Global trend around “Information Society” 1993 NII – Clinton/Gore 1994 GII – Gore proposed at ITU Development Conf 1995 G8 Information Society Summit Japan – promoted “Advanced Info Society” 1996 MSC/Singapore One spread to Asia 1997-98 IFWP – ICANN Governance became the issue 1999 Y2K, Dot Com boom 2000 G8 Okinawa Summit – “New Economy” recognized Digital Divide - DoT Force、“e-Europe” 2003 WSIS Geneva 2004 WGIG 2005 WSIS Tunis 2006 Internet Governance Forum (IGF)started
  • 46. 46 My encounter to Internet (1) 1985 Asked Jun Murai to talk about “Academic Network” in a study group meeting 1986 Established Institute for Networking Design, promoting PC Networking 1987 Organized Networking Forum in Tokyo and Oita 1988 Jun Murai presented in Networking Forum in Sendai 1990 Found the strange use of Email Jeff Shapard of TWICS introduced the Internet at ENA Symposium, but I could not understand it well. He criticized Japanese networkers as living in “Denshi Shimaguni”
  • 47. 47 My encounter to Internet (2)  1992 Contributed an article to Global Networks from MIT Press, used Mailing List among authors  INET92 in Kobe, NTT rejected Internet, Clinton/Gore won the campaign, GLOCOM connected to Internet via 192K 接続 IIJ est.  1993 Clinton/Gore started, “NII” announced over the Net, NTT request to explain Internet, IHNS est. MIC connected to Internet, GLOCOM Web started, wrote to Nikkei Keizai Kyoshitsu, INET San Francisco, visited Mike Nelson at White House, GLOCOM faced crisis, NTT shift to Multimedia, gave presentation to Japan Inc, no good understanding  1994 Gore announced “GII”, Executives visited White House, IIJ got license, ODN presentation Multi Media Joint Trial (Oita) APNG Beijing Conf, 「進化するネットワーク」 published  1995 Kobe Great earthquake, NTT Break-up debate InfoCom Policy SG proposals  1996 Netizen Forum, Live TV Debate NTT “Brake-up” report GLOCOM Forum, NTT started OCN 2nd visit to White House, Multi- media Asia in Malaysia with MSC
  • 48. Internet History & Governance 48 How global are we? From Nepal to Cairo to Jerusalem, to Kuala Lumpur...
  • 49. 49 Evangelizing the Internet in Japan Promoting the PC Networking (Pasokon Tsushin) since 1986 Shift from PC Networking to Internet, 1992  Stand-alone to network of networks  Local to Global, Closed to Open, Physical to Logical US – going ahead with “digital” industry  Japan is getting behind – most people did not take this seriously – until 1995 Spoke with “Japan Inc.”  Toyota, DDI, NEC, Hitachi, JAL, Ajinomoto, Seibu…
  • 50. 50 1992 Jan-Apr - “Global Authoring Network” for the book “Global Networks” (Linda Harasim ed. MIT Press 1994) Apr? - Prof. Ishida came asked for participation to INET ’92 Jun - 8 members of GLOCOM went to INET ’92 in Kobe  real encounter with the Internet – many from Africa!  GLOCOM decided to link Internet – 1/3 of annual budget Jul – proposed “Internet” to NTT, strongly rejected Nov – Bill Clinton elected as US President  Watched the ballots counted in Cambridge w/ Mitch Kapor  NY Times – “Now Japan’s Turn to Play Catch-up” Nov - GLOCOM linked to Internet with 192k leased line  Using is believing, really!
  • 51. 51 1998 - 2012 1998 IFWP Process, ICANN established 1999 Y2K Campaign 2000 G8 Summit in Okinawa 2001 G8 DOT Force 2002 WSIS PrepCom 2003 G8 Summit in Okinawa 2004 G8 DOT Force 2005 WSIS – Tunis 2006 IGF - Athens 2007 IGF - Rio de Janeiro 2008 IGF - Hyderabad, India 2009 IGF - Egypt 2010 IGF - Lithuania 2011 IGF - Nirobi, Kenya 2012 IGF – Baku, Azerbaijan WCIT – Dubai, UAE
  • 52. 52 US Government Involvement  97.7 “Global Framework on E- commerce” announced  98.2 Green Paper hearings & coordination – solicited global inputs  98.6 White Paper  98.9 Approve “newCo”?  98.11 Hand-over beginning
  • 53. 53 ICANN 1997-2012 1997 – IAHC process 1998 – White Paper, Green Paper, ICANN 1999 – DNSO, MAC… 2000 – Global Election, G8 DoT Force 2001 – AtLarge Study, 9/11 2002 – “Reform” 2003 – ICANN 2.0 w/ ALS/RALO/ALAC WSIS I 2005 – WSIS II 2006 – IGF started 2008 – ALAC completed – ICANN 3.0? 2009 – AtLarge Summit, New TLD, AoC 2010 – IDNccTLD introduction 2011-12 – New gTLD introduction
  • 54. 54 Lessons Learned Using is Believing – still valid Be part of history, not outside Value of human networking Japan as closed society – hard to break History repeats  How to prevent same mistakes?
  • 55. Thank you See you online! Izumi Aizu <iza@anr.org>

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