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ENTRITIS AND
DIARRHOEAL DISEASES
OF SHEEP AND GOATS
Submitted to
Dr Hassan Mushtaq Sb
Submitted by
Abdul Wajid
2013-mphil-...
Contents
 Entritis
 Diarrhea
 Transmission
 sign
 Causes
Infectious
1. Bacterial
E. coli
Salmonella sp.
Clostridium ...
Diarrhea (Scours)
• Diarrhea is defined as an increased frequency,
fluidity, or volume of fecal excretion. The feces
may c...
Enteritis
• inflammation of the intestine, especially the small
intestine, usually accompanied by diarrhoea.
Transmission
• fecal-oral route
• transmitted through water contaminated with feces
• Some viruses can be transmitted thro...
Sign Symptoms
• Vomiting
• Dehydration moderate to severe
• Fever– often of moderate grade
• Mild abdominal pain
E.Coli scours
• scours is an opportunistic disease associated
with sloppy environmental conditions and poor
sanitation
• I...
Treatment
• Antibiotics are used
• . Spectinomycin oral is commonly used
• Adequate colostrum
Salmonella
• The bacteria Salmonella has thousands of
serotypes and all can potentially cause diarrhea
in animals. Salmone...
Treatment
• Bleach is an effective disinfectant to use during
an outbreak.
• Vaccine efficacy is questionable.
clostridium
A, B, C, and D can all cause diarrhea in lambs
and kids, though type D is the most common agent
With type D
th...
Rotavirus
Lambs and kids are infected with a group of B
rotaviruses, whereas most other animals and
humans are infected wi...
Treatment
• supportive care.
• Vaccination before they give birth will increase
passive immunity.
Cryptosporidium
• Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoa that can
cause diarrhea.
• . The diarrhea is usually very liquid an...
Treatment
• . Ammonia and formalin
• The best control comes from lambs and kids
getting adequate immunity through colostru...
Giardia
• Giardia-induced diarrhea
• The diarrhea is usually transient, but infected
animals can continue to shed cysts fo...
Treatment
• . Infected animals can be treated effectively with
fenbendazole
Coccidiosis
• Coccidosis is a protozoan parasitic disease that is
a common cause of diarrhea in lambs and kids.
• . The di...
Treatment
• Treatment of affected animals includes supportive
care and adminstration of coccidiostats
Non Infectious causes
• Nutritional
• . Nutritional problems can result in diarrhea.
• Due to
• Poor quality milk replacer...
Gastro-intestinal worms
• The Barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortis) is
the major worm species affecting sheep and
goats
...
Control
• good pasture
• grazing
• animal management
• with effective anthelmintics
Rumen Acedosis
• Acidosis is caused by
• too much grain
• concentrate
• which causes a change in rumen acidity and
bacteri...
Treatment
• Treatment includes
• drenching with mineral oil or antacids.
• feeding management.
• Concentrates (grain) shou...
Cont…..
• Dietary changes
• Overfeeding
• Simple indigestion
• Poor qualtiy milk replacers
• Inadequate intake of colostru...
Cont…..
• Lush or wet pasture
• Inadequate dry matter intake
• Plant and fungal toxins
• Allergies
• Management (Poor envi...
Cont….
• Poor sanitation
• Stress Weaning
• Handling
• Weather extremes
• Shipping/Transportation
Treatment Strategies
.Spectinomycin
• Pepto-Bismol.
• . Kaopectate (Kaolin-Pectin) can be used to treat non-
infectious ca...
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  • Pepto bismol contain bismuth wich coat the stomach wall
  • Transcript of "Entritis and diarrheal diseases of sheep and goats"

    1. 1. ENTRITIS AND DIARRHOEAL DISEASES OF SHEEP AND GOATS Submitted to Dr Hassan Mushtaq Sb Submitted by Abdul Wajid 2013-mphil-1086
    2. 2. Contents  Entritis  Diarrhea  Transmission  sign  Causes Infectious 1. Bacterial E. coli Salmonella sp. Clostridium perfringins 2. Viral Rotavirus Coronavirus 3.Protozoa Cryptosporidia Coccidia (Eimera sp.) Giardia sp. Non Infectious • Gastro-intestinal worms • Nutritional • Dietary changes • Overfeeding • Simple indigestion • Inadequate intake of colostrums • stagnant water • Lush or wet pasture • Allergies • Poor sanitation • Stress
    3. 3. Diarrhea (Scours) • Diarrhea is defined as an increased frequency, fluidity, or volume of fecal excretion. The feces may contain blood or mucous and be smelly
    4. 4. Enteritis • inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine, usually accompanied by diarrhoea.
    5. 5. Transmission • fecal-oral route • transmitted through water contaminated with feces • Some viruses can be transmitted through air • Nosocommial transmission is possible
    6. 6. Sign Symptoms • Vomiting • Dehydration moderate to severe • Fever– often of moderate grade • Mild abdominal pain
    7. 7. E.Coli scours • scours is an opportunistic disease associated with sloppy environmental conditions and poor sanitation • It is also called "watery mouth," because affected lambs salivate and have a cold mouth.
    8. 8. Treatment • Antibiotics are used • . Spectinomycin oral is commonly used • Adequate colostrum
    9. 9. Salmonella • The bacteria Salmonella has thousands of serotypes and all can potentially cause diarrhea in animals. Salmonella can cause diarrhea in lambs and kids of any age.
    10. 10. Treatment • Bleach is an effective disinfectant to use during an outbreak. • Vaccine efficacy is questionable.
    11. 11. clostridium A, B, C, and D can all cause diarrhea in lambs and kids, though type D is the most common agent With type D the onset of neurologic signs followed by sudden death. Treatment supportive care and administration of the antitoxin. • type C • bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic enteritis, and bloody scours. colostrum is also important.
    12. 12. Rotavirus Lambs and kids are infected with a group of B rotaviruses, whereas most other animals and humans are infected with group A rotoviruses.. Young animals become very depressed and dehydrated.
    13. 13. Treatment • supportive care. • Vaccination before they give birth will increase passive immunity.
    14. 14. Cryptosporidium • Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoa that can cause diarrhea. • . The diarrhea is usually very liquid and yellow.
    15. 15. Treatment • . Ammonia and formalin • The best control comes from lambs and kids getting adequate immunity through colostrum soon after birth.
    16. 16. Giardia • Giardia-induced diarrhea • The diarrhea is usually transient, but infected animals can continue to shed cysts for many weeks
    17. 17. Treatment • . Infected animals can be treated effectively with fenbendazole
    18. 18. Coccidiosis • Coccidosis is a protozoan parasitic disease that is a common cause of diarrhea in lambs and kids. • . The diarrhea of lambs and kids is usually not bloody, but it may contain blood or mucous and be very watery.
    19. 19. Treatment • Treatment of affected animals includes supportive care and adminstration of coccidiostats
    20. 20. Non Infectious causes • Nutritional • . Nutritional problems can result in diarrhea. • Due to • Poor quality milk replacer • Mixing error • Overfeeding
    21. 21. Gastro-intestinal worms • The Barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortis) is the major worm species affecting sheep and goats • gastro-intestinal worms can cause diarrhea in sheep and goats
    22. 22. Control • good pasture • grazing • animal management • with effective anthelmintics
    23. 23. Rumen Acedosis • Acidosis is caused by • too much grain • concentrate • which causes a change in rumen acidity and bacteria population
    24. 24. Treatment • Treatment includes • drenching with mineral oil or antacids. • feeding management. • Concentrates (grain) should be introduced to the diet slowly
    25. 25. Cont….. • Dietary changes • Overfeeding • Simple indigestion • Poor qualtiy milk replacers • Inadequate intake of colostrums • Poor quality colostrums • Poor quality or stagnant water
    26. 26. Cont….. • Lush or wet pasture • Inadequate dry matter intake • Plant and fungal toxins • Allergies • Management (Poor environment) • Overstocking/Overcrowding
    27. 27. Cont…. • Poor sanitation • Stress Weaning • Handling • Weather extremes • Shipping/Transportation
    28. 28. Treatment Strategies .Spectinomycin • Pepto-Bismol. • . Kaopectate (Kaolin-Pectin) can be used to treat non- infectious causes of diarrhea • Antibacterial drugs • . Sulfa-antibiotics or amprolium should be used in the case of coccidia • Sulphadimadine
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