Entritis and diarrheal diseases of sheep and goats

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  • Pepto bismol contain bismuth wich coat the stomach wall
  • Entritis and diarrheal diseases of sheep and goats

    1. 1. ENTRITIS AND DIARRHOEAL DISEASES OF SHEEP AND GOATS Submitted to Dr Hassan Mushtaq Sb Submitted by Abdul Wajid 2013-mphil-1086
    2. 2. Contents  Entritis  Diarrhea  Transmission  sign  Causes Infectious 1. Bacterial E. coli Salmonella sp. Clostridium perfringins 2. Viral Rotavirus Coronavirus 3.Protozoa Cryptosporidia Coccidia (Eimera sp.) Giardia sp. Non Infectious • Gastro-intestinal worms • Nutritional • Dietary changes • Overfeeding • Simple indigestion • Inadequate intake of colostrums • stagnant water • Lush or wet pasture • Allergies • Poor sanitation • Stress
    3. 3. Diarrhea (Scours) • Diarrhea is defined as an increased frequency, fluidity, or volume of fecal excretion. The feces may contain blood or mucous and be smelly
    4. 4. Enteritis • inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine, usually accompanied by diarrhoea.
    5. 5. Transmission • fecal-oral route • transmitted through water contaminated with feces • Some viruses can be transmitted through air • Nosocommial transmission is possible
    6. 6. Sign Symptoms • Vomiting • Dehydration moderate to severe • Fever– often of moderate grade • Mild abdominal pain
    7. 7. E.Coli scours • scours is an opportunistic disease associated with sloppy environmental conditions and poor sanitation • It is also called "watery mouth," because affected lambs salivate and have a cold mouth.
    8. 8. Treatment • Antibiotics are used • . Spectinomycin oral is commonly used • Adequate colostrum
    9. 9. Salmonella • The bacteria Salmonella has thousands of serotypes and all can potentially cause diarrhea in animals. Salmonella can cause diarrhea in lambs and kids of any age.
    10. 10. Treatment • Bleach is an effective disinfectant to use during an outbreak. • Vaccine efficacy is questionable.
    11. 11. clostridium A, B, C, and D can all cause diarrhea in lambs and kids, though type D is the most common agent With type D the onset of neurologic signs followed by sudden death. Treatment supportive care and administration of the antitoxin. • type C • bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic enteritis, and bloody scours. colostrum is also important.
    12. 12. Rotavirus Lambs and kids are infected with a group of B rotaviruses, whereas most other animals and humans are infected with group A rotoviruses.. Young animals become very depressed and dehydrated.
    13. 13. Treatment • supportive care. • Vaccination before they give birth will increase passive immunity.
    14. 14. Cryptosporidium • Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoa that can cause diarrhea. • . The diarrhea is usually very liquid and yellow.
    15. 15. Treatment • . Ammonia and formalin • The best control comes from lambs and kids getting adequate immunity through colostrum soon after birth.
    16. 16. Giardia • Giardia-induced diarrhea • The diarrhea is usually transient, but infected animals can continue to shed cysts for many weeks
    17. 17. Treatment • . Infected animals can be treated effectively with fenbendazole
    18. 18. Coccidiosis • Coccidosis is a protozoan parasitic disease that is a common cause of diarrhea in lambs and kids. • . The diarrhea of lambs and kids is usually not bloody, but it may contain blood or mucous and be very watery.
    19. 19. Treatment • Treatment of affected animals includes supportive care and adminstration of coccidiostats
    20. 20. Non Infectious causes • Nutritional • . Nutritional problems can result in diarrhea. • Due to • Poor quality milk replacer • Mixing error • Overfeeding
    21. 21. Gastro-intestinal worms • The Barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortis) is the major worm species affecting sheep and goats • gastro-intestinal worms can cause diarrhea in sheep and goats
    22. 22. Control • good pasture • grazing • animal management • with effective anthelmintics
    23. 23. Rumen Acedosis • Acidosis is caused by • too much grain • concentrate • which causes a change in rumen acidity and bacteria population
    24. 24. Treatment • Treatment includes • drenching with mineral oil or antacids. • feeding management. • Concentrates (grain) should be introduced to the diet slowly
    25. 25. Cont….. • Dietary changes • Overfeeding • Simple indigestion • Poor qualtiy milk replacers • Inadequate intake of colostrums • Poor quality colostrums • Poor quality or stagnant water
    26. 26. Cont….. • Lush or wet pasture • Inadequate dry matter intake • Plant and fungal toxins • Allergies • Management (Poor environment) • Overstocking/Overcrowding
    27. 27. Cont…. • Poor sanitation • Stress Weaning • Handling • Weather extremes • Shipping/Transportation
    28. 28. Treatment Strategies .Spectinomycin • Pepto-Bismol. • . Kaopectate (Kaolin-Pectin) can be used to treat non- infectious causes of diarrhea • Antibacterial drugs • . Sulfa-antibiotics or amprolium should be used in the case of coccidia • Sulphadimadine

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