GASTROENTERITIS
Mohammad Ahad Nawaz
Pharm.D 4th Prof
Lahore College of Pharmaceutical Sciences
(UOS)
GASTROENTERITIS
• An infection or inflammation
of the digestive
tract, particularly the
stomach and intestines
• It is fre...
CAUSES
• Viruses – such as
caliciviruses, rotaviruses, a
stroviruses and
adenoviruses.
CAUSES
• Bacteria – such as
the Campylobacter bacterium
CAUSES
• Parasites – such
as Entamoeba
histolytica, Giardia
lamblia and Cryptosporidium
CAUSES
• Bacterial toxins – poisonous by-
products caused by bacteria can
contaminate food
-Some strains of staphylococcal...
CAUSES
• Chemicals – lead
poisoning, for
example, can trigger
gastroenteritis
CAUSES
• Drugs – certain drugs, such
as antibiotics, can cause
gastroenteritis in susceptible
people and can irritate the
...
INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS
Escherichia coli infection
• this is a common
problem for travelers
to countries with poor
sani...
INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS
Cryptosporidium infection
• parasites are found in the
bowels of humans and
animals. Infection ...
INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS
Salmonellosis
• Bacteria are found in
animal feces. Infection is
caused by eating
contaminated ...
INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS
Viral Gastroenteritis
• viruses are found in human
feces. Infection is caused
by person-to-pers...
SYMPTOMS
• Loss of Appetite
• Bloating
SYMPTOMS
• Nausea and Vomiting
• Diarrhea
SYMPTOMS
• Abdominal Pain and
Cramps
• Body Aches
SYMPTOMS
• Bloody stools (in some
cases)
• Pus in the stools (in some
cases)
SYMPTOMS
• Lethargy
• These symptoms are
sometimes also
accompanied by Fever and
Weakness
COMPLICATION
• The greatest danger presented by
gastroenteritis is dehydration. The loss of
fluids through diarrhea and vo...
COMPLICATION
• If symptoms do not resolve within a
week, an infection or disorder more
serious than gastroenteritis may be...
DIAGNOSIS
• The symptoms of gastroenteritis are
usually enough to identify the illness
• It is important to establish the ...
TREATMENT
Treatment depends on the cause
but may include:
• Plenty of fluids and Right Diet
• Oral rehydration
drinks, ava...
TREATMENT
• Antibiotics, if bacteria are the cause
• Drugs to kill the parasites, if
parasites are the cause
• Avoiding an...
PREVENTION
General suggestions on how to reduce the risk of
gastroenteritis include:
• Wash hands thoroughly with soap and...
PREVENTION
• Use disposable paper towels to dry
your hands rather than cloth
towels, since the bacteria can
survive for so...
PREVENTION
• Clean the toilet and bathroom
regularly, especially the toilet
seat, door handles and taps
• When travelling ...
PROGNOSIS
• Gastroenteritis is usually resolved
within 2 to 3 days and there are no
long-term effects. If dehydration
occu...
DISEASE PROCESS
CLINICAL FEATURES OF
GASTROENTERITIS
THANK YOU!!!
By: Katherine L. Laud
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Gastroenteritis

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Gastroenteritis

  1. 1. GASTROENTERITIS
  2. 2. Mohammad Ahad Nawaz Pharm.D 4th Prof Lahore College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (UOS)
  3. 3. GASTROENTERITIS • An infection or inflammation of the digestive tract, particularly the stomach and intestines • It is frequently referred to as the stomach or intestinal flu
  4. 4. CAUSES • Viruses – such as caliciviruses, rotaviruses, a stroviruses and adenoviruses.
  5. 5. CAUSES • Bacteria – such as the Campylobacter bacterium
  6. 6. CAUSES • Parasites – such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium
  7. 7. CAUSES • Bacterial toxins – poisonous by- products caused by bacteria can contaminate food -Some strains of staphylococcal bacteria produce toxins that can cause gastroenteritis
  8. 8. CAUSES • Chemicals – lead poisoning, for example, can trigger gastroenteritis
  9. 9. CAUSES • Drugs – certain drugs, such as antibiotics, can cause gastroenteritis in susceptible people and can irritate the digestive tract
  10. 10. INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS Escherichia coli infection • this is a common problem for travelers to countries with poor sanitation. Infection is caused by drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated raw fruits and vegetables. Campylobacter infection • the bacteria are found in animal feces. Infection is caused by, for example, consuming contaminated food or water, eating undercooked meat (especially chicken), and not washing your hands after handling infected animals.
  11. 11. INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS Cryptosporidium infection • parasites are found in the bowels of humans and animals. Infection is caused by, for example, swimming in a contaminated pool and accidentally swallowing water, or through contact with infected animals. An infected person may spread the parasites to food or surfaces if they don’t wash their hands after going to the toilet.. Giardiasis • parasite infection of the bowel. Infection is caused by, for example, drinking contaminated water, handling infected animals or changing the nappy of an infected baby and not washing your hands afterwards.
  12. 12. INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS Salmonellosis • Bacteria are found in animal feces. Infection is caused by eating contaminated food or handling infected animals. An infected person may also spread the bacteria to other people or surfaces by not washing their hands properly. Shigellosis • bacteria are found in feces. An infected person may spread the bacteria to food or surfaces if they don’t wash their hands after going to the toilet.
  13. 13. INFECTIOUS GASTROENTERITIS Viral Gastroenteritis • viruses are found in human feces. Infection is caused by person-to-person contact such as touching contaminated hands, feces or vomit, or by drinking contaminated water or food.
  14. 14. SYMPTOMS • Loss of Appetite • Bloating
  15. 15. SYMPTOMS • Nausea and Vomiting • Diarrhea
  16. 16. SYMPTOMS • Abdominal Pain and Cramps • Body Aches
  17. 17. SYMPTOMS • Bloody stools (in some cases) • Pus in the stools (in some cases)
  18. 18. SYMPTOMS • Lethargy • These symptoms are sometimes also accompanied by Fever and Weakness
  19. 19. COMPLICATION • The greatest danger presented by gastroenteritis is dehydration. The loss of fluids through diarrhea and vomiting can upset the body's electrolyte balance, leading to potentially life- threatening problems such as heart beat abnormalities (arrhythmia) • The risk of dehydration increases as symptoms are prolonged. Dehydration should be suspected if a dry mouth, increased or excessive thirst, or scanty urination is experienced
  20. 20. COMPLICATION • If symptoms do not resolve within a week, an infection or disorder more serious than gastroenteritis may be involved. Symptoms of great concern include a high fever (102 F [38.9 C] or above), blood or mucus in the diarrhea, blood in the vomit, and severe abdominal pain or swelling. These symptoms require prompt medical attention.
  21. 21. DIAGNOSIS • The symptoms of gastroenteritis are usually enough to identify the illness • It is important to establish the cause, as different types of gastroenteritis respond to different treatments. Diagnostic methods may include: - Medical history - Physical examination - Blood tests - Stool tests
  22. 22. TREATMENT Treatment depends on the cause but may include: • Plenty of fluids and Right Diet • Oral rehydration drinks, available from your chemist • Admission to hospital and intravenous fluid replacement, in severe cases
  23. 23. TREATMENT • Antibiotics, if bacteria are the cause • Drugs to kill the parasites, if parasites are the cause • Avoiding anti-vomiting or anti- diarrhea drugs unless prescribed or recommended by your doctor, because these medications will keep the infection inside your body
  24. 24. PREVENTION General suggestions on how to reduce the risk of gastroenteritis include: • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after going to the toilet or changing nappies, after smoking, after using a handkerchief or tissue, or after handling animals • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before preparing food or eating
  25. 25. PREVENTION • Use disposable paper towels to dry your hands rather than cloth towels, since the bacteria can survive for some time on objects • Keep cold food cold (below 5 C) and hot foot hot (above 60 C) to discourage the growth of bacteria • Make sure foods are thoroughly cooked
  26. 26. PREVENTION • Clean the toilet and bathroom regularly, especially the toilet seat, door handles and taps • When travelling overseas to countries where sanitation is suspect, only drink bottled water. Don’t forget to brush your teeth in bottled water too. Avoid food buffets, uncooked foods or peeled fruits and vegetables, and ice in drinks
  27. 27. PROGNOSIS • Gastroenteritis is usually resolved within 2 to 3 days and there are no long-term effects. If dehydration occurs, recovery is extended by a few days
  28. 28. DISEASE PROCESS
  29. 29. CLINICAL FEATURES OF GASTROENTERITIS
  30. 30. THANK YOU!!! By: Katherine L. Laud

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