Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Kennel cough

2,465 views

Published on

Kennel cough

Published in: Education
  • I couldn’t get my blood sugar below 300 with medication. After using the information in your ebook for 3 weeks, it was down within the normal range!  https://tinyurl.com/yx3etvck
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • How I Cured My Uterine Fibroids? Reverse And Eliminate Uterine Fibroids, Safe & Natural With Fast Results.. ★★★ https://tinyurl.com/rbqozdv
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Holistic Uterine Fibroids Secrets, Eliminate Uterine Fibroids Fast, Natural cure e-book reveals all.. ★★★ http://t.cn/Aig7c6mX
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Kennel cough

  1. 1. Kennel cough/Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (ITB) Submitted by: Dr. Kanwarpal Singh Dhillon M.V.Sc (Medicine)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • It is a collection of highly contagious infectious diseases of the canine respiratory tract that cause acute tracheobronchitis and sudden onset of a paroxysmal cough lasting several days.
  3. 3. ETIOLOGY • Two most important causes of canine ITB are canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica • Other infectious agents occasionally isolated from coughing dogs include canine adenoviruses (especially CAV-2), canine herpesvirus, reoviruses (types 1, 2, and 3), and mycoplasmas
  4. 4. Transmission • Fomites (e.g., personnel, cages, and food and water bowls). • Dogs infected with CPIV or CAV-2 shed the virus for only 1 week following recovery; however, dogs infected with B. bronchiseptica or mycoplasmas can become chronic carriers with persistent shedding.
  5. 5. Pathogenesis • Incubation period is 5 to 7 days. • The primary target of these agents is the upper airway epithelium, which result in epithelial injury, acute inflammation, and dysfunction of the airway cilia.
  6. 6. CLINICAL SIGNS • Dry, harsh, hacking cough is due to tracheobronchitis. • Characterized by increased production of mucus. • Cough may be high-pitched because of laryngitis and swollen vocal folds. • Cough may be more frequent during exercise, excitement, or changes in temperature and humidity of inspired air. • Cough may be elicited by tracheal palpation or pressure from the collar.
  7. 7. CLINICAL SIGNS • Mild, serous, or mucopurulent naso-ocular discharge can be seen. • Typically, affected dogs continue to eat, remain active and alert, and are nonfebrile. In severe cases, anorexia, depression, and fever may be present.
  8. 8. DIAGNOSIS • Based on exposure history and clinical signs, especially the sudden onset of a severe cough in a previously healthy dog. Hemogram: • Mild ITB: CBC is usually normal or shows a stress response (mature neutrophilia, lymphopenia). • Severe ITB: Neutrophilic leukocytosis with a left shift is seen with complicating pneumonia.
  9. 9. Thoracic Radiography: • Mild ITB: Usually normal; a mild increase in interstitial lung density is seen occasionally. • Severe ITB: Interstitial and alveolar pattern with lobar consolidation is seen with complicating bronchopneumonia.
  10. 10. Airway Cytology : • Evaluation of airway cytology is only indicated in severe, febrile, or complicated ITB. Obtain specimens by transtracheal aspiration, endotracheal tube lavage, or bronchoscopic lavage or swab. • Findings include increased mucus, mucopurulent exudate, and sometimes bacteria. Cultures : • Nasal swabs or tracheobronchial specimens can be cultured for Bordetella and mycoplasma. Virology and Serology : • Virus isolation can identify CPIV and CAV-2 from nasopharyngeal or tracheal swabs.
  11. 11. TREATMENT • Antibiotics : – Doxycycline (5–10 mg/kg PO q12h) for 2 to 4 weeks; effective for both Bordetella and mycoplasma – Amoxicillin/clavulanate (12.5–25 mg/kg POq12h) for 2 to 4 weeks – Azithromycin (5 mg/kg PO, once daily) for 5 to 7 days. – Others: enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfa • Antitussives : – Hydrocodone (0.22 mg/kg PO q6–12h) and butorphanol (0.55–1.1 mg/kg PO q6–12h). • Corticosteroids : – Prednisolone 0.25–0.5 mg/kg PO q12h
  12. 12. TREATMENT • Bronchodilators : – Theophylline: Dog: 10 mg/kg PO q12 h – Albuterol: Dog: 50 mg/kg PO q12 h – Terbutalin: Dog: 1.25–5.0 mg/dog PO q12 h • Supportive Care : – Provide adequate fluid intake, airway humidification, nutritional support, and rest.
  13. 13. PREVENTION • Prevention strategies include vaccination and kennel management practices. • Vaccination : – routine canine vaccination (CAV-2 and CPIV). • Kennel Prevention : – Avoid overcrowded, high-density confinement. – Isolate infected (coughing) animals. – Use caretaker hygiene to prevent fomite spread. – Ensure proper kennel ventilation. – Use disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and benzalkonium Cl.
  14. 14. REFERENCES… • Saunders Manual of Small animal Practice. • The Merck veterinary manual • Textbook of Preventive veterinary medicine & epidemiology THANKS

×