• It is a collection of highly contagious
infectious diseases of the canine respiratory
tract that cause acute tracheobronchitis and
sudden onset of a paroxysmal cough lasting
• Two most important causes of canine ITB are
canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) and
• Other infectious agents occasionally isolated
from coughing dogs include canine
adenoviruses (especially CAV-2), canine
herpesvirus, reoviruses (types 1, 2, and 3), and
• Fomites (e.g., personnel, cages, and food and
• Dogs infected with CPIV or CAV-2 shed the
virus for only 1 week following recovery;
however, dogs infected with B. bronchiseptica
or mycoplasmas can become chronic carriers
with persistent shedding.
• Incubation period is 5 to 7 days.
• The primary target of these agents is the
upper airway epithelium, which result in
epithelial injury, acute inflammation, and
dysfunction of the airway cilia.
• Dry, harsh, hacking cough is due to tracheobronchitis.
• Characterized by increased production of mucus.
• Cough may be high-pitched because of laryngitis and swollen
• Cough may be more frequent during exercise, excitement, or
changes in temperature and humidity of inspired air.
• Cough may be elicited by tracheal palpation or pressure from the
• Mild, serous, or mucopurulent naso-ocular
discharge can be seen.
• Typically, affected dogs continue to eat,
remain active and alert, and are nonfebrile. In
severe cases, anorexia, depression, and fever
may be present.
• Based on exposure history and clinical signs,
especially the sudden onset of a severe cough
in a previously healthy dog.
• Mild ITB: CBC is usually normal or shows a
stress response (mature neutrophilia,
• Severe ITB: Neutrophilic leukocytosis with a
left shift is seen with complicating pneumonia.
• Mild ITB: Usually normal; a mild increase in
interstitial lung density is seen occasionally.
• Severe ITB: Interstitial and alveolar pattern with
lobar consolidation is seen with complicating
Airway Cytology :
• Evaluation of airway cytology is only indicated in
severe, febrile, or complicated ITB. Obtain
specimens by transtracheal aspiration,
endotracheal tube lavage, or bronchoscopic
lavage or swab.
• Findings include increased mucus, mucopurulent
exudate, and sometimes bacteria.
• Nasal swabs or tracheobronchial specimens can
be cultured for Bordetella and mycoplasma.
Virology and Serology :
• Virus isolation can identify CPIV and CAV-2 from
nasopharyngeal or tracheal swabs.
• Antibiotics :
– Doxycycline (5–10 mg/kg PO q12h) for 2 to 4 weeks;
effective for both Bordetella and mycoplasma
– Amoxicillin/clavulanate (12.5–25 mg/kg POq12h) for 2
to 4 weeks
– Azithromycin (5 mg/kg PO, once daily) for 5 to 7 days.
– Others: enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfa
• Antitussives :
– Hydrocodone (0.22 mg/kg PO q6–12h) and butorphanol
(0.55–1.1 mg/kg PO q6–12h).
• Corticosteroids :
– Prednisolone 0.25–0.5 mg/kg PO q12h
• Bronchodilators :
– Theophylline: Dog: 10 mg/kg PO q12 h
– Albuterol: Dog: 50 mg/kg PO q12 h
– Terbutalin: Dog: 1.25–5.0 mg/dog PO q12 h
• Supportive Care :
– Provide adequate fluid intake, airway
humidification, nutritional support, and rest.
• Prevention strategies include vaccination
and kennel management practices.
• Vaccination :
– routine canine vaccination (CAV-2 and
• Kennel Prevention :
– Avoid overcrowded, high-density
– Isolate infected (coughing) animals.
– Use caretaker hygiene to prevent fomite
– Ensure proper kennel ventilation.
– Use disinfectants such as sodium
hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and
• Saunders Manual of Small animal Practice.
• The Merck veterinary manual
• Textbook of Preventive veterinary medicine &