Timeline of Disasters in Baguio City

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This presentation is about the Disasters that happened in Baguio City, its vicinity and the impacts. All images used in this presentation are properties and copyrighted by their respective owners. …

This presentation is about the Disasters that happened in Baguio City, its vicinity and the impacts. All images used in this presentation are properties and copyrighted by their respective owners. ©BaguioCDRRMC 2013. All rights reserved.

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  • Here are some interesting history facts aside from Baguio becoming a Chartered City in 1911.
  • The most noteworthy of these typhoons was Rita, which persisted as a tropical cyclone for 22 days (July 6-27), setting a record for longevity in the western Pacific.
  • ESSA 9 satellite mosaic for July 13, 1972, showing multiple tropical storms-(A) tropical storm Susan and typhoons (B) Rita, (C) Phyllis, and (D) Tess-in the northwest Pacific Ocean.
  • Tracks of typhoons Phyllis, Rita, Tess, and Susan during July 1972. Arrows indicate storm positions.
  • Probably the most noteworthy of these typhoons was Rita, which persisted as a tropical cyclone for 22 days (July 6-27), setting a record for longevity in the western Pacific. Reaching maximum winds of 150 kt on the llth, Rita possessed typhoon strength winds for 18% days. Her track described an unusual 4-day loop through the Ryukyu Islands, causing havoc to its inhabitants
  • *Video from GMA’s 24 Oras by LalaRoque regarding The 1972 Great Flood of Luzon
  • Tropical Storm “Ondoy” {Ketsana} was in the Philippine Area of Responsibility September 24 to 27, 2009
  • Tropical Storm “Ondoy” {Ketsana} was quickly followed by Super Typhoon “Pepeng” {Parma} (affected Northern Luzon October 2 – 10, 2009).
  • Super Typhoon “Pepeng” {Parma}affected Northern Luzon October 2 – 10, 2009.
  • The effect is named after SakuheiFujiwhara, the Japanese meteorologist who initially described the effect. Binary interaction of smaller circulations can cause the development of a larger cyclone, or cause two cyclones to merge into one.
  • Severe Tropical Storm Parma and Typhoon Melor on October 5, 2009.

Transcript

  • 1. TIMELINE OF DISASTERS IN BAGUIO CITY & ITS IMPACT By Julius V. Santos Supplemented by Ryann U. Castro
  • 2. SCOPE: 1. History and Weather Records of Baguio City 2. 1912 Drought 3. 1972 Weather Data 4. 1974 Weather Data 5. 1989 Weather Data 6. 1990 Earthquake 7. Historical Seismicity of Baguio City and Vicinity 8. 2009 Weather Data 9. The Fujiwhara Effect 10. Conclusions 11. Recommendations 12. Mitigations and Preparations 2
  • 3. HISTORY INTERESTING FACTS
  • 4. HISTORY • 1903: Establishment of the first telephone system for Baguio. • 1905: The Baguio Country Club was organized. • 1906: Civil government authorizes the sale of residential and commercial properties in Baguio. • 1907: Construction of the Baguio General Hospital was started. • 1908: Philippine Constabulary School (forerunner of the Philippine Military Academy) was moved from Intramuros to Baguio. • 1910: Water supply system for Baguio becomes operational. • 1911: The first automobile travels to Baguio from Manila through Kennon Road. • 1913: Establishment of Sanitary Camp. • 1919: An airplane lands for the first time at the Loakan Airport. • 1924: A hydroelectric plant becomes operational & construction of the Baguio Central School is completed. 4
  • 5. 1911 “BAGYO” TERM ORIGIN
  • 6. 1911 “BAGYO” • Torrential rains for 3 days, 15 hours from July 14 – 17, 1911 • 2,238.7 mm rainfall recorded at the Mirador Observatory 6
  • 7. 1912 EXTRAORDINARY DROUGHT
  • 8. 1912 EXTRAORDINARY DROUGHT DROUGHT • Following the torrential rains of 1911, an extraordinary drought happened in Luzon from October 01, 1911 to May 31, 1912 8
  • 9. 1972 THE GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON
  • 10. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON PAGASA's Explanation why it happened: The reason of almost non-stop raining was the Typhoons that struck the Philippines enhanced the Southwest Monsoon. Edeng {Susan} passed first and made landfall in the Philippines. It happened on July 5 – July 16. Gloring {Rita} next. Even though it didn't made landfall in the Philippines. It happened on July 6 and 27. Rita and Tropical Storm Susan's presence strengthened the Southwest Monsoon flow over Luzon, where torrential rains occurring between the 17th and 21st leading to disastrous flooding which left 214 dead, with over $150 million in damage. Rita is the longest lasting Western Pacific tropical cyclone for 22 days. 10
  • 11. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON EDENG {SUSAN} …continued {PHYLLIS} {TESS} GLORING {RITA} 11
  • 12. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON 12 …continued
  • 13. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON Both Rita and Susan were responsible during much of their lifetimes for an intensification of the Southwest Monsoon flow over Luzon Island that caused additional rainfall in an area experiencing its worst floods since World War II. 13 …continued
  • 14. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON …continued This catastrophic and exceptionally severe flooding in the river basin swallowed almost all of the entire Province of Pampanga, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija and Tarlac occurred in July and August 1972. In fact the 1972 flooding was so extensive that it flooded out 14 provinces in Ilocos, Pangasinan, Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog provinces and Metro Manila. The Pampanga River Basin and the Agno River Basin converged over Tarlac, making the Central Luzon and Pangasinan plains one whole great lake in July and August of 1972. 14
  • 15. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON AGNO River Basin PAMPANGA River Basin + 15 …continued
  • 16. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON 16 …continued
  • 17. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON *Video from GMA’s 24 Oras by Lala Roque regarding The 1972 Great Flood of Luzon 17 …continued
  • 18. THE 1972 GREAT FLOOD OF LUZON …continued With the consecutive weather disturbances and Southwest Monsoon Rains for more than a month, almost all of Central Luzon was submerged in water leaving a death toll of 653 during this period. In Baguio City, 188 inches of rain fell over the city during the month of July. At around 6:30 AM on a day of July, seven multi-storied houses sled down the rain-soaked slope of Aurora Hill near the old Baptist Church. Available data gathered revealed the landslide claimed the lives of 22† men, women, children and the elderly. 18
  • 19. 1972 PACIFIC TYPHOON SEASON 19
  • 20. 1974
  • 21. 1974 Tropical Cyclone Date Death Bising 65 Lliang July 16 - 24 66 Susang 1974 Jan 8 – 11 Oct 8 - 12 26 Tering Oct 14 - 17 13 Wening Oct 25 - 28 Cost of Damage 23 TOTALS 148 299 Million Note: Regions affected to include Baguio are I, II, III, IV, V, VI & VII 21
  • 22. 1974 PACIFIC TYPHOON SEASON 22 …continued
  • 23. 1989
  • 24. 1989 Tropical Cyclone Death Cost of Damage Goring July 14 - 17 90 1.363 B Openg Sept 7 - 12 41 0.580 B Rubing 1989 Date Oct 2 - 7 119 0.192 B Tasing Oct 14 - 20 47 0.883 B 297 3 Billion TOTALS Note: Regions affected to include Baguio are CAR, NCR, I, II, III, IV, V, VIII 24
  • 25. 1989 PACIFIC TYPHOON SEASON 25 …continued
  • 26. 1851-2006 PACIFIC TYPHOON SEASON 26
  • 27. 1990
  • 28. 1990 Hyatt Terraces 28
  • 29. Hyatt Terraces 29
  • 30. JULY 16, 1990 Earthquake 30
  • 31. …continued Hyatt Terraces 31
  • 32. University of BAGUIO FRB Hotel Nevada Hotel Siesta Inn 32
  • 33. Park Hotel Royal Inn 33 St. Vincent Hilltop Hotel
  • 34. Baguio Cathedral EPZA/PEZA 34 Aurora Theater Loakan Airport
  • 35. Burnham Park 35
  • 36. JULY 16, 1990 …continued Aftershocks of the 1990 July 16 earthquake Ms=7.8 Impact: DEAD – 1,666 INJURED – 3,500 36
  • 37. HISTORICAL SEISMICITY BAGUIO CITY & VICINITY
  • 38. HISTORICAL SEISMICITY The PHIVOLCS earthquake and catalogue seismicity maps shows so far, seven (7) historically and instrumentally recorded destructive earthquakes (Intensity VII-IX in the adapted Rossi-Forel scale) have affected Baguio City for the past 356 years (1645-2001). This roughly translate into a return period of at least one destructive earthquake (Intensity VII to IX) for every 50 years. In addition, there were four very destructive earthquakes during the 356-year period for a return period of at least one very destructive earthquake (Intensity VIII to IX) for every 89 years. In comparison, regional probabilistic seismic hazard calculations by Thenhaus (1994) yielded annual probability rates of Ms: • 6.4 to <7.0 (1 in 23 years) • 7.0 to <7.3 (1 in 62 years) • Ms <8.2 (1 in 166 years) 38
  • 39. 2009
  • 40. TROPICAL STORM “ONDOY” {KETSANA} (September 24 – 27, 2009) Max Center Wind: 105 kph Gustiness: 135 kph Speed: 11-19 kph 40
  • 41. EFFECTS TS “ONDOY” {KETSANA} a) Affected Population A total of 993,227 families/4,901,234 persons were affected in 2,018 barangays, 172 municipalities, 16 cities of 26 provinces by Tropical Storm “Ondoy” in Regions I, II, III, IV-A, IV-B, V, VI, IX, XII, ARMM, CAR and NCR The total number evacuated inside 244 evacuation centers were 15,798 families / 70,124 persons b) Casualties Breakdown of casualties is as follows:  464 Dead  529 Injured  37 Missing 41
  • 42. EFFECTS TS “ONDOY” {KETSANA} …continued c) Damages Estimated cost of damage to infrastructure and agriculture amounted to PhP11 Billion (Infrastructure PhP4.299 Billion to include school buildings and health facilities and agriculture PhP6.669 Billion A total of 1,382 school buildings were damaged: 1,131 elementary and 252 including instructional materials and school equipment amounting to PhP.642 Billion A total of 239 day care centers were damaged in Metro Manila A total of 203,477 hectares incurred losses of about 329.230 MT of crops (rice, corn, high value commercial crops), fishery products, livestock / poultry and facilities for irrigation, fishery and livestock / poultry production were damaged The total number of damaged houses were 185,004 (30,082 totally and 154,922 partially) 42
  • 43. TRACK OF TS “ONDOY” {KETSANA} Tropical Storm “ONDOY” {KETSANA} developed within the Philippine Area of Responsibility on 8 AM Thursday, September 24, 2009 43
  • 44. SUPER TYPHOON “PEPENG” {PARMA} (September 30 – October 10, 2009) Max Center Wind: 195 kph Gustiness: 230 kph Speed: 9-26 kph Baguio City received 640 mm of rain during the 12hour period starting 8:00 am on October 8 44
  • 45. EFFECTS ST “PEPENG” {PARMA} a) Affected Population Population affected in 5,486 barangays, 334 municipalities, and 33 cities in 27 provinces in Regions I, II, III, V, VI, CAR and NCR – 954,087 families / 4,478,284 persons Breakdown per Region The total number evacuated inside 54 evacuation centers were 3,258 families / 14,892 persons b) Casualties Reported deaths in CAR were mainly due to landslides while those in other regions were due to drowning (same figure in previous report)  465 Dead  207 Injured  47 Missing 45
  • 46. EFFECTS ST “PEPENG” {PARMA} …continued c) Damages The total number of damaged houses were 61,869 (6,807 totally / 55,062 partially) The estimated cost of damage to infrastructure and agriculture were PhP27.297 Billion (infrastructure to include school buildings and health infrastructure PhP6.799 Billion; agriculture PhP20.495 Billion and private property PhP 0.003 Billion Agricultural area of 428,034 hectares incurred losses of 1,052.993 MT of crops (rice, corn, high value commercial crops, abaca and irrigation facilities) Education facilities damaged in Regions I, II, III, V and CAR: were 1,531 schools (1,280 Elementary and 251 High Schools) amounting to PhP767.45 Million 46
  • 47. TRACK OF ST “PEPENG” {PARMA} Typhoon PEPENG {PARMA} entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility on 5 PM Wednesday, September 30, 2009 47
  • 48. EFFECTS ST “PEPENG” {PARMA} INCIDENTS …continued TOTAL ERODED RIPRAP FALLEN TREE / IN DANGER OF FALLING 19 SOIL EROSION / LANDSLIDE 97 FLOOD BAGUIO 25 41 VEHICULAR ACCIDENT 1 CASUALTIES: A) Deaths 1) Landslide 2) Accident 58 2 B) Missing 5 C) Injured 27 Note: Incidents received, monitored and recorded by CDRRMC-DOC 48
  • 49. IMPACT AFFECTED AREAS
  • 50. CITY CAMP FLOODING Date: October 8, 2009 Reported: 2:55 PM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall could not be contained by the drainage. 50
  • 51. CRESENCIA VILLAGE LANDSLIDE Date: 08 October 2009 Reported: 8:00 PM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 23 51
  • 52. MARCOS HIGHWAY ROAD CUT Date: October 8, 2009 Reported 9:31 PM Caused Closure of the Highway 52
  • 53. MARCOS HIGHWAY ROAD CUT Date: October 8, 2009 Reported 9:31 PM Caused Closure of the Highway 53
  • 54. KENNON ROAD Fallen rocks and Mudslides 54
  • 55. PINSAO PROPER LANDSLIDE Date: October 9, 2009 Reported: 8:30 AM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 1 55
  • 56. ↑ ROCK QUARRY LANDSLIDE Date: October 9, 2009 Reported: 6:30 AM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 4 56
  • 57. ↓ KITMA LANDSLIDE Date: October 9, 2009 Reported: 9:56 AM Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 8 57
  • 58. PUROK 1, IRISAN LANDSLIDE Date: October 9, 2009 Cause: Heavy volume of rainfall saturated the soil. Casualties: 16 58
  • 59. 59 SIMULTANEOUS INCIDENTS
  • 60. THE FUJIWHARA EFFECT
  • 61. THE FUJIWHARA EFFECT The Fujiwhara effect happens when two nearby cyclonic vortices orbit each other and close the distance between the circulations of their corresponding low-pressure areas. Tropical cyclones typically interact within 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) of each other. 61
  • 62. THE FUJIWHARA EFFECT 62 …continued
  • 63. THE FUJIWHARA EFFECT 63 …continued
  • 64. THE FUJIWHARA EFFECT 64 …continued
  • 65. SERVICES LIFELINES, MOBILIZED GROUPS
  • 66. LIFELINES WATER Baguio Water District continues to restore all water pipe lines that are affected. ELECTRICITY BENECO continues to inspect all areas affected. FUEL Most of the Gasoline Stations experienced of decreasing fuel due to inaccessible roads. As of October 13, 2009 some gasoline stations recovered in decreasing of fuel due to the availability of the road 66
  • 67. MOBILIZED GROUPS Medical------------------- Military/Police----------- 9 Units Com. Groups------------ 15 Units Govt. Dept.-------------- 12 Agencies Water Deliveries ------- 67 9 Units 14
  • 68. CONCLUSIONS
  • 69. CONCLUSIONS Baguio’s susceptibility to landslides is enhanced by extreme weather events. The October 2009 slope failures were primarily triggered by the heavy precipitation brought by Typhoon Pepeng, and a combination of other factors, both natural and human-influenced: geologic structures, intrinsically weak soil and rock materials, over-steepened slopes, inadequate slope protection structures, redirected drainage and land use change. Appropriate measures to mitigate landslides are necessary. 69
  • 70. RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 71. RECOMMENDATIONS Familiarize residents with hazard map of their area Role of Barangay and LGU’s  Ensure compliance with zoning  Put up appropriate signages at critical areas  Install appropriate drainage infrastructure / engineering measures  Encourage Barangay-based rainfall monitoring station Integrate curriculum on hazards and disaster mitigation 71
  • 72. MITIGATIONS & PREPARATIONS
  • 73. MITIGATIONS & PREPARATIONS Conducted lectures and skills training to various government agencies, Barangays and NGO’s Communications, Monitoring and Warning  Automatic Weather Station  Automatic Water Level Monitoring System  Radio Communications Repeater System  Social Media, Info-board messaging Skills enhancement and procurement of equipment Hazard Mapping 73
  • 74. MITIGATIONS & PREPARATIONS 74 …continued
  • 75. QUESTIONS? 75
  • 76. “There are three types of people in this world: Those who make things happen, Those who watch things happen, and Those who wonder what happened.” – Mary Kay Ash 76
  • 77. THANK YOU! 77
  • 78. REFERENCES       78 Wikipedia NDRRMC PAGASA NOAA Weather Philippines Typhoon2000