Radio : Evolution, medium, a tool to change the society
Radio As A means of Communication<br />
The Era before Radio<br /><ul><li>The communication was very slow before Radio.
When Christopher Columbus discovered America, the Queen Isabella received message after five months</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>In 1792, France had started ‘Sign Lights’
With this system they can reach around 4800 km.
With the help of 190 rely station, 400 horses & 80 riders they can cover 3100 km area of America. Within 10 days they can send post from east to west end.</li></li></ul><li>Pony Express was the fastest communication style in America at that time<br />It was limited to America only.<br />So the new communication pattern was in need to start.<br />
In 1823, Samuel Morse invented Telegraph.<br />It is also known as Morse Code<br />Telegraph became so much popular at that time<br />Wire was used for communication in telegraph.<br />It was its limitation to limit the communication <br />
After some experiments he was able to send his waves up to 14 km.<br />The image shown here is the tower from where Marconi started wireless communication<br />
Electro Magnetic Waves<br />In 1894, Italy reach family’s son Guglielmo Marconi had started experiments of wire less communication.<br />His first experiment in Briton was at the top of the General Post office Building. His waves were traveled 275 meters. <br />
Jhon Fleming started<br />John Fleming who was at Imperial College London, had started experiments for making this waves more powerful & more clear. For this he had invented a Vacuum Tube.<br />
Canadian scientist Dr. Lee De Forest made it more effective. <br />Dr. Forest broadcasted his speech form radio on 31st Dec. 1906.<br />In 1908 Dr. Forest Broadcasted a recorded music form the top Eiffel Tower, which was heard up to 500 miles.<br />
When wireless communication started at that time people were using this informally, if some ships had installed instruments.<br />In 1910 US Congress passed a law under which every passenger ship must be using Radio Equipment and a trained Radio Operator.<br />
At that time, becuase of the radio 700 lives were rescued
David Sarnoff who received message of Titanic and rescued people, later on he had contributed a lot in the field of Development of Broadcasting.</li></li></ul><li>In World War US Government had taken charges from all wireless stations as it is the most powerful communication weapon<br />Government asked all companies to research & invent a instrument which can be use as a wireless telephone. <br />
“Walkie- Talkie” is the first transmitter/ receiver that helped human talk with the walk<br />The name was given by Motorola SCR-300.<br />It was manufactured by Galvin Manufacturing company.<br />It was very much used<br />
In 1897 wireless telegraph & signal co. ltd. was started.<br />It was the first electronic communication company .<br />In 1919 when The Radio Corporation of America established at that time all rights of American Marconi co. ltd. was purchased by RCA.<br />
So that young Congress freedom fighters launched their short-lived congress Radio on September 3 1942 on 41.78 meter ‘from somewhere in India.
The broadcasts continue from October 15 to 17 to raise the transmitter's power
Then young fighters were arrested and it was stopped.</li></li></ul><li>ALL INDIA RADIO AFTER INDEPENDENCE<br />
<ul><li>After Independence, AIR started stations located at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lacknow and Tiruchirapplli, Mysore, Travancore, Hyderabad and Aurangabad
There were only 18 transmitters which increased upto 25 in couple of years.
The introduction of the commercial channel ‘VividhBharti’ in October 1957 increased the interest and popularity of radio. </li></li></ul><li>Total All India Radio Stations & other quality<br /><ul><li>AIR today has a network of 232 broadcasting centres with 149 medium frequency(MW), 54 high frequency (SW) and 171 FM transmitters.
The coverage is 91.79% of the area , serving 99.14% of the people in the largest democracy of the world.
AIR covers 24 Languages and 146 dialects in home services. In External services, it covers 27 languages; 17 national and 10 foreign languages. </li></li></ul><li>THE FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) RISE IN INDIA<br />
<ul><li>FM broadcasts were introduced in Madras in 1977 and later at Jalandhar in 1992, but it was only in 1993 when slots came to be leased to private companies.
On August 15, 1993 a Frequency Modulation (FM) Channel was launched in Bombay, with nine hours of radio which sloats was leased to private producers like Times FM, radiostar and Radio Midday.
Besides sponsored hit parades and count-downs, the FM programmes include chat shows, news bulletins, contests, quizzes and plays.</li></li></ul><li>FM SCENERIO IN INDIA<br />
FAMOUS RADIO STATIONS AND THEIR NAME & ITS SCENERIO<br />98.3 - Radio Mirchi<br />101.3 - FM Rainbow<br />102.9 - Vivdh Bharati<br />104 - Fever FM<br />105.6 - Gyaan Vaani<br />91.1 - Radio City<br />91.9 - Radio Indigo<br />92.7 - Big FM<br />93.5 - S FM<br />94.3 - Radio One<br />
Current allocation process<br /><ul><li>In FM Phase II some 338 frequencies were offered of which about 237 were sold.
It is also accepted that the that the next phase will give the news sloats to the FM.
Reliance and South Asia FM (Sun group) bid for most of the 91 cities.
they were allowed only 15% of the total allocated frequencies.
Between them, they have had to surrender over 40 licenses.</li></li></ul><li>Advertising Scenario<br /><ul><li>India's new private FM channels could also change the advertising scenario.
Traditionally, radio accounts for 7% to 8% of advertiser expenditures around the world. In India, it is less than 2% at present.
FDI allotment in Radio is 20 percent.</li></li></ul><li>THE GROWTH OF FM IN INDIA<br /><ul><li>Mumbai and Delhi reached 34 per cent each from 8 and 19 per cent, respectively, in 2000.
In Delhi as well as in Mumbai, 30 per cent of women listen to FM radio.
Around 36 per cent men in Mumbai tune into FM channels while 38 per cent in Delhi.
In Mumbai, 80 per cent of listening happens at home whereas in Delhi it is 72 per cent.
Delhi, which has a higher ownership of cars (13 per cent) and car radios (82 per cent), also has a higher incidence of in-car listenership (seven per cent) as compared to Mumbai where only two per cent of listening happens in the car. </li></li></ul><li>SHUKANTO ROY<br />Assignment Given by :<br />IRFAN PATHAN<br />Prepared By :<br />