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Inuse seminar 20121009 Seppo Leminen
 

Inuse seminar 20121009 Seppo Leminen

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    Inuse seminar 20121009 Seppo Leminen Inuse seminar 20121009 Seppo Leminen Presentation Transcript

    • Users and Innovation Research – INUSE- Research Seminar Open Innovation House, Otaniementie 19-21 (2nd floor, room A208, Time: 9.30-11.30)Users roles for co-creation of innovation in living lab networks Seppo Leminen, D.Sc. (Econ), Principal lecturer Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Adjunct Professor Aalto University School of Business seppo.leminen@laurea.fi Anna-Greta Nyström, D.Sc. (Econ), Åbo Akademi University, School of Business and Economics Mika Westerlund, D.Sc. (Econ), Assistant Professor, Carleton University, Sprott School of Business, Canada
    • Research gaps• Living Labs provide a promising research area for studying open service innovation. (Pascu & van Lieshout, 2009)• The roles of the actors in Living Labs networks deserve further investigation. (Nyström & Leminen, 2011)• Research on living labs scarce from the network perspective (e.g. in Leminen & Westerlund, 2008) and there is lack of rich case descriptions of Living Labs (Schaffers & Turkama 2012; Leminen & Westerlund, forthcoming)
    • Living Labs (1/3) Experimentation environments, where stakeholders form public- private-people partnerships (4Ps) to create, prototype, validate, and test new products, services, and technologies in real-life contexts. (Ballon et al., 2005) Products, services, and technologies are developed and tested in physical or virtual regions, where users are informants/co- creators. (Kusiak, 2007) Different from: (Ballon et al., 2005; Schaffers et al,. 2007)• test beds for controlled testing in a laboratory environment.• field trials for testing in a limited but still real-life environment.• other forms of open innovation that have no concrete setting.
    • Living Labs (2/3) Participants’ roles: Living Lab is a real-life test and experimentation environment, where users and producers co- create innovations, and which connects them with utilizers and enablers. (Leminen & Westerlund, 2008) Global networks: many Living Labs join regional or global networks of Living Labs: e.g., European Network of Living Labs. (http://www.openlivinglabs.eu/) Different types: i) narrow but sizable communities of expert users; ii) whole bounded populations; iii) Living Labs for technical service development; iv) Living Labs for non-technical research using a service platform. (Stewart, 2007)
    • Living Labs (3/3)• We define living labs as physical regions or virtual realities, or interaction spaces, in which stakeholders form public-private-people partnerships (4Ps) of companies, public agencies, universities, users, and other stakeholders, all collaborating for creation, prototyping, validating, and testing of new technologies, services, products, and systems in real-life contexts. They are used for the development of communities for the use of innovation. (Westerlund & Leminen, 2012) 5
    • Users as innovators Customer participation (customer contribution to co-production) and interaction (dialogue between customer and business) vital in service innovations. (von Hippel, 1986)• Today’s organizations need a constant flow of ideas while competing through emergent technologies and fast NPD. (Kao, 1997)• Integrating customers and users to learn from and with them in the innovation process is a key success factor for firms in all industries. (Edvarsson et al., 2010).• Firms involve consumers in the co-production of brands, experiences, design, marketing strategies, and even product or service development. (Jeppesen & Molin, 2003; Zwick et al., 2008)
    • Objectives of the study• Describe Living Labs as open innovation networks• Identify the distinct structures of Living Labs networks• Analyze users’ roles in diverse Living Labs networks
    • Customer involvement: two different approaches (Leminen, Kortelainen & Fred, 2010) 8
    • MethodologyPrimary data • A multiple case study among the staffs of 26 Living Labs in Finland, Sweden, Spain, and South Africa during 2007-2011 (a total of 103 semi-structured interviews).Secondary data • Web sites, bulletins, magazines, and case reports • Data collection aimed at identifying and categorizing roles in Living Labs networks
    • Activity based user roles• Four principal activity based user roles in Living Labs found: • Informant • Tester • Contributor • Co-creator 10
    • Living Labs: The network view Users Innovation ProvidersEnablers development Utilizers A Living Lab network Network of Living Labs 11 (Mod. Leminen & Westerlund, 2008)
    • Different types of Living Labs Enabler• Utilizer-driven Living Labs• Enabler-driven Living Labs Utilizer• Provider-driven Living Labs Developer• User/User community-driven Living Labs User (Kortelainen, Leminen & Fred, 2011) 12
    • User’s roles in Living Labs networks Utilizer User Provider Enabler Living Lab driven driven driven driven actors Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, Contributor Contributor Contributor, Contributor User Informant, TesterActivitybased Contributor 6, Coordinator, Co-creator 18, Coordinator, roles Informant, Co-creator, Contributor Contributor, Tester Informant 15,16,18,19, Informant User Informant 15,16,17,18,19, Tester 15,17,18, Informant Contributor, Contributor Informant Contributor 4, Tester 11,12,13 Tester User Tester 2,4 Informant 13,14, Tester 11,12,14 13
    • Business networks: structure• Business network can be classified according to the firm’s position in the network and the configuration of the network (Doz, 2001).• The company may act as the engine, or hub, in the focal business network, or it is one of the many actors having a minor role as a partner with whom the hub company cooperates.• Networks centralized, decentralized, or distributed. Barbasi (2002, ref. Möller and Svahn, 2003) 14
    • Roles in networks• Heikkinen et al. (2007) • Webber, instigator, gatekeeper, advocate, producer, planner, entrant, auxiliary • Facilitator, compromiser, aspirant, accessory provider 15
    • User’s roles in diverse Living Labs networks Utilizer User Provider Enabler Living Lab driven driven driven driven actors Orchestrator, HUB FacilitatorDistributed Multiplex Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, structure Contributor Contributor Contributor, Contributor User Informant, Tester Webber, HUB Builder, Position (structure) Facilitator based rolesDistributed Contributor 6, Coordinator Co-creator 18, Coordinator structure Informant, (focal net), Contributor (focal net), Tester Co-creator, 15,16,18,19, Contributor, User Informant Informant Informant 15,16,17,18,19, Tester 15,17,18, Facilitator, HUBCentralized Integrator structure Informant Contributor, Contributor Informant Contributor 4, Tester 11,12,13 Tester User Tester 2,4 Informant 13,14, 16 Tester 11,12,14
    • New position (structure) based roles for user found• Builder• Facilitator• Orchestrator• Integrator• Coordinator (focal net) 17
    • User’s roles in diverse Living Labs networks Utilizer User Provider Enabler Living Lab driven driven driven driven actors Orchestrator, HUB Facilitator Distributed Multiplex Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, Co-creator, structure Contributor Contributor Contributor, Contributor UserActivity Informant, Testerbased Webber, Position HUB Builder, roles Facilitator based roles Distributed Contributor 6, Coordinator Co-creator 18, Coordinator structure Informant, (focal net), Contributor (focal net), Tester Co-creator, 15,16,18,19, Contributor, User Informant Informant Informant 15,16,17,18,19, Tester 15,17,18, Facilitator, HUB Centralized Integrator structure Informant Contributor, Contributor Informant Contributor 4, Tester 11,12,13 Tester User Tester 2,4 Informant 13,14, 18 Tester 11,12,14
    • Main conclusionsWe suggest that either actors actively shape the environment they act in or they are restricted by predetermined social structures (e.g. business networks) 19
    • Main arguments• Innovation is the outcome of cooperation between actors in business networks• Roles and positions of users are tools to manage the network
    • Found users roles in Living Lab networksPosition (structure) Activity based user rolesbased roles for users• Builder • Informant• Facilitator • Tester• Orchestrator • Contributor• Integrator • Co-creator• Coordinator• Webber 21
    • Are you innovating together with your customers? Perspectives on Living Labs (in Finnish)10.10.2012 22
    • Living lab special issues and living lab tracks at 2013 conferences Living Lab tracksTechnology Innovation Forthcoming 2012/2013 at the 2013 conferences Management Special issue on: "Living Labs – Review Environments for Concurrent http://timreview.ca/ Product Development“ IJPD (International Journal of Product Developement) 23
    • Thank you!seppo.leminen@laurea.fi anna-greta.nystrom@abo.fi Mika_westerlund@carleton.ca seppo.leminen@aalto.fi Questions? Comments?