If we build it     will they come?Prof Carole Goble FREng FBCS CITP   carole.goble@manchester.ac.uk   BOSC, Long Beach, Ju...
Est. 2001   Improving Knowledge Turning, Enabling Reuse and Reproducibility                      [Josh Sommer]Keep the vis...
Computational Methods                LGPL                    Scientific workflows.                    Distributed web/grid...
The Taverna Suite of Tools                 Web PortalsWorkflow Repository                GUI Workbench        Client User ...
Community Haven                                        Sharing Resource                                        Social Coll...
BioCatalogue:crowd curation of web services                                              Contribute, Find and             ...
Find experts,                                                         colleagues and                                      ...
Public http://www.seek4science.org       SEEK
Standards & Content              Sharing PlatformGovernance & Policy              & Trusted Service Software & Tools Open ...
Laissez-faire Philosophy• Bottom Up   – Emergent & scruffy (to a degree…)• Reliant on third party contributions   – Non-pr...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/hellaoakland/3137360455/Never underestimate         Liberty through  how scruffy third       ...
Who is they?• Jobbing  Bioinformatician?• Expert  Bioinformatician?• Sys admin?• Service provider?• Application  developer...
Who is THEY?Drug Toxicity        Pharmacogenomics      Trypanosomiasis in          The Virtual(OpenTox Project)         GW...
ConsortiaOrganised,Planned, Strongconnections withresource                                    Independents….              ...
Specialise or   Diversify?• Flexibility and extensibility ->  customised Software and                                     ...
BioDiversity Virtual e-Laboratory                                                  http://www.biovel.euBiodiversity Servic...
Who is We? The ego-systembiologists,bioinformaticians,biodiversityinformaticians,astro-informaticians,social scientistsmod...
My WorldCS Research Methods & Practice Productio                               n              Science
http://www.wf4ever-project.org•                                      Research Objects    Citation             Reproducibil...
Applications                        Production           Publishing                TrainingResearch            Community  ...
So if we build it will they come?Be useful for something: immediately,continuously, responsivelyBe usable by somebody: use...
Four things that drive adoption               of software or service.1. Added value  – Do something that couldn’t do befor...
Seven things that hinder            adoption of software or service1. Not enough added value   •   It doesn’t solve a prob...
Software practices     Zeeya Merali , Nature 467, 775-777 (2010) | doi:10.1038/467775aComputational science: ...Error…why ...
Software Stewardship      “Better Science through Superior Software” – C Titus BrownSoftware sustainabilitySoftware practi...
Seven things that hinder            adoption of software or service1. Cost  –   Of disruption, of long-term ownership  –  ...
• It sucks but it’s the  only thing around• It’s ace but it’s one  of many, too late in  the game and not  enough to switc...
Bonus Hinder               Never heard of it.  We’ve built it but we haven’t told anyone.• Make noise…physically and virtu...
Bonus Hinder            Never heard of it.We’ve built it but we haven’t told anyone.                      Market          ...
Adoption Intentions             Be careful what you wish for• Incidental  – “I built it for myself, and stuck it out there...
Open Innovation: Development and Content         you are not alone. you can’t do it all alone    motivate & enable others ...
Ladder Model of OSS Adoption                 (adapted from Carbone P., Value Derived                 from Open Source is a...
"its better, initially, to make a smallnumber of users really love you than a     large number kind of like you"          ...
PALS: Building FriendshipsIntelligence, Guidance, Advocacy, Evangelism, Market Research                            What’s ...
Do not under-estimate…The power of the sprint /        The power of a whizzy *-athon / fest / drinking   interface. Even f...
Participatory, EmbeddedDesign-Build-Run-Manage is Good Act Local         Reality Think Global      Check Eat your own     ...
Participatory Design          Work Together on a Real ProblemFunders            Project PIs              PALsData sharing ...
If you buildit will theycome andcontribute?
Participation Cooperation? Coordination? Collaboration?    Citizens             Integration? Evolution and entropy models ...
Critical mass spiral: 90:9:1                                    Driven by needs of                                    and ...
Trust, Fame and Blame: Reciprocity,           Competition, Contribution and Use•   Scooping, Scrutiny and Misinterpretatio...
Harness Competitiveness                            CarrotsPride• Reputation: Cult, Credit & Attribution for allProtection•...
Sticks?Community, Journal and Funder         mandatesThere are very few real sticks.
Adoption Ramps                           http://www.rightfield.org.ukInstrument familiar,  widely-used toolsSpreadsheets a...
Adoption Stealth• Data at home promise with  automated harvesting• Sharing creep, Incremental  metadata, Low obligations• ...
Be vigilant•    PAL burn-out and     over familiarity•    Unadjusted over-     user accommodation•    Drifting apart and n...
Urgent-Important• Technical bog down,  operational burn-out• Little things that are  important but don’t  seem that urgent...
Beware Version 2 Syndrome!                   Version 2                   Syndrome
The Jam-based Adoption Model        aka    Added Value Value PropositionReturn On Investment                       http://...
What’s is the Special Jam?  What is your Jam Value Chain and for Who?What: SysMO: safe haven, spreadsheet tooling, linking...
Jam today and more, better Jam tomorrowJust Enough Jam, Just in Time not Just in Case* Feature Creep Conundrum * Big Pictu...
Customised Specific Jam beats Generic* Flexibility/Functionality – Simplicity Conundrum* Diversification Dilemma
http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/empty-jam-jar-royalty-free-image/136976198    Where is my Jam? Jam for All  • Wh...
Jam foreverThey came. Have the evidence. Have a plan.   Did you wish for this? Do you want it?Fragile Flux•   Content, ser...
Jam not forever• Acquire• Retain• Widen  – More/Different• Reposition  – Different/New Stage• Changing Community  is Chall...
Adoption is a   The Social and theMerry-Go-Round       Technical                  are Inseparable
You know they came when……you were useful and usable to someone some of the time,but they might not tell you… people ask yo...
James Howison       Heather PiwowarVictoria Stodden     Janet VertesiChristine Borgman    Nosh Contractor                 ...
Acknowledgements (2)• The myGrid family, friends and contributors• But especially: Katy Wolstencroft, David Withers, Marco...
•              Further Information    myGrid     – http://www.mygrid.org.uk•   Taverna     – http://www.taverna.org.uk•   ...
Coalface      Patrons                                 users                                                         Skepti...
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If we build it will they come? BOSC2012 Keynote Goble

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Keynote for BOSC (Bioinformatics Open Source Conference) 2012 at Long Beach, CA, USA, 14 July 2012 by Carole Goble

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If we build it will they come? BOSC2012 Keynote Goble

  1. 1. If we build it will they come?Prof Carole Goble FREng FBCS CITP carole.goble@manchester.ac.uk BOSC, Long Beach, July 14 2012 http://www.mygrid.org.uk
  2. 2. Est. 2001 Improving Knowledge Turning, Enabling Reuse and Reproducibility [Josh Sommer]Keep the vision, modify the plan
  3. 3. Computational Methods LGPL Scientific workflows. Distributed web/grid/cloud services Third party, independent service reuse Data pipelines and analytics Volunteerist Human Computation BSD e-Laboratories - social collaboration and sharing environments for scientific artefacts. Libraries and Catalogues. Asset safe havens, sharing, reuse. Knowledge Acquisition Tools Various Semantic technology, semantic applications, research objects, executable papers. OWL Data/Metadata curation & reusePOPULOUS SKOSEdit
  4. 4. The Taverna Suite of Tools Web PortalsWorkflow Repository GUI Workbench Client User Interfaces Virtual Machine Service Catalogue Third Party Tools Workflow Engine Provenance Workflow Store Command Line ServerActivity and Service Plug-in Manager Open Provenance Model Programming and Secure Service Access APIs
  5. 5. Community Haven Sharing Resource Social Collaboration http://www.myexperiment.org5820 members, 304groups, 2415 workflows,604 files and 229 packs(research objects) http://wiki.myexperiment.org/index.php/Galaxy
  6. 6. BioCatalogue:crowd curation of web services Contribute, Find and understand Web Services Curate, review and comment Learning resource Monitor Services Cloud Registry 2295 REST and SOAP services, 169 service providers. 674 members, 27 countries
  7. 7. Find experts, colleagues and peers. Find, exchange and interlink, preserve, publish data, models, publications, SOPs & analyses. ISA Compliant SysMO: 16 consortia, 110 institutes, 1600+ assets, 350+ membersLaunch and validate Gateway to GerontoSysmodels and analyses: public tools andJWS Online resources, e.g. BioModels livSYSiPS
  8. 8. Public http://www.seek4science.org SEEK
  9. 9. Standards & Content Sharing PlatformGovernance & Policy & Trusted Service Software & Tools Open source GatewayComp SciResearchPlatformKnowledge Network Preservation &Skills & Community Building Publication Platforms
  10. 10. Laissez-faire Philosophy• Bottom Up – Emergent & scruffy (to a degree…)• Reliant on third party contributions – Non-prescriptive, non-interfering and flexible – We make no content ourselves….• Part of a wider ecosystem – Other services, data, tools, platforms, people…• Inspired by social environments• Scarred by top-down, dictated, tech-driven and unused monoliths
  11. 11. http://www.flickr.com/photos/hellaoakland/3137360455/Never underestimate Liberty through how scruffy third Limitations party stuff can beHow often metadata is People say they want missing and messy if flexibility. They prefer the left to its own simplicity of order and will devices… adapt to adopt.
  12. 12. Who is they?• Jobbing Bioinformatician?• Expert Bioinformatician?• Sys admin?• Service provider?• Application developer?• Tool developer?• Biologist?
  13. 13. Who is THEY?Drug Toxicity Pharmacogenomics Trypanosomiasis in The Virtual(OpenTox Project) GWAS African Cattle Liver Physiopathology of Genetic differencesSystems Biology of the human body between breeds of Metagenomics cattleMicro-Organisms Medical Imaging
  14. 14. ConsortiaOrganised,Planned, Strongconnections withresource Independents…. Bovineproviders and Trypanosomiasiseach other. Consortium ResearchDistributed Groups & GroupsIndependent LonerangersLong tail, Disconnectedfrom data providers andeach other, emergent,Individuals
  15. 15. Specialise or Diversify?• Flexibility and extensibility -> customised Software and Document Services, Cookie cutter Helio- Preservation Physics• Widen adoption• Spread risk, extend resourcing streams BioDiversity Astronomy• Cross development alignment and coordination• More communities to build, nurture, support and sustain• Core Drift and Bashing Social Science Engineering: JPL, NASA FLOSS
  16. 16. BioDiversity Virtual e-Laboratory http://www.biovel.euBiodiversity Services Catalogues / Execution Repositories environment ProvenancePhylogenetic BLAST,Hmmer, WebDaV Data MrBayes, Management Blast, PAML, Taverna EMBOSS,… Workbench Search OpenTaxonomic SynonymsVisualisation Authentication / Authorisation BioSTIF Taverna Workflow Engine Google Refine CSW and ServerModelling/GeoProcessing Grid, Cloud, etc. R openModeller Platforms WPS / WCPS
  17. 17. Who is We? The ego-systembiologists,bioinformaticians,biodiversityinformaticians,astro-informaticians,social scientistsmodellers, softwareengineers,computer scientists,systems administrators,resource providers
  18. 18. My WorldCS Research Methods & Practice Productio n Science
  19. 19. http://www.wf4ever-project.org• Research Objects Citation Reproducibility, Integrated Publishing,• Aggregation Carriers of Research Context• Annotation• Provenance• Lifecycle• Preservation• Decay• Sharing• Stereotypical Profiles• Services and APIs• myExperiment 2.0 Encodings: Semantic Web: LOD, VoID, OAI-ORE, AO/OAC, SIOC, OPM/PROV, Memento….
  20. 20. Applications Production Publishing TrainingResearch Community Community
  21. 21. So if we build it will they come?Be useful for something: immediately,continuously, responsivelyBe usable by somebody: user experience,worth the effort, adoption pathSome of the time: as part of a big pictureUnder promise and over deliverAcquire Critical Mass
  22. 22. Four things that drive adoption of software or service.1. Added value – Do something that couldn’t do before or now do faster, gain competitive advantage, improve productivity, scale up2. New asset – Get or retain access to something important (data, method, technique, skills, knowledge)3. Keep up with the field. A Community. – Future-proof my practice, New skills and capacity, there is a vibe about it and I’ll be left out4. Because there is no choice – Business depends on it, its mandated, its de facto mandated
  23. 23. Seven things that hinder adoption of software or service1. Not enough added value • It doesn’t solve a problem or not as well or as cheaply as something else, no content or the right content It Sucks2. Not fit for take-on. It doesn’t work! • No: help, guides, documentation, manuals, examples, content, templates, portability, migration / legacy support, easy installation, virtual machines, testing, stability, version control, release cycle, roadmap, sustainability prospect, way of introducing my favourite component/data/environment.3. No Time or Capacity to take on • To learn, migrate personal legacy code/data/applications, no pathway/ramp to adoption • Training and special system needs
  24. 24. Software practices Zeeya Merali , Nature 467, 775-777 (2010) | doi:10.1038/467775aComputational science: ...Error…why scientific programming does not compute.“As a general rule,researchers do nottest or documenttheir programsrigorously, and theyrarely release theircodes, making italmost impossibleto reproduce andverify publishedresults generatedby scientificsoftware”
  25. 25. Software Stewardship “Better Science through Superior Software” – C Titus BrownSoftware sustainabilitySoftware practicesSoftware depositionLong term access to softwareCredit for softwareLicensing adviceOpen licensesReproducible Research Standard, Victoria Stodden,Intl J Comm Law & Policy, 13 2009
  26. 26. Seven things that hinder adoption of software or service1. Cost – Of disruption, of long-term ownership – It’s too costly2. Exposure to Risk. First to take-up, Support and sustainability dependencies, fear of scrutiny, misrepresentation or being scooped,3. No Community – Support and comfort4. Changes to work practices – Obligations, unclear or unenforced reciprocity protocols.
  27. 27. • It sucks but it’s the only thing around• It’s ace but it’s one of many, too late in the game and not enough to switch• Tipping point is likely not technical Betamax vs VHS
  28. 28. Bonus Hinder Never heard of it. We’ve built it but we haven’t told anyone.• Make noise…physically and virtually• Customer and Contributor Relationship Building• Self-supporting communities, multi-level marketing• Highly Resource Intensive
  29. 29. Bonus Hinder Never heard of it.We’ve built it but we haven’t told anyone. Market User Community Development It all kicks off Developer Community
  30. 30. Adoption Intentions Be careful what you wish for• Incidental – “I built it for myself, and stuck it out there”• Familial – “I built it for people just like me”• Fundamental – “I built it for others, many who are not like me”
  31. 31. Open Innovation: Development and Content you are not alone. you can’t do it all alone motivate & enable others to fill gaps “App Store Style” software, services, content, examples….• Really Interoperate. Don’t tweak.• Be Simple and Standard.• Be Helpful. Be Set up. Be reusable. Be Smart Friends Galaxy+Taverna/myExperiment Family• Others will develop on top of you. But don’t assume they will re- contribute or tell you. Acquaintances• It’s much harder than you think. Strangers• It’s unequal.
  32. 32. Ladder Model of OSS Adoption (adapted from Carbone P., Value Derived from Open Source is a Function ofFamily Acquaintances Friends Maturity Levels) Strangers Moores technology adoption curve [FLOSS@Sycracuse]
  33. 33. "its better, initially, to make a smallnumber of users really love you than a large number kind of like you" Paul Buchheit paulbuchheit.blogspot.com
  34. 34. PALS: Building FriendshipsIntelligence, Guidance, Advocacy, Evangelism, Market Research What’s in it for the PAL? – Long tail: Money, kudos, special support, special resources, skills, reputation building, influence, stuff they can’t do alone, CV building – Consortia: co-funded • Who is a PAL? – Post-docs, Post-grads, Administrators, Developers – PI: protector/champion • PAL handlers – Customer Relationship Manager, Nanny and Mediator, Scientist
  35. 35. Do not under-estimate…The power of the sprint / The power of a whizzy *-athon / fest / drinking interface. Even for plumbing. The importance of supporting and propagating best practice
  36. 36. Participatory, EmbeddedDesign-Build-Run-Manage is Good Act Local Reality Think Global Check Eat your own The Bigger Dog Food Picture
  37. 37. Participatory Design Work Together on a Real ProblemFunders Project PIs PALsData sharing Data control Spreadsheets.Data standards Own databases Yellow Pages. Just enough SOPsA database exchange. UnderstandingLong term Visibility limitations standards preservation Project dependence Curating. Examples. 3 Years later 15/16 consortia Safe Haven abandoned their own systems and Project went with the SEEK system. independence
  38. 38. If you buildit will theycome andcontribute?
  39. 39. Participation Cooperation? Coordination? Collaboration? Citizens Integration? Evolution and entropy models Public scientists TrustedCollaborators Private Groups Lone scholars Closed Controlled Open[based on an idea by Liz Lyon] Access
  40. 40. Critical mass spiral: 90:9:1 Driven by needs of and benefits to the scientist, rather than top down policies. Content tipping point[Andrew Su]
  41. 41. Trust, Fame and Blame: Reciprocity, Competition, Contribution and Use• Scooping, Scrutiny and Misinterpretation• Curation Cost• Poor quality• Reputation / Asset Economics• Public Peer PressureReciprocity Sucks• Flirting• Hugging• Controlled Sharing• Voyerism• Poor feedback / credit Nature 461, 145 (10 September 2009)Victoria Stodden, The Scientific Method in Practice: Reproducibility in the Computational Sciences Feb 9,2010 MIT Sloan Research Paper No. 4773-10, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1550193
  42. 42. Harness Competitiveness CarrotsPride• Reputation: Cult, Credit & Attribution for allProtection• Just enough Sharing, Licensing & Liability• Quality, Peer review, MetadataPreservation• Safe havens and Sunsets (project churn)Publishing / Release• Citability, Supporting ExchangeProductivity• Availability of assets, help, capability, ramps
  43. 43. Sticks?Community, Journal and Funder mandatesThere are very few real sticks.
  44. 44. Adoption Ramps http://www.rightfield.org.ukInstrument familiar, widely-used toolsSpreadsheets and Email
  45. 45. Adoption Stealth• Data at home promise with automated harvesting• Sharing creep, Incremental metadata, Low obligations• URL upload in BioCatalogue• Web Service “come as you are” take-on in Taverna• Metadata prompting, Right tools, right time, right place• Service collections & Packaged services
  46. 46. Be vigilant• PAL burn-out and over familiarity• Unadjusted over- user accommodation• Drifting apart and not keeping it fresh• Step back, observe and adapt/intervene!• So relieved to get a community….• Instrument adoption and observationParticipatory Development is a mutual long term relationshipNot flirty speed dating, One night stand, Crush, Me Me Me
  47. 47. Urgent-Important• Technical bog down, operational burn-out• Little things that are important but don’t seem that urgent…• Dominant projects• Not-software content• It all takes way longer than you think• Simplicity driftParticipatory Development is a mutual long term relationshipNot flirty speed dating, One night stand, Crush, Me Me Me
  48. 48. Beware Version 2 Syndrome! Version 2 Syndrome
  49. 49. The Jam-based Adoption Model aka Added Value Value PropositionReturn On Investment http://delicious-cooks.com/photos/raspberry-jam/04/
  50. 50. What’s is the Special Jam? What is your Jam Value Chain and for Who?What: SysMO: safe haven, spreadsheet tooling, linking SOPs, models and data, examples Taverna: power, adaptability and myExperimentWho: Focused on contributors and experts Provider-consumer balance Functionality-Simplicity Syndrome Changing Who - Challenging baked-ins
  51. 51. Jam today and more, better Jam tomorrowJust Enough Jam, Just in Time not Just in Case* Feature Creep Conundrum * Big Picture Paradox* Core vs Specifics Syndrome * Content Decay Dilemma* Working to working Stability Stress
  52. 52. Customised Specific Jam beats Generic* Flexibility/Functionality – Simplicity Conundrum* Diversification Dilemma
  53. 53. http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/empty-jam-jar-royalty-free-image/136976198 Where is my Jam? Jam for All • What are WE (platform providers, Software builders, Community builders and Service providers) getting out if it? • Need credit and interest too. • Altmetrics Howison and Herbsleb, Scientific Software Production: Incentives and Collaboration, CSCW 2011, March 19–23, 2011, Hangzhou, Chinahttp://james.howison.name/pubs/HowisonHerbsleb2011SciSoftIncentives.pdf
  54. 54. Jam foreverThey came. Have the evidence. Have a plan. Did you wish for this? Do you want it?Fragile Flux• Content, services, bits, communitiesFunding Plan• Novelty over sustainability,• Research-Production Falsehoods• Wave invention, Political lobbyingSecuring the community• Leadership & FoundationsBusiness model??? Software is Free like Puppies Are Free
  55. 55. Jam not forever• Acquire• Retain• Widen – More/Different• Reposition – Different/New Stage• Changing Community is Challenging… [Daron Green]
  56. 56. Adoption is a The Social and theMerry-Go-Round Technical are Inseparable
  57. 57. You know they came when……you were useful and usable to someone some of the time,but they might not tell you… people ask you to join their consortia or use it… they gave up their own home grown stuff for yours… someone you don’t know uses it and tells you all aboutyour own stuff.… someone publishes papers about it. Without citing you.… someone else claims credit.… people you don’t know start bitching about it.… its just expected to be there and you are kind of expectedto be there too.…your Head of School complains you don’t do enough CSresearch because you are doing too much SoftwareEngineering and Support.
  58. 58. James Howison Heather PiwowarVictoria Stodden Janet VertesiChristine Borgman Nosh Contractor Acknowledgements (1) Jay Liebowitz Robert Kraut
  59. 59. Acknowledgements (2)• The myGrid family, friends and contributors• But especially: Katy Wolstencroft, David Withers, Marco Roos, Alan Williams, Jits Bhagat, Stuart Owen, Stian Soiland-Reyes, Shoab Sufi, Robert Stevens, Paul Fisher, Peter Li, Ian Dunlop, Finn Bacall, Mannie Tags, Niall Beard, Rob Haines, Christian Brenninkmeijer, Alasdair Gray, Tim Clark, Pinar Alper, Paolo Missier, Khalid Belhajjame, Duncan Hull, Sean Bechhofer, david De Roure, Don Cruickshank, Wolfgang Mueller, Olga Krebs, Franco Du Preez, Quyen Nguyen, Jacky Snoep.• The members of Wf4ever, SysMO, BioVel, HELIO, SCAPE, OMII, SSI, NeiSS, Obesity e-Lab and anyone else I forgot
  60. 60. • Further Information myGrid – http://www.mygrid.org.uk• Taverna – http://www.taverna.org.uk• myExperiment – http://www.myexperiment.org• BioCatalogue – http://www.biocatalogue.org• SysMO-SEEK – http://www.sysmo-db.org• MethodBox – http://www.methodbox.org.uk• Rightfield – http://www.rightfield.org.uk• Wf4ever – http://www.wf4ever-project.org• BioVeL – http://www.biovel.eu• Software Sustainability Institute – http://www.software.ac.uk• Software Carpentry – http://software-carpentry.org/
  61. 61. Coalface Patrons users Skeptic Champions Keep your Friends Close Friends and Family Fit in Favours will Embed Favour you Jam Today Jam Tomorrow Act Local Think GlobalEnd UsersDevelopers Just Enough Design for Know Anticipate Just in Time Network EffectsService your ChangeProviders Users Enable UsersSystem to Add ValueAdministrators Keep Sight of the Bigger Picture SUMMARY (De Roure and Goble, IEEE Software 2009)

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