During the __Renaissance_a time period of learning a book about India and Asia by _Marco Polo was published. This book inspired the Italian Sailor _Columbus to search for a new route to Asia by traveling ___West_ The King and Queen of Spain sponsored his voyage. After 30 days he landed in what is now the Caribbeanmistakenly thinking he was in Indians. He referreded to the Taino as " unsuspicious and generous with what they posses." Columbus named the Island San Salvador He made four voyages claiming parts of North and South America in the name of Spain still believing it was IndiaThis triggered others to explore the Americas.
Native Americans gained some new trade networks but in many cases often died from diseases such as small pox, were enslaved by Europeans and converted to Christianity. Columbus discovery lead to the transfer of people, plants, animals, and diseases, called the Columbian Exchange. Europeans gained many advantages such as crops, potatoes, and land. Due to the high mortality rate of enslaved Natives the Spanish imported Slaves from Africa to the Caribbean to mine gold and raise sugarcane.
The Spanish were offended by the Aztec's religious rituals. Aided by Native American rivals they defeated the ruler Montezuma and defeated the Aztec. They headed North looking for more gold. Because he came with 500soldiers, metal armor, horses, and gunsand the deadly small pox many mistook Cortez for a God. The Spanish were amazed the Aztec lived in a floatingcity in a lake with high temple. After Columbus, in 1519 Spain sent soldiers called Conquistador to conquer the America's and find Gold. Cortez was the first to conquer a group called the Aztec in the city Tenochtitlan in Mexico
Juan Ponce De Leon discovers gold in Puerto Rico. Then he goes to La Florida to find the fountain of Youth in stead he is killed by Native Americans using poisoned Arrows. To protect their claims the Spanish built forts called Persidios. The oldest European settlement is the Presidio St. Augustine. Coronado goes from Mexico city north to find the rumored Seven golden cities of Cibola. Instead in the South West he finds seven villages of Adobe cliff dwellings. In 1532,Pizarro aided by small pox conquered the Inca empire in Peru. He captured the ruler Atahualp and held him for ransom. When he received the gold and silver payment he killed the ruler and took over.
The two sides did exchange knowledge. Natives learned about new tools, foods, and sheep for wool. Spanish learned irrigation in dessert regions. However, slavery and diseases reduced the tribes from 100 to 18 by 1700. In the South West from Florida to California was the Spanish Borderlands. Spain sent missionaries and settlers to occupy these areas and protect them from being claimed by rival countries. Mission were built and run by Catholic Priests in order to convert the local Natives to Christianity. The mission relied on farming. Native Americans were enslaved to work the fields and whipped for non Christian practices.
Marquette and Joliet hoping to find the North West passage explore the Mississippi river. Latter La Salle claimed the land west of the Mississippi in the name of Louis the XIV and named it Louisiana. Chaplain creates the trading post Quebec. Mostly trappers or coureurs de bois " wood rangers" settled in New France. He makes the Huron his business partners even defends them against the Iroquois. Diseases kill many Huron. To compete with Spain Jacques Cartier tried to find the North West passage. Instead he claims (Canada) New France. France makes money from valuable bever fur. Land was given to rich nobles but the harsh conditions made it hard to farm.
The second group arrives too late to plant crops. The leaders returns to England for supplies and can not return for three years. When he returns the only thing they find is the word CROATOAN carved in a tree and no sign of the settlers. In 1607 merchants form the Londan company and get permission to start a colony James town in Virginia to find lumber and furs. 144 settlers of crafts men and gentlemen settle on a mosquito filled swamp , surrounded by Power Natives. John Cabot claimed New foundland off of Canada in the name of England. He brought back fish and lumber. Sir Walter starts the lost colony of Roanoke off the coast of N.C. The first group of settlers refuse to fish and farm and instead return home.
She brings peace between the settlers and natives. When John Smith leaves to engaland Indians refuse to trade with the settlers causing starvation and death. When Smith returns 50 of the 600 are left alive. New settlers arrive but suffer Indian attacks. The settlers did not want to work and the natives were hostile with settlers. John Smith becomes governor and makes them work in order to get food. He is captuered by the natives. Before he is killed he is saved by Pocahontas the daughter of Chief Powhatan. Settlers kidnap Pocahontas and hold her hostage to end Indian attacks on settlers. Over the next year she learns, english and converts to christianity. John Rolfe who successfully grew the new cash crop Tobacco marries Pocahontas bringing peace between the settlers and Indians.
Struyvesant renames it New Amsterdam.The colony becomes a melting pot for Jews, Africans, Swedish, and Europeans. The English decide to claim the colony. The Dutch give up without a fight due to a lack of gunpower The English name it New York after the Duke of York. Sponsored by Hudson explores a river Near New York full of fish. The River is named the Hudson and the territory is claimed as New Netherlands. The West India Trading Company establishes the profitable trading post for fur on Manhattan Island. Peter Minuit the governor buys Manhattan Island for iron pots,beads, blankets, and $24 dollars. Due too their beliefs about land they laughed and made the trade. The Dutch also traded the Iroquis guns for furs. Peter Stuyvesant becomes governor.