Transcript of "Lecture of prof. J. Halligan, Zagreb, 26 September 2012"
Coordination and Collaboration in Government Faculty of Law University of Zagreb 26 September 2012
Questions about coordination & collaboration Why this focus? • Horizontal, connecting trend • Need • Frontier question Three parts: 1. Standard types of coordination 2. Joined-up and horizontal government 3. Collaborations on challenging problems – System-wide and collaboration
1. Basic modes of coordination• Political coordination – Cabinet (about 20 of ministry of 30+) = government – Cabinet committees (eg Expediture Review Committee) – Prime minsters office• Central agencies (Australia) – Policy, financial management, personnel etc• Senior officials comittees – e.g. Management Advisory Board/Committee• Interdepartmental committees
Central coordination• Weak and strong centres of government• Relationship between central agencies and with line ministries (or departments and agencies)• Australian central agencies – Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet – Department of Finance – Public Service Commission
Explanations for & drivers of change• External – Policy challenges & complexities in environment – External threat – Diffusion - international trends• Internal – Reform correction of new public management • Devolution and disaggregation – Growing interdependencies – Agendas on improving performance, service delivery & e-government
Steering & coordination approachesStrategy Feature1. Integrated Traditional bureaucracy, strong control ofhierarchical centre but transactions based2. Prototype steering & Reconfiguring of roles around strategicrowing centre conception, enhanced political executive3. Devolved Department focus & reduced central agency roles4. Integrated control Rebalancing of roles; central control5. Strategic governing Strategic emphasis, national governing
2. Joined-up meanings?• International: – Horizontal, whole-of-government, integrated governance – Common themes & variations• Coordination recycled or new forms?• Questions of joined-up government – Centrality to reform program? – Central agency driven? • Large investment – task forces etc – Reporting on initiatives? (eg State of the Service report) – Commitment to cultural grounding?
Range of options• Instruments – Taskforces/teams/partnerships – Departments/special agencies/networks• Time dimension – Short term exercises & crisis or durable partnerships• Tasks – Policy development, program management & delivery• Structural solutions – Combining delivery networks (eg benefits) – Combining corporate services (eg shared services) – Merging departments & incorporating agencies – Joint policy & program management
CasesCase Description BoundariesAvian Flu Joint action Federal agencies response to short-term crisisCentrelink Seamless service Federal agencies deliveryIndigenous Delivering on Federal/state/service delivery long-term social Local/NGOs problemsAGIMO Central steering Federal agencies of e-government
Strengths and limitationsStrengths & advantages• Balancing vertical focus with horizontal• Addressing intractable problems• Boundary spanning• Promoting collaborationLimitations & challenges• Level of commitment required• Resource costs• Inclinations to obey the functional imperative• Top-down, centrally driven• Culture as barrier to change
3. Collaboration & shared accountability• Collaboration – Assumption about partners and focus on outcomes – the arrangements for specifying responsibilities and accountabilities within a collaboration based on a formal partnership• Type of problem: wicked & tame as points on continuum• Five cases based on: – nature of coordination, policy problem, basis of partnership, – outcomes focus, handling of shared accountability
3. Collaboration & shared accountability• Collaboration – Assumption about partners and focus on outcomes – Arrangements for specifying responsibilities and accountabilities within a collaboration based on a formal partnership• Type of problem: wicked & tame as points on continuum• Five cases based on: – nature of coordination, policy problem, basis of partnership – outcomes focus, handling of shared accountability
Complexity as a combination of intractability & coordination Coordination problemIntractability High LowHigh Wicked Agency-centredMedium/Low Range of problems with elements of intractability
Contradictions in accountability (Australia and New Zealand)• Strength of vertical accountability in AU & NZ• Shared accountability common, becoming more formalised in NZ• Cross-agency arrangements for AU core agencies (including depts of state): 1800 – Service delivery – Provision of advice and data – Shared services – Joined program implementation – Governance agreements*
Types and case featuresType Case Features of Elements of coordination wickednessInternalisation Various supra, mega Depends on efficacy NA and composite of internal departments coordinationMinister-led Finnish system of Cross-ministries from Presumedgroupings policy programs specific programs ExplicitMinistry sectors NZ social sector Selected priorities Specified within sectorsLead department PSA UK Cross-system Presumedfor shared targetsLead agency for Project Wickenby Cross-agencies focus Strong inshared outcomes (international background (tax element) havens)Multi-level wicked Coordinator General Governance element Indigenous SDcoordination for Remote Areas Highly complex wicked Cross-agency Multiple, high
Results by caseCase Horizontal Accountability & Issues character outcomesVarious super Internalisation of Vertical. Dependent Limits to expansion: span of& composite problems on internal program controldepartments structureFinnish policy Minister-led Focus on shared Horizontally weakprogrammes programs outcomes, but lack of Design weaknesses shared accountabilityPSA UK Lead dept for Explicitly focused on Multiple weaknesses in shared targets shared goals & application across civil service targetsNZ Ministry Ministry-led series Outcomes basis Indeterminate. Being refined infor Social of sector programs terms of results. AccountabilityDevelopment specification of partnersProject Lead agency on Focus on project Information & access at wickedWickenby project tasks outcomes end Project accountabilityCoordinator Specialised agency Outcomes focused Responsiveness of partnersGeneral for for coordination of Reporting by Accountability specifications.Remote Areas multi-level problem Coordinator General Outcomes in communities
Issues• Developing an effective shared accountability and outcomes approach• Implications of mainstreaming• Envisaging inter-connected, multi-level collaborations – national and societal dimensions• Experiments attest to difficulties with implementing durable schemes, particularly at the systemic (whole of government) level
Conclusions• International trends support greater emphasis on the horizontal because of complexity problems faced by governments• Constraint: centrality of functional principle in central government organisation• More formalised solutions are growing and experiments with coordination and collaboration can be expected to continue
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.