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  • 1. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING & ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJEET) ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), pp. 130-140 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.5028 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJEET ©IAEME GPS AND PLC – HMI BASED LAVATORY FLUSH CONTROL IN INDIAN RAILWAY COMPARTMENTS Dr. A. Selwin Mich Priyadharson Associate Professor, School of Electrical, Vel Tech Dr. RR & Dr. SR Technical University, Avadi, Chennai, TamilNadu, India– 600 062. ABSTRACT This paper emphasize on controlling the process variable parameters such as flow and level with real time implementation of solenoid valve control in lavatory flush outlet in Indian railway compartments. This work uses Trimble GPS (Global Positioning System) studio and B&R Automation studio PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) with HMI (Human Machine Interface). GPS is used to find exact location of the train (whether train is in station or not) and after acquiring data GPS will send digital signal to automated PLC - HMI to open/close the electrical actuator, solenoid valve for controlling the lavatory outlet. When solenoid valve is closed minimum water level is maintained in the storage tank by level switch for cleanliness in the storage tank. Moreover in lavatory motion detector is placed so that if anyone used toilet and left without flush, sensor will detect and send signal to PLC and it will automatically flush out with certain amount of water. The prototype model is provided with low level in the storage tank and depending on the GPS and motion detector outputs the ladder logic is actuated. This innovative work uses GPS and PLC – HMI with 3 digital inputs and 2 digital outputs to control the miniaturized process depicted in the work. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated by simulation and the results of the proposed scheme are highlighted. Key words: GPS, PLC - HMI, Level switch, flow and level control, solenoid valve, lavatory flush outlet. 1. INTRODUCTION Gallons of water are utilizing for cleaning the stations. The Indian Government is spending 500 crores for cleaning tracks in Railway stations. Maintenance cost involved is high. 130
  • 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME The main objective of this innovative work is to reduce the cleaning process in stations and to decrease the budget included for maintenance in railways and also to give a good eco-friendly environment in stations. This work focuses with the intention of overcome the mentioned problem by maintaining cleanliness in stations and to keep stations tidy by using Trimble GPS (Global Positioning System) studio 1.0.10 and B&R Automation studio version 2.7 PLC with HMI. Binjammaz et al [1] discussed that GPS receivers are used to provide vehicle position and velocity data. Shoab et al [2] described that in Current Scenario GPS is very popular device among people for tracking and navigation purpose. GPS data can be further used for analysing the trip, elevation profile etc. There are so many GPS data formats and different GPS receivers support different formats. Bertran et al [3] presented the electromagnetic interference effects on the performance of locomotive onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers due to the railway environment. And he concluded that the reliability of a low-cost GPS receiver for train positioning even if the train equipment has been designed at the threshold of the current normative. Dewang Chen et al [4] demonstrated that Satellites are currently being used to track the positions of trains. And he developed a nonlinear combinational data reduction model for a large amount of railway Global Positioning System (GPS) data to decrease the memory space and, thus, speed up train positioning. Yaping Lei et al [5] designed a new railway crossing warning system based on GPS and GPRS to ensure the railway safety and improve the passing efficiency in railway crossing,. Jiang et al [6] described from the safety requirements of train positioning in high-speed railways, based on the consideration of signal availability and fault-tolerant performance, an integrated train positioning system is formed by integration of GPS and Compass. Gerlach et al [7] described that for certain types of railway lines replacing the equipment for precise train positioning along the track by suitable low-cost sensors and a digital map on the train can result in a more costefficient railway operation. Tsunashima et al [8] used a GPS system and a map-matching algorithm to pinpoint the location of faults on tracks. Fararooy et al [9] identified existing and developing technologies for accurate train localisation in open space and tunnels and their applications, and attempt has done to match appropriate techniques, in terms of their cost and performance specifications, to the applications for different types of railway and other mass transit systems. The location techniques discussed include GPS, track circuits, radio navigation, and magnetic transponders. Wei Shangguan et al [10] described that the research on low-cost train control system is one of the most important part in train traffic field, using GPS data could realized real-time, safe and reliable train positioning. Nejikovsky et al [11] described a recently developed remote monitoring system, based on a combination of embedded computing, digital signal processing, wireless communications, GPS, and GIS technologies. Haitao et al [12] proposed a positioning algorithm based on a Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) is, so that the navigation accuracy of high speed trains is improved Furthermore, the INS/GPS integrated navigation system based on the information of GPS and INS is modeled and simulated, and the algorithm using Kalman filter (KF) is designed. Stadlmann [13] presented a new kind of train control system for branch lines which are operated by radio-based operational train control. It is based on data radio communication between central computer and trains, cab signalling in the trains, and autonomous determination of train location using GPS and an odometer. Barmada et al [14] approached first to the design of PLC system onboard trains Durmus et al [15] designed interlocking and signalization design for a sample railway yard is achieved by Automation Petri Nets (APNs) which is an extended type of PNs. They described that once the model is obtained using APNs then it can easily be implemented into a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hai Wan et al [16] represented Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) as a typical class of embedded software systems widely used in safety-critical industrial applications, such as railways, automotive applications, etc. Eris et al [17] described that today the relay based railway 131
  • 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME interlocking systems are changing into programmable software interlocking systems. And purposed to develop a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) program for the signal function blocks by using formal methods and make a comparison between them. Chen et al [18] discussed that Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have been widely used in safe-critical systems, such as railway, nuclear power stations and petrochemical plants. Mutlu et al [19] explained that Interlocking systems are the core components of railway signalization systems and designed a new environment to test the reliability of the PLC based interlocking systems. Cheung et al [20] demonstrated that the application of solid state relays and programmable logic controller (PLC) has been widely adopted with the development of the power electronic components and became the emerging norm in the railway industry for new generation of passenger train. Gang Xu et al [21] designed a two-lane automatic antifreeze fluid sprinkler of railway coal conveyor. By means of the control of PLC, their device realized the even, automatic, and short-range spraying of antifreeze fluid for five inside surfaces and the coal seam in the train wagon. In order to utilize the robustness and advantages of the GPS and PLC – HMI, lavatory flush control in Indian Railway compartments using GPS and PLC – HMI is proposed. The present paper is organized as follows: Section 2 deals with the B&R PLC for Indian Railway compartments. Section 3 deals with GPS. Section 4 deals with visualization. Section 5 deals implementation of prototype model. Section 6 describes the simulation studies of lavatory outlet opening and closing by solenoid valve as actuator for lavatory flush control in Indian Railway compartments. Section 7 gives the summary & conclusions. 2. B&R PLC FOR INDIAN RAILWAY COMPARTMENTS When train is at 1 km before reaching the station, it receives signal by GPS receiver and GPS receiver will send digital signal to the PLC. Consequently with the automation of PLC, the solenoid valve will close automatically that is lavatory outlet closed. Vice versa when train leaves from the station of about 1km, with the automation of PLC, the solenoid valve will open automatically that is lavatory outlet will open. Using GPS and PLC - HMI, opening and closing of the lavatory outlet by electrical solenoid valve was done with more perfection. Figure.1. B&R Programmable Logic Controller Figure 1 represents the B&R Industrial Automation PLC. Using this PLC the control action is performed. This PLC of B&R Industrial Automation inbuilt with 3 digital inputs and provides 2 potential free outputs to control the miniaturized process depicted in this work. Here this PLC is 132
  • 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME utilized for auto operation of Lavatory flush control in Indian Railways so that it can be programmed depending on the operational requirements. Its a digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal timing, counting and arithmetic to control through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of machines or process. Programming device I/O Bus Power supply CPU Memory I/O System modules Input Device Output Device Figure.2. Hardware components of B&R PLC The Hardware components of B&R PLC system is shown in figure 2. It has • Processor unit(CPU) • Memory section • Input/output sections • Power supply unit • Programming device • System buses 3. GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM) GPS is space-based satellite navigation system and it gives the position of the train on which it as placed with respect to the latitude and longitude of the earth. The basis [22] of the GPS technology is a set of 24 satellites that are continuously orbiting the earth. These satellites are equipped with atomic clocks and sent out radio signals as to the exact time and location. These radio signals from the satellites are picked up by the GPS receiver. Once the GPS receiver locks on to four or more of these satellites, it can triangulate its location from the known positions of the satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to railways and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. GPS Receiver used in this work is Trimble studio GPS module SR 92 and it is shown in figure 3. The GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include • the time the message was transmitted • satellite position at time of message transmission 133
  • 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Figure.3 GPS Module The receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite using the speed of light. Each of these distances and satellites' locations define a sphere. The receiver is on the surface of each of these spheres when the distances and the satellites' locations are correct. These distances and satellites' locations are used to compute the location of the receiver using the navigation. This location is then displayed, perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitude. The GPS receiver used is a higher performance, low power satellite based model. It is a cost effective and portable system which accurately detects the location .The GPS data sheet and GPS codes gives the features and descriptions of the GPS receiver used is shown in Table I and II. Feature Table .I GPS Datasheet Description Frequency L1, 1575.42 MHZ Channels 20 channels all in view tracking Tracking -159 dbm Time 1 microsecond synchronized to GPS time Maximum speed 514 meter/second maximum Main Power Input 3.0 ~ 5.5 DC input Supply Current < 80 mA Back up Power 3 V rechargeable Lithium battery up to 500 hours discharge GPS Datum (GPS Coordinate Systems) WGS - 84 Software 134
  • 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Table .II GPS Codes Feature UTC time of the fix hhmmss.dd Latitude coordinate Xxmm.dddd Character derothing <N/S> Longitude coordinate yyymm.dddd Character derothing <E/W> Fix valid Indicator V Description hh = hours mm = minutes ss = seconds dd = decimal part of seconds xx = degrees mm = minutes dddd = decimal part of minutes Either N = North or S = South yyy = degrees mm = minutes dddd = decimal part of minutes Either E = East or W = West 0 = Fix not valid 1 = Fix is valid Figure. 4. GPS Programming in Trimble GPS Studio GPS programming is done in Trimble GPS studio and it is represented in figure.4. From GPS figure. receiver, data is obtained and it is given as input to the PLC. Obtaining data from GPS is shown in figure.5 .Programming part is done in Excel in GPS software is shown in figure 6 Finally GPS is ming 6. interfaced with PLC using PC is shown in figure.7. Figure. 5. Various types for obtaining data from GPS Receiver 135
  • 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Figure. 6 Programming in Excel in GPS Software Figure. 7. Interfacing GPS with PC and PLC 4. VISUALIZATION Visualization is the process of designing a Human Machine Interface (HMI) used to operate the PLC with ease. A variety of devices have been in past for interfacing the machine to provide an easy control of the operations. The most modern technique involves the use of touch screen to give the inputs. Figure. 8. HMI displays start/stop button Touch screen are considered more superior to the other interfacing devices since it is very easier to give inputs to the PLC. Moreover the prototype model and its operations are visualized in HMI and the advantage is monitoring and supervising the depicted work in trains in an effective and easy way. Whenever any operations are being performed it is displayed on the screen and thus 136
  • 8. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME enables the user to keep track of what is happening. Figure 8 represents start/stop button in HMI for the designed prototype. The process can be start/stop at any time by pressing the button. Softwares for creating the visualization are specific for a PLC and provided by the B&R Industrial Automation Pvt. Ltd (Austria). Thus the software automation studio proprietary software for the PLC is used along with it. The automation studio provides a user friendly interface for creating and calibrating the touch screens. It has various dynamic features such as profiler, logger, and program watch that helps the user to carry in the programming task as well with ease and it helps for the easy correction of the mistakes made. 5. IMPLEMENTATION OF PROTOTYPE MODEL The block diagram of Hardware set up and Experimental set up is shown in figure 9 and 10. From lavatory, water and wastes is allowed to pass through the storage tank to drain out by solenoid valve 1 as lavatory flush outlet. Main Water Supply Railway Compartment Lavatory Solenoid Valve 2 Waste water Pure water GPS Receiver Level Switch Output Storage Tank PLC PP 45 Motion Detector Solenoid Valve 1 Drain Out Figure.9. Block diagram of Hardware set up Figure.10. Experimental Set Up 137
  • 9. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Pure water is taken from main water supply to the lavatory through solenoid valve 2 and finally it is taken to the storage tank. Motion detector, level switch in storage tank and GPS Receiver are the inputs to the PLC. Depending on the motion detector and level switch outputs, the solenoid valve 2 is opened/ closed at various sequence. And also based on the location of the train from GPS Receiver, the solenoid valve 1 is opened/ closed. 6. SIMULATION STUDIES As trial we took from Avadi to Chennai central. Particularly we selected 5 stations – Avadi, Annanur, Ambattur, Villivakkam and Basin bridge. Keeping Avadi as starting point, from Avadi Annanur, Ambattur, Villivakkam and Basin bridge comes at 2, 3.2, 5.5 and 8.5 kms respectively. The closing and opening of the solenoid valve was done 0.5 km before reaching the particular station and 0.5 km after going ahead of the station respectively. The lavatory flush outlet operation result is shown in figure 11. Solenoid Valve Output 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Railway Distance (Km) Figure.11. Lavatory Flush Outlet Operation 7. CONCLUSION The result of this paper highlights the robustness of the GPS and PLC – HMI based lavatory flush control in Indian Railways compartment. The closed loop response of the GPS and PLC – HMI based lavatory flush control shows satisfactory transient response with perfection in control action for the taken 5 stations. Because of this work the cleanliness can be easily and automatically maintained in trains and railway stations which will reduce the budget amount for maintenance in railways and also this system will save gallons of water. REFERENCES 1. 2. Binjammaz, T. ; Al-Bayatti, A. ; Al-Hargan, A., “GPS integrity monitoring for an intelligent transport system” 10th Workshop on Positioning Navigation and Communication (WPNC), pp 1 – 6, 2013. Shoab, M. ; Jain, K. ; Anulhaq, M. ; Shashi, M., “Development and implementation of NMEA interpreter for real time GPS data logging”, IEEE 3rd International Advance Computing Conference (IACC), pp 143 – 146, 2013. 138
  • 10. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Bertran, E. ; Delgado-Penin, J.A., "On the use of GPS receivers in railway environments” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol 53, Issue 5, pp 1452 – 1460, 2004. Dewang Chen ; Yun-Shan Fu ; Baigen Cai ; Ya-Xiang Yuan, "Modeling and Algorithms of GPS Data Reduction for the Qinghai–Tibet Railway” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol 11, Issue 3, pp 753 – 758, 2010. Yaping Lei ; Hongxiang Xiao, "Research on alarm system of railway crossing based on GPS and GPRS” International Conference on Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE), pp 3374 – 3376, 2011. Jiang Liu ; Bai-gen Cai ; Yun-peng Wang ; Jian Wang ; Wei Shangguan, "A GPS/compass based train integrated positioning method for high-speed railways” IEEE-APS Topical Conference on Antennas and Propagation in Wireless Communications (APWC), pp 1201 – 1204, 2012. Gerlach, K. ; Rahmig, C., "Multi-hypothesis based map-matching algorithm for precise train positioning” 12th International Conference on Information Fusion, pp 1363 – 1369, 2009. Tsunashima, H. ; Naganuma, Y. ; Matsumoto, A. ; Mizuma, T. ; Mori, H., "Japanese railway condition monitoring of tracks using in-service vehicle” 5th IET Conference on Railway Condition Monitoring and Non-Destructive Testing (RCM 2011), pp 1 – 6, 2011. Fararooy, S. ; Allan, J. ; Jin, J. ; Maleki, K. ; Pang, F., "Accurate train localisation in open space and tunnels” International Conference on Public Transport Electronic Systems, pp 25 – 29, 1996. Wei Shangguan ; Bai-gen Cai ; Jian Wang ; Jiang Liu, "Research of train control system special database and position matching algorithm” pp 1039 – 1044, 2009 Nejikovsky, B. ; Keller, E., "Wireless communications based system to monitor performance of rail vehicles” Proceedings of the 2000 ASME/IEEE Joint Railroad Conference, pp 111 – 124, 2000. Haitao Zhang ; Jian Rong ; Xiaochun Zhong, "Research of the INS/GPS Integrated Navigation System for High Speed Trains” The 9th International Conference for Young Computer Scientists (ICYCS), pp 1659 - 1663 2008. 2008. Stadlmann, B., "Automation of Operational Train Control on Regional Branch Lines by a Basic Train Control System”, IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC '06), pp 50 – 54, 2006. Barmada, S. ; Gaggelli, A. ; Musolino, A. ; Rizzo, R. ; Raugi, M. ; Tucci, M., "Design of a PLC system onboard trains: Selection and analysis of the PLC channel” IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and its Applications, (ISPLC), pp 13 -17, 2013. Durmus, M.S. ; Soylemez, M.T., "Railway signalization and interlocking design via Automation Petri Nets” 7th Asian Control Conference (ASCC), pp 1558 – 1563, Hai Wan ; Xiaoyu Song ; Ming Gu, "Parameterized Specification and Verification of PLC Systems in Coq” 4th IEEE International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering (TASE), pp 179 – 182, 2010. Eris, O. ; Mutlu, I., "Design of signal control structures using formal methods for railway interlocking systems” 11th International Conference on Control Automation Robotics & Vision (ICARCV), pp 776 – 780, 2010. Xuekun Chen ; Jiliang Luo ; Pengfei Qi, "Method for translating ladder diagrams to ordinary Petri nets” IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), pp 6716 – 6721, 2012. Mutlu, I. ; Ovatman, T. ; Soylemez, M.T. ; Sumer, L.G., "A new test environment for PLC based interlocking systems” International Conference on Transportation, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering (TMEE), pp 686 - 690 2011. 139
  • 11. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 20. Cheung, M.S.W. ; Cheung, U.Y.N., "Design of solid state relays for control circuitry on 21. 22. 23. 24. railway cars” Proceedings of the IEEE 1999 International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, PEDS '99, Vol 1, pp 180 – 185, 1999. Gang Xu ; Zhi-Gang Niu ; Zhong-Xu Sun ; Xiu-Bo Chen, "Design and application for an automatic antifreeze fluid sprinkler of railway coal conveyor” 2010 International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering (MACE), pp 3242 – 3245, 2010. Ch. Sindhura, B.R.B. Jaswanth, “Designing of a Low Cost Based Alerting System to Prevent the Train Accidents Using GSM and GPS Technology” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA),Vol. 3, Issue 4, pp.2457-2462, Jul-Aug 2013. I.Rajani Kumari and G.Krishna Kishore, “A New Method to Prevent Accidents in Railways using Microcontroller Based on GSM and GPS Technology”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 272 - 282, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. A.Selwin Mich Priyadharson and Dr.T.R.Rangaswamy, “Cascaded Fuzzy Controller Scheme for Combustion Control of a Utility Boiler using Control Balance Model”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 42 - 53, ISSN Print: 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553. 140