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Thermoelectric research in CSIRO


Outline of new materials research and applications for thermoelectrics at CSIRO

Outline of new materials research and applications for thermoelectrics at CSIRO

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  • 1. Thermoelectrics Capabilities CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE) Dr. Nick Savvides, Dr. Karl Müller, Dr. Haiyan Chen, Jack Ling, Dr. Dong Chen, Sarah Miller, and Dr. Howard Lovatt
  • 2. Motivation α 2σ •  Figure of merit for thermoelectrics ZT = T κ •  Current best materials have ZT ~1 •  Typical system efficiency 5 - 12% •  ZT ~ 2 would give up to 25% efficiency •  (For reference, current combustion engine efficiency ~25%!) 1.0 ZT: figure of merit Bi2Te3 0.8 PbTe 0.6 BiSb Si1 xGex 0.4 0.2 0.0 Room temperature 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature (K) CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 3. Materials Research •  Aims of present work •  Prepare fine Mg2Si, Mg2Ge, Mg2Sn and their solid solutions •  Characterize the microstructure, TE prop: α, σ, κ •  Optimize ZT by nanostructuring ….. •  Processing •  Ingots & single-crystals •  direct-melting, Bridgman method, zone-melting… •  Dense compacts: •  Reduction to nano-powders, mechanical alloying, hot pressing… •  Characterization •  Microstructure & composition: XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX… •  TE properties: Seebeck, resistivity, thermal conductivity …. •  Device assembly & testing….. CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 4. Seebeck Coefficient Compound Literature CSIRO Mg2Si 200 – 500 µV/K 330 – 350 µV/K Mg2Ge 200 – 700 220 – 360 Mg2Sn 20 – 115 135 – 188 αy Isotropy Mg2Sn αx CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 5. Electrical Conductivity Dramatic increase in electrical conductivity with control of eutectic composition CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 6. Theoretical Materials Motivation •  No theoretical limit to performance •  Recent reports of experimental materials with high ZT CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 7. Theoretical Materials Result •  CSIRO has a provisional patent on a novel material - offers high ZT ~10 Nanoparticle Electron Reservoir ~100 nm Molecular Quantum Dot 0D ~1 nm CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 8. Genset Waste Heat Recovery •  30 kW natural gas Genset •  Waste heat from exhaust 18kW •  Target electricity 500W •  FY 07/08: Demonstration unit Electric Output Expander +17kW Condenser Water Heater Boiler Thermoelectric 95°C -34kW +34kW -30kW 90°C 520°C 150°C 85°C +17kW Pump 5.4 L/min CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 9. TEG System in Construction CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 10. Solar Thermoelectric Design and Analysis •  Motivation: To design and evaluate solar thermoelectric systems suitable for urban, rural and remote locations •  Facilities and Capabilities: •  The National Solar Energy Centre in Newcastle has tracking solar collector systems including parabolic troughs and heliostat array. A solar dish is located at Lucas Heights •  The National Solar Energy Centre continuously records accurate local weather data for system analysis •  Design and analysis of solar thermal systems using the latest tools and techniques developed by, and in collaboration with, the international solar thermal community •  Multidisciplinary team of physicists, electrical, electronic, mechanical and chemical engineers with expertise in optics, fluid dynamics and thermodynamics CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 11. Concentrating Solar Facilities CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 12. DET Thermoelectric Activities •  Engaging with major engineering company on feasibility of harnessing energy from the environment, including a low temperature, non-concentrating, solar powered thermoelectric device ($70k) •  Performing an techno-economic appraisal of a solar thermoelectric trough concept •  Evaluating technologies for harnessing energy from the environment to power sensors. Literature review in progress CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 13. Power Conditioning and Control Power generation •  Convert/invert voltage •  Need to find maximum power point and convert/invert voltages CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 14. Applications •  Medical hyperthermia/hypothermia •  Energy conservation •  Waste heat energy recovery •  Sensing •  Refrigeration •  Solar thermal power generation CSIRO. Thermoelectric Capabilities
  • 15. CSIRO Material Science and Engineering (CMSE) Dr. Howard C Lovatt Stream Leader - Energy Conversion Devices Phone: +61 2 9413 7412 Email: howard.lovatt@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au Thank You Contact Us Phone: 1300 363 400 or +61 3 9545 2176 Email: Enquiries@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au