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Applied Magnetics and Drives

Dr Howard Lovatt
CSIRO Material Science and Engineering
May 2009
Electric Machine Technology
Magnetic Materials

•  Permanent Magnets
    •  sintered commercial magnets,
        Nd2Fe14B, Sm2Co17, ferrites
    •  No...
Machine Design – Motors and Generators



•  Design of Induction, Switched Reluctance
   and Permanent Magnet machines
•  ...
Machine Design – Motors and Generators




•    Winding Design
•    Magnetic Couplings
•    Solenoids
•    Magnetic separa...
Advantages of brushless rare-earth permanent
    magnet motors


•  High Efficiency - typically
   greater than 90%
•  Imp...
Power Electronics and Control



•  Power electronic circuits
•  Hardware: Analogue and digital
   circuits design and pro...
Power Electronics and Control
Design for Manufacture


•  Integration of motor and
   controller
•  Lamination production
•  Use of existing stator or
 ...
Magnetic Separator
Solenoids




•  Very low cost
•  Constant force characteristic
•  Uses DC
•  Silent - plunger does not
   impact on end s...
Innovative Motors - Motor and Sensorless
   Controller




•  3-phase brushless pm
   motor
•  740 W at 20,000 rev/
   min...
Permanent Magnet Generators: Cogeneration and
Wind
Innovative Motors - Wool Shear Motor




•  Wool shearing hand-
   piece motor
•  Efficiency ~96%
•  Slotless winding and
...
Innovative Motors – High Speed
  Motor
  High-speed compressor motor
     Customer: Danfoss/Turbocor (US based but
      ...
Innovative Motors - Actuator


•  Valve actuator
•  Customer:
    •  Transfield
•  High-torque motor, 120 Nm
•  Direct-dri...
Innovative Motors - Oil-Well Mule


•  Oil-Well Mule Motor
•  Customer:
    •  ORAD Ltd
•  Slotless winding
•  500 W, 92% ...
Innovative Motors - Solar Powered Pump


•  Rural/Agricultural
   Pumps
•  Customer:
     •  Mono Pumps
•  Pumps twice as ...
Innovative Motors - Solar Car Motor

•      Solar Car Motor
     Ironless, axial flux, 98% efficient, 1.8 kW
     (rated 3...
Innovative Motors - Solar Car Motor
Innovative Motors - Switched Reluctance
   Motors


•  The Benefits
 •  Lowest production cost of all
    electrical motor...
Innovative Motors - Switched Reluctance
Motors

          Switched Reluctance Motor - circuit coupled FEA
Innovative Motors - Switched Reluctance
Motors
Hybrid Electric Vehicles




Holden ECOmmodore (parallel HEV)




aXcess Australia LEV (series HEV)
Hybrid Electric Vehicles
CSIRO Material Science and Engineering
Name     Dr Howard Lovatt
Phone    +61 2 9413 7412
Email    howard.lovatt@csiro.au
...
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Electrical Machines research at CSIRO

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Some past projects with industry

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Electrical Machines research at CSIRO

  1. 1. Applied Magnetics and Drives Dr Howard Lovatt CSIRO Material Science and Engineering May 2009
  2. 2. Electric Machine Technology
  3. 3. Magnetic Materials •  Permanent Magnets •  sintered commercial magnets, Nd2Fe14B, Sm2Co17, ferrites •  Novel shapes – wire and water jet cutting •  polymer bonded magnets, anisotropic HDDR (MQA-T powder) •  Magnetically soft materials •  glassy metals •  powdered iron cores •  low-loss electrical steels •  rotational and high- frequency losses
  4. 4. Machine Design – Motors and Generators •  Design of Induction, Switched Reluctance and Permanent Magnet machines •  Machine design (magnetic circuit design) using 2D and 3D finite element analysis. •  Optimisation •  objective function, (e.g. cost, efficiency) is sought over key variables subject to constraint of motor specification (volume, torque etc) •  Circuit Analysis •  Novel Machine Topology •  slotless, ironless, axial flux, permanent magnet reluctance
  5. 5. Machine Design – Motors and Generators •  Winding Design •  Magnetic Couplings •  Solenoids •  Magnetic separators •  Mechanical design of machine, and solid modelling of machine and power electronics (AutoDesk Inventor)
  6. 6. Advantages of brushless rare-earth permanent magnet motors •  High Efficiency - typically greater than 90% •  Improved Reliability (no brushes) •  High Torque-to-Weight Ratio •  Increased Power-to- Weight Ratio •  Reduced Dimensions - Compactness •  Cool Operation •  Quiet Operation •  Possible Lower Cost
  7. 7. Power Electronics and Control •  Power electronic circuits •  Hardware: Analogue and digital circuits design and prototype •  Software development for microcontrollers, DSPs and PLDs •  Sensor and sensorless control techniques •  Circuit simulation and modelling •  Matlab, Simulink and dSpace platforms •  microAutoBox for automotive
  8. 8. Power Electronics and Control
  9. 9. Design for Manufacture •  Integration of motor and controller •  Lamination production •  Use of existing stator or housing •  Bearings, seals and cooling •  Testing •  loss separation •  thermal •  In-situ multi-pole magnetisation •  design and construction of multi-pole magnetising fixture
  10. 10. Magnetic Separator
  11. 11. Solenoids •  Very low cost •  Constant force characteristic •  Uses DC •  Silent - plunger does not impact on end stop •  Does not burn-out as resistance constant in any position
  12. 12. Innovative Motors - Motor and Sensorless Controller •  3-phase brushless pm motor •  740 W at 20,000 rev/ min •  high-efficiency >90% •  no magnetic hysteresis losses •  1 kW sensorless controller
  13. 13. Permanent Magnet Generators: Cogeneration and Wind
  14. 14. Innovative Motors - Wool Shear Motor •  Wool shearing hand- piece motor •  Efficiency ~96% •  Slotless winding and glassy metal stator •  Hand piece stays cool •  150 W, 13,300 rpm, (total losses 6 W)
  15. 15. Innovative Motors – High Speed Motor High-speed compressor motor   Customer: Danfoss/Turbocor (US based but formerly Multistack in Australia)   Patents in ~15 countries   Collaborators: CIP and UTS   High-speed motor developed, ~50 kW, 50,000 rpm   Won many international awards US EPA Climate ASHRAE/AHR Expo Canadian Energy Protection Award "Energy Innovation“ Award Efficiency Award
  16. 16. Innovative Motors - Actuator •  Valve actuator •  Customer: •  Transfield •  High-torque motor, 120 Nm •  Direct-drive (no gearbox) •  Mounted axially with valve
  17. 17. Innovative Motors - Oil-Well Mule •  Oil-Well Mule Motor •  Customer: •  ORAD Ltd •  Slotless winding •  500 W, 92% efficient, 2- pole Sm2Co17 rotor •  Operates at 150OC and at 500 atmospheres
  18. 18. Innovative Motors - Solar Powered Pump •  Rural/Agricultural Pumps •  Customer: •  Mono Pumps •  Pumps twice as much water in a day as competitors •  Water filled 300 W, >85% efficient •  Powered by the sun through solar panels •  Bore-hole depths to 120 m and 100 mm diameter •  Mechanically simple
  19. 19. Innovative Motors - Solar Car Motor •  Solar Car Motor Ironless, axial flux, 98% efficient, 1.8 kW (rated 3.6 kW), 1,060 rpm (100 kph), 16 Nm, Active mass 5 kg
  20. 20. Innovative Motors - Solar Car Motor
  21. 21. Innovative Motors - Switched Reluctance Motors •  The Benefits •  Lowest production cost of all electrical motors •  Ideal for applications in domestic appliances and vehicles •  Torque/Volume ratio intermediate between Rare Earth Permanent Magnet and Induction motors •  Operate over wide speed range •  Mechanically robust design suited to harsh environments
  22. 22. Innovative Motors - Switched Reluctance Motors Switched Reluctance Motor - circuit coupled FEA
  23. 23. Innovative Motors - Switched Reluctance Motors
  24. 24. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Holden ECOmmodore (parallel HEV) aXcess Australia LEV (series HEV)
  25. 25. Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  26. 26. CSIRO Material Science and Engineering Name Dr Howard Lovatt Phone +61 2 9413 7412 Email howard.lovatt@csiro.au Web www.csiro.au Thank You Contact CSIRO Phone 1300 363 400 +61 3 9545 2176 Email enquiries@csiro.au Web www.csiro.au

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