On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Substantive - “Lay judgments about risk are as sound or more so than those of experts. The public may see things that experts do not. The public is also more aware of the social and political values related to the risk situation.”
Normative - “Technocratic orientation is incompatible with democratic needs. The public has a right to be involved in decisions affecting their interests.”
Instrumental - “Lay participation in risk decisions makes them more legitimate and leads to better results. If we deny the public the right to participate in decisions affecting them, we only deepen their skepticism of risk institutions. Moreover, a broader degree of participation may reduce the probability of error in resulting decisions.”
Stakeholder “ a person with an interest or a concern about something ” -Oxford English Dictionary