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  • 1. Benefits of Public Participation
    • Increased Competence of Decision makers
    • Greater Legitimacy through Greater Accountability
    • Proper Conduct of Democratic Societies
    • Increased Coordination between various levels of government
    • An appreciation by the public of the limited resources and difficult choices that are faced by the Hazards Risk Management team
    • The development of strong working relationships
  • 2. 3 Arguments for Public Participation
    • Substantive - “Lay judgments about risk are as sound or more so than those of experts. The public may see things that experts do not. The public is also more aware of the social and political values related to the risk situation.”
    • Normative - “Technocratic orientation is incompatible with democratic needs. The public has a right to be involved in decisions affecting their interests.”
    • Instrumental - “Lay participation in risk decisions makes them more legitimate and leads to better results. If we deny the public the right to participate in decisions affecting them, we only deepen their skepticism of risk institutions. Moreover, a broader degree of participation may reduce the probability of error in resulting decisions.”
  • 3. Stakeholder “ a person with an interest or a concern about something ” -Oxford English Dictionary
  • 4. Common Stakeholder Groups
    • Industry and Business
    • Infrastructure
    • The Media
    • Volunteer and Community-Based Organizations
    • Health Care
    • Workforce
    • Education
    • General Public
  • 5. Four ‘Publics’ in Public Involvement
    • Fanatics
    • Attentives
    • Browsers
    • Inattentives
    • Source: Sandman, Peter M. 1995. The “Publics” in Public Involvement. Conference Handouts. <http://www.psandman.com>.
  • 6. Methods of Stakeholder Involvement
    • Holding Regular Community Meetings or Public Hearings
    • Establish a Hotline
    • Conduct Interviews
    • Distribute Questionnaires/Surveys
    • Conduct Meetings with Citizen Advisory Committees
    • Hold Public Deliberation Forums
    • Allow for General Public Participation
    • Conduct Initiatives
  • 7. Types of Public Participation
    • Simple Information - Feedback
    • Consultation
    • Joint Planning
    • Mediation of Resistant Issues
    • Delegated Decision-Making
    • Source : Connor, Desmond M. No Date. Model Approaches for Public Participation . Connor
    • Development Services, Ltd. Constructive Citizen Participation Newsletter.
  • 8. 11 Key Actions for Managing Public Consultation
    • Plan Ahead
    • Test the Program
    • Invest Time and Money
    • Involve Operations Managers Directly
    • Hire and Train the Right Personnel
    • Maintain Overall Responsibility
    • Coordinate all Consultation
  • 9. 11 Key Actions for Managing Public Consultation (Cont’d)
    • Build Dialogue and Trust
    • Manage Expectations
    • Work with Governments
    • Work with NGOs and Community-Based Organizations