U.S., China, & the UK 2011 Internet users (per 100 people)• 38 out of 100 people in China were internet users• 78 out of 100 people in the U.S. were internet users• 81 out of 100 people in the UK were internet users
Rural AmericaRural America lags behind the rest of thecountry in Internet usage, making ruralschools an important center of connectivityin the communities. In 2010, 57 percent ofrural households had broadband Internetaccess, compared to 72 percent in urbanareas.U.S. Department of Commerce, 2011
How Does NC Rank?• According to the US Department of Commerce, NC ranked 36 out of 50 for Computer and Internet Use in 2010. • 64% in urban NC use broadband internet • 58% in rural NC use broadband internet
A Summary of DividesAccording to the Economic IntelligenceUnit (2012), the following is the summaryof divides found around the world• Ability • Access • Age• Broadband • Content • Culture• Education • Gender • Income• Language • Location • Measurement• Mobile • Skills • Usage
Digital Divides• Access and Connectivity• Competencies and Skills
Why is it important to bridge the gap? • According to the Information Communications Technologies (ICT) and the 50x15 Initiative, there are 4 important elements: • Economic equality • Social Mobility • Democracy • Economic Growth (Internet World Stats, 2012)
Second Digital Divide• “The digital divide in education goes beyond the issue of access to technology. A second digital divide separates those with the competencies and skills to benefit from computer use from those without.” (Trucano, 2010)• Second digital divide lies at the core of the educational challenge faced by many countries today (Trucano, 2010).
Second Digital Divide“Policy decisions must take into consideration the necessaryinvestment in training and support as well. Like education ingeneral, it is not enough to give people a book, we also haveto teach them how to read for them to gain any use from it.”“It is not enough to wire all communities and declare thateveryone now has equal access to the Internet. They may stillcontinue to lack effective access in that they may not knowhow to extract information for their needs from the materialavailable on the Web.”“Although providing Internet access may help alleviate someproblems of the digital divide, a second-level digital divideremains when it comes to people’s ability to effectively usethe medium.” (Hargittai, n.d.).
Having Our Say: Middle Grade Student Perceptions of School, Technologies, and Academic Engagement Results from a study conducted with 4,000 NC middle grade students•Students demonstrate an increased passion for &reliance on technologies for entertainment &communication.•In many cases, out of school technology use had“lapped” in school technology use, even in ruraland underserved schools.•Students demonstrated a sophisticated knowledge about what they want to do in school and whatactivities interested them.Spires, Lee, Turner, & Johnson, 2008
Participants # of Teachers Survey Total Participants 452 Gender Males 74 Females 378 % of Teachers Ethnicity American Indian 1% Asian 1% African American 7% Caucasian 88% Hispanic 1% Other 2% Education Bachelor’s Degree 62% Master’s Degree 37% Doctoral Degree 1%Years Teaching Less than 5 years 21% 5-9 years 27% 10-20 years 33% More than 20 years 19%
Focus Group Session Results(1) Today’s students need 21st century skills (e.g., problem solving, collaboration, critical thinking, creativity). “They don’t read it. They find a picture and read the caption. If it is not quick or flashing they can’t find it. They need to know how to read, how to find it on the internet and know if it is valuable or not.”(2) Teachers’ roles are changing. “Sometimes students learn better from their peers. Todays’ teachers need to be willing to work outside of their comfort zone and to be open to learning from their students.”
Focus Group Session Results(3) We need technology and professional development in order to be technology savvy. “Once a school buys a program, we are required to learn the program on our own. It would be more helpful if the content was presented when the technology was introduced.”(4) We have challenges implementing digital technology in the classroom. “We have used students cell phones for Google searches,taking pictures and even as a stopwatch (we don’t even have stopwatches in school).”
Research Summary• 12% of NC teachers fully integrated digital tools and resources in a learner-centered approach (levels 4b – 6), placing an emphasis on student action and higher-level thinking.• There appears to be a disconnect between what teachers believe to be the most important school priority and the level of support they are receiving.• Technology is evolving at a fast pace; school infrastructure and teacher capacity are lagging.
ScalingDigitalizationTook over 50years for theelectrification of America
What Can You Do To Affect theDigital Divide at Your School?
Thank you!Let me hear from firstname.lastname@example.org
References• Hargittai (n.d.). Second digital divide: Differences in people’s online skills. Retrieved from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_4/hargittai• Hitch, C. (n.d.). Improving your technology utilization: A quick review can help you determine whether your school is making the most of its technology budget. Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/638?ref=search• James, E. (2000). Learning to bridge the digital divide: Computers alone are not enough to join the e-economy. Digital literacy is too essential too. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.• Internet World Stats (2012). The digital divide, ITC and the 50x15 Initiative.• Lenhart, A. (2012). Digital divides and bridges: Technology use among youth. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/PewInternet/digital-divides-and-bridges-technology-use-among-youth• Spires, H., Bartlett, M., & Garry, A. (2012). Digital Literacies and Learning: Designing a Path Forward. White paper funded by the Friday Institute for Educational Innovation: NCSU• Spires, H., Lee, J., Turner, K., & Johnson, J. (2008). Having our say: Middle grades students perspectives on school, technologies, and academic engagement. Journal of Research in Technology in Education. 40 (4), 497-515.• Spires, H., Morris, G., & Zhang, J. (2012). New literacies and emerging technologies: Perspectives from middle grade teachers in the US and China. Research in Middle Level Education, 35(10), 1-11.• The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited (2012). Smart policies to close the digital divide: Best practices from around the world. Retrieved from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan049753.pdf• Trucano, M. (2010). The Second Digital Divide. Retrieved from http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/the-second- digital-divide• U.S. Department of Commerce. (2011). Exploring the digital nation: Computer and Internet use at home. Retrieved from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/exploring_the_digital_nation_computer_and_internet_use_at_home_ 11092011.pdf.• World Bank (2012)• Zickuhr, K., & Smith, S. (2012) Digital differences. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project