A learning upgrade


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A learning upgrade - gender and ICT in education

Presented at the Learning and Teaching with Technology Conference (September 2012) by Gerry White, ACER.

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  • Interest in blogs keeps growing. By the end of 2011, NM Incite, a Nielsen/McKinsey company, tracked over 181 million blogs around the world, up from 36 million only five years earlier in 2006.Overall, 6.7 million people publish blogs on blogging websites, and another 12 million write blogs using their social networks.
  • A learning upgrade

    1. 1. A learning upgrade Dr Gerald White (Gerry) Principal Research Fellow &Digital Education Research Network http://dern2.acer.edu.au
    2. 2. • Overwhelming information• Using ICT• A myth• Educational improvement• Research findings• Teaching & educational improvement• What we can do
    3. 3. Information overload Infowhelmhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ECAVxbfsfc
    4. 4. Mobile 96% 9-16 year olds access the internet often using mobile devices (60%) ACMA. (2011). Communications report 2010–11 series: Report 3—The emerging mobile telecommunications service market in Australia. ACMA: Canberra, Australia. Retrieved December 20, 2011, from http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDAR D/pc=PC_410225.
    5. 5. Mobile phone ownershipKerr, D. (2012). One-fifth of third-graders own cell phones. Retrieved April 11, 2012, fromhttp://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57411576-93/one-fifth-of-third-graders-own-cell-phones/.
    6. 6. TabletsWarschauerm, M. (2011). Eventually Tablets will Facilitate more Personalized and Interactive Learning.Retrieved April 28, 2011, from https://edutechdebate.org/tablet-computers-in-education/eventually-tablets-will-facilitate-more-personalized-and-interactive-learning/.
    7. 7. Ereaders & tabletsWebb, J. (2012). Publishing News: Ereader ownership doubles again. In O’Reilly Radar blog 27January, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from http://radar.oreilly.com/2012/01/ereader-survey-amazon-houghton-mifflin-libraries.html.
    8. 8. Usage (5-14 years olds)80% have access to the internet91% accessed the internet from homeAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children access theinternet from schoolBoys use social networking less than girlsBoys• interactive role playing games• accessing audio-visual content (news, sports, weather)Girls• access internet from home• educational activities Australian Bureau of Statistics, (2011). Children of the Digital Revolution. Australian Social Trends, June 2011. Retrieved from http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/LookupAttach/4102.0Publication29.06.11 7/$File/41020_Childrendigital_Jun2011.pdf.
    9. 9. Teensfunctions usedLenhart, A. et al. (2010). Teens andMobile Phones. Pew Internet. RetrievedMay 28, 2010, fromhttp://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones/Chapter-2/Part-4.aspx?r=1
    10. 10. Teachers useGrunwald Associates. (2011). Deepening Connections: Teachers Increasingly Rely on Media and Technology.Retrieved July 13, 2011, from http://www.grunwald.com/pdfs/PBS-GRUNWALD_2011_ANNUAL_ED_TECH_STUDY.pdf.
    11. 11. What we buy most onlineDunlevy, s. (2011). Internet is becoming a daily habit for more than half of us. The Australian. June 30,2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/internet-is-becoming-a-daily-habit-for-more-than-half-of-us/story-fn59niix-1226084455871.
    12. 12. Internet trafficBarnett, T. (2011). The Dawn of the Zettabyte Era. In Cisco blog. RetrievedAugust 12, 2011, from http://blogs.cisco.com/news/the-dawn-of-the-zettabyte-era-infographic/.
    13. 13. Number of blogsNM Incite. (2012). Number of blogs tracked by NM Incite. Retrieved march 14, 2012, fromhttp://www.nmincite.com/?page_id=210.
    14. 14. Educational improvement• BECTa impact studies 12% gain• European impact studies• US ED Tamin, R., Bernard, R., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P. & Schmid,• OECD-PISA R. (2011). What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-• TIMSS Analysis and Validation Study. Review of Educational Research 81(4), 2011.• NSW Partners in Learning
    15. 15. Educational improvement Blended learning Face-to-face Online learning instruction Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction than did purely online instruction.Means, B. et al. (2010). Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices inOnline Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. US Dept of Education: Centre forTechnology in Learning. Washington; USA
    16. 16. Teachers & quality teaching50% Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses30% relating to achievement. New York: Routledge.15%
    17. 17. Measure ICTAttempting to isolate the productivity andperformance of information communicationtechnology investment may be becoming ratherlike trying to allocate credit for a good cake tothe quality of a particular ingredient rather thana complex interaction of all the ingredients.US economist Dick NelsonReported in BRW, 10-16 May, 2007
    18. 18. ICT LiteracyConsistent with the pattern observed in 2008, femalesrecorded higher levels of ICT literacy than males. Eventhough females expressed lower levels of interest andenjoyment than males in computing, they expressedsimilar levels of confidence in their ability to carry outICT-based tasks without assistance and they achievedhigher scores on ICT Literacy than males. Ainley, J. , & et al. (2012). National assessment program – ICT literacy years 6 & 10 report 2011. Sydney, NSW: Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority . Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu.au/_Documents/PDF/NAP%20ICTL%202011%20Public%20Report%2 0Final.pdf
    19. 19. Digital reading• Students score significantly higher in digital reading than print reading• Girls outperformed boys in both formats• Fewer girls performed poorly in digital reading than in print reading• The gap between girls and boys narrows in digital reading• Boys outperform girls in digital navigation• The increase in reading proficiency is greater for boys OECD. (2012). Are boys and girls ready for the digital age? OECD In Focus report 12. Paris: OECD.
    20. 20. Digital readingStudents in Australia, Korea, New Zealand – higher in digital reading than print reading Girls out perform boys in both formats Gap between low & high performance less for digital reading • More girls at higher end of the scale • More boys at lower end of the scale Boys much better in digital reading than print reading • navigation–route knowledge (Martens, J. & Antonenko, A. (2012). Narrowing gender based performance gaps in virtual environment navigation. Computers in Human Behavior. Vol. 28. pp. 809-819.) PISA In Focus, (2012). Are boys and girls ready for the digital age?. OECD. Retrieved from http://www.oecd- ilibrary.org/docserver/download/fulltext/5k9gzj7398bw.pdf?expires=1336182313&id=id&accname=guest &checksum=3D41EEB01A8D8B98EDD4E7F7CEA00EA9
    21. 21. Reading comprehensionEvidence is beginning to emerge that readingcomprehension from reading on a digital tabletis better than reading from printed books anddesktop computer screens
    22. 22. Students & ereadersProject Tomorrow CEO Julie Evans covered data from the 2010 and 2011 editions of theSpeak Up Survey (http://www.tomorrow.org/speakup/)Students dont want CD or e-reader versions of these materials. They want Web-based tools that enhance communication and collaboration.• Specific elements of the "ultimate" e-textbook include: – Available online tutoring for specific concepts; – Chat rooms for social, peer-to-peer interaction; – Digital, online assessment tools; – The ability to download resources to mobile devices, including phones; and – Virtual labs and lessons that include video, access to real-time data, games, animations, and 3D renderings.Riedel, C. (2012). Digital Learning: What Kids Really Want. In The Journal. Retrieved February, 8,2012, from http://thejournal.com/articles/2012/02/01/digital-learning-what-kids-really-want.aspx.
    23. 23. Searching Behavioural & metacognitive strategies Searching for: Daily life information – competent Learning information – not confidentBoys GirlsDaily life – Behavioural Daily life – behavioural (control) & (control & orientation) evaluating qualityLearning – get lost more often Learning – influenced by context & persistent Tsai, M., & et al. (2012). University students’ online information searching strategies in different search contexts. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology , Vol. 28 Issue 5, 881-895. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet28/tsai-mj.pdf.
    24. 24. GamificationBoys have better navigation and orientation skills withdigital games (spatial abilities)Boys play computer games more than girlsGirls are better at playing the digital gamesGirls are better at designing games (writing,collaborating, …)Robertson, J. (2012). Making games in the classroom: Benefits andgender concerns. Computers & Education Vol. 59. pp 385-398.
    25. 25. Social networking researchSocial networking used for learning or entertainment• Learning – research, projects, production• Entertainment – personal, social, gamesCha, J. (2010). Factors affecting the frequency and amount of social networking site use: Motivations, perceptions, and privacy concerns.First Monday, 15(6), 12 - 6 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January, 2012, fromhttp://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/2889/2685.
    26. 26. Social networking research• Media use – video, online communication & media multitasking – were consistently associated with as range of negative socioemotional outcomes (social success, feeling normal, having friends whom parents perceive as a bad influence and sleeping)• Face-to-face communication consistently with a range of positive socioemotional outcomes• Face-to-face communication and online communication are not interchangeable• Media multitasking, online communication, messaging, talking on the phone and listening to music are interchangeable• Adults and children more willing to use technologies when with other people (but not reading)• Reading and media multitasking are exclusive• Face-to-face communication was negatively associated with face-to-face multitasking (do not want distraction)Pea, R., Clifford, N.,Meheula, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., Nass, M., Simha, A., Strillerman, B., Yang, S. & Zhou, M. (2012,January 23). Media use, face-to-face Communication, Media Multitasking, and Social Well-Being Among 8- to 12 Year-OldGirls. Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.1037/a0027030.
    27. 27. DistractabilityInformation qualityGasser, U., & et al, (2012). Youth and digital media: from credibility to information quality. Social Science ResearchNetwork, Berkman Center Research Publication No. 2012-1. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2005272.Social networkingCha, J. (2010). Factors affecting the frequency and amount of social networking site use: motivations, perceptions,and privacy concerns. First Monday, Volume 15, Number 12. Retrieved fromhttp://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2889/2685.iPadsJennings, G. , & et al, (2010). Step Forward iPad Pilot Project. Melbourne, Vic: The University of Melbourne.Retrieved fromhttps://docs.google.com/file/d/0B5lvGCuvwcgXZWZkYmEzNDMtNmQ1OS00NmRhLTlhYmItOTU5NmVhYWJlNDA1/edit?hl=en&pli=1.Problem solving approach can removedistractionGurell, S., Kuo, Y., & Walker, A. (2010). The pedagogical enhancement of open education: an examination ofproblem-based learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Vol 11, No 3, 95-105.Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/886 .
    28. 28. Genderdifferences- internetapplications Source: Nielsen Online (2008) The Australian Internet and Technology Report, February, 16+ years old, sample=1,356, Multiple responses. Note: Excludes ‘Anything else’ and ‘None of the above’. Chart displays activities with points of difference more than 5 per cent of use between male and female users. ACMA Media release 130/2008-22 October. On-line transactions, streamed content, email and social networking signal changes in how Australians use the internet. Retrieved October 23, 2008 from http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311468.
    29. 29. Social media & genderGarber, M. (2012). The Ditgital(Gender) Divide: Women AreMore Likely Than Men to have aBlog (and a Facebook Profile).From the Atlantic. Retrieved May1, 2012, fromhttp://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/04/the-digital-gender-divide-women-are-more-likely-than-men-to-have-a-blog-and-a-facebook-profile/256466/.
    30. 30. Facebook research• FB users report lower achievement scores• FB users spend fewer hours studying than non-FB users• FB and non-FB users spend the same amount of time using the internet• FB users had poor time management eg procrastinationKirschner, P. & Karpinski, P. (2010). Facebook and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior. 26(6), pp. 1237-1245.
    31. 31. Stop lights for some
    32. 32. Digital natives myth 21C 20C19C 19C(Technological determinism-Prensky, Tapscott, Oblinger)
    33. 33. Home – school FindingsUsing a computer at home is The rhetoric that universityrelated to digital reading students are Digital Natives andperformance in all 17 university staff are Digitalparticipating countries and Immigrants is not supported.economies, but that is notalways true for computer use at Kennedy, G. (2009). Educating the Net Generation.: A Handbook of Findings for Practice and Policy. Melbourne:school. University of Melbourne. Retrieved July 2010, from http://www.netgen.unimelb.edu.au/downloads/handbook/Net GenHandbookAll.pdf.OECD. (2009). PISA 2009 Results: Students OnLine. Digital Technologies and PerformanceVolume VI. Paris: OECD.
    34. 34. SafetyGreen, L. et al. (2011). Risks and safety forAustralian children on the internet. Brisbane; TheARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industriesand Innovation.(96% home & school, 31% out, 46%bedroom [girls 56%, boys 38%], 70%friend’s house, 60% mobile, 76% daily)9-16 year olds experienced• sexual images 44%• bullied 29%• sexual message 15%• meet new online 34%• met offline 5%BUT• not bothered 21%
    35. 35. Error message
    36. 36. KnowledgeTaxonomyISTE. (2010). Using McREL’s Knowledge taxonomy for Ed Tech Professional Development. In Leading & Learning. (p.20).Retrieved August 15, 2010, from http://www.learningandleading-digital.com/learning_leading/20100607#pg22.
    37. 37. Teacher imperatives TPACKMishra, P. & Koehler, M.(2006).Technologicalpedagogical contentknowledge: A framework Technological http://www.tpck.org/for teacher knowledge .Teachers College Record.108(6), pp. 1017-54. Knowledge Pedagogical Content
    38. 38. Educational improvement Blended learning Face-to-face Online learning instruction Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction than did purely online instruction.Means, B. et al. (2010). Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices inOnline Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. US Dept of Education: Centre forTechnology in Learning. Washington; USA
    39. 39. Project based learningSkillen, P. & Sherry, B. (2012). What’s the Best way to Practice Project Based Learning. In 21stCentury Fluenct Project blog. Retrieved August 12, 2012, fromhttp://www.fluency21.com/blogpost.cfm?blogID=2849.
    40. 40. Personalised learning (customised) Further details at: http://dern2.acer.edu.au Self-directed learningFurther details at: http://dern2.acer.edu.au
    41. 41. Inquiry based learning• Can be personalised• Research focused• Inquiry based skills (searching; curating; assessing quality, currency & relevance) need to be taught• Life-long learning Further details at: http://dern2.acer.edu.au
    42. 42. Learning
    43. 43. Digital fluency learning program• Acceptable behaviour • Design skills• Collaboration, • Digital fluency communication, problem • Ethics solving and research skills • History of the internet• Digital Commons • Identity• Community involvement • Project management• Copyright • Safety• Critical thinking • Technology terms
    44. 44. What can we do?• The use of digital technologies & digital media need to be taught• Collaboration and social networking for learning can improve engagement and performance – Distractability for entertainment can reduce performance• Better reading performance for digital reading than print• Mobility in learning eliminates the boundaries• Blended learning with instruction is superior• Gamification, project & inquiry based learning suited to ICT• Personalise learning
    45. 45. Creating change Roger’s diffusion of innovations Aus NZ Wikipedia. (2011). Rogers’ diffusion of innovations. Retrieved November 18, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_of_innovations.
    46. 46. Influencer theoryLivingston, G. (2011). The state of influencer theory on the social Web. InSmart Blog on Social Media. Retrieved July 18, 2011, fromhttp://smartblogs.com/socialmedia/2011/07/15/the-state-of-influencer-theory-on-the-social-web/.
    47. 47. Where have we been?• Information has become overwhelming• Using of ICT• Students are not experts• Educational improvement• Research findings• Teaching & learning• What you can do
    48. 48. How to get started• Way forward - use open educational resources• Way forward - bring your own approved device• Organise observations of good teaching in good schools• Share teaching practices
    49. 49. Gerry White Principal Research Fellow whiteg@acer.edu.auDigital Education Research Network http://dern2.acer.edu.au