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  • There are clearly major regional differences in gas supply and demand. Getting gas to market via pipeline is simply uneconomic over very large distances and so LNG will become increasingly important as a gas transportation method, accounting for 26% of transported gas by 2025. It is also interesting to note that we may well see a peak in piped gas supply. In 2003 93% of gas was transported via pipeline. By 2025 this will have fallen to 69%.
  • 1, SO2 scrubber not really needed but is there to test if there may be any sensitivity to sulphur content 2, absorber columns, fluegas contacted with solvent, 90% of CO2 absorbed by solvent, CO2-free flue gas to stack, loaded solvent is regenrated 3, stripper, loaded solvent is regenrated by heatin it up above 100C, pure CO2 stream dehydrated and ready for compression and storage obviously, the regenration consumes energy, new solvents need less energy and/or lower quality cold loeaded solvent is heated up against hot regenrated for more advance integration concepts possible within the unit, with the power plant and with surroundings
  • first of all, these membranes are NOT selective the fact that they only absorbr CO2 is because the absorption liquid favours CO2 why membranes then? to create as much as contact area between gas/liquid in an as small as possible volume  compact equipment probably 3rd generation technology but we are pushing it to become 2nd generation challenge: how to build big contactors, experience: membrane units for fuel cells membrane units for salt water desalination
  • 1st generation: amine based common post capture processes selexol, rectisol etc. for pre-combustion oxyfuel not at relevant scale 2nd generation is expected to be ready for demo in 2015-2020 3rd generation systems are important but will need more time non-scrubbing technologies (adsorption, selective membr) new class of scrubbing: precipitating solvents etc. expected operating window for CCS is at least a 100 years  transition period towards full sustainable energy supply
  • TNO

    1. 1. Rene Peters – market manager New energy technologies To enable a transition to a sustainable energy supply for the future new energy technology
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Trends in New Energy development </li></ul><ul><li>Greening the new energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LNG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology development to enable new energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the cost of CCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable offshore LNG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>new energy technology
    3. 3. The five core areas of TNO new energy technology TNO Quality of Life TNO Defence, Security and Safety TNO Built Environment and Geosciences TNO Science and Industry TNO Informa-tion and Communication Technology
    4. 4. TNO offices in the Netherlands new energy technology
    5. 5. Business focus in the energy sector new energy technology Integrity Services Flow & Structural Dynamics Smart fields Flow Control Biofuels Thermal Processes Instrumentation Instrumentation Carbon Capture & Storage Separation Technology
    6. 6. Current world energy supply new energy technology
    7. 7. new energy technology Public perception
    8. 8. new energy technology Coal ! Source: IEA
    9. 9. Trends in new energy for Europe <ul><li>Coal will be the dominating new energy source! </li></ul>new energy technology
    10. 10. new energy technology Source: IEA
    11. 11. Trends in new energy for Europe <ul><li>Coal will be the dominating new energy source! </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels will be delivering 83% of the increased energy demand </li></ul>new energy technology
    12. 12. World natural gas consumption grows 3%/yr new energy technology Source: IEA World Energy Outlook
    13. 13. new energy technology Source: The World Gas Supply Report – Douglas-Westwood <ul><li>Increasing distance from source to market </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in LNG as a preferred means of gas transportation </li></ul>Diversification in gas transport 26% 7%
    14. 14. Trends in new energy for Europe <ul><li>Coal will be the dominating new energy source for the next 30 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels will be delivering 83% of the increased energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Gas will continue to grow 3% per year, but will increasingly been imported from outside Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Energy diversification will lead to a strong growth of LNG imports </li></ul>new energy technology
    15. 15. Market drivers for renewable energy <ul><li>High oil price stimulates development of alternative energy sources </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations EU: 20% renewables, 10% biofuels, 20% emission reduction of GHG, 20% energy reduction in 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>ETS system for CO2 emission trade </li></ul><ul><li>Competition with food chain drive for second generation biofuels </li></ul><ul><li>Price guarantee for sustainable energy (solar, D) </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 tax Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Security of supply (energy diversification, independence in energy supply) </li></ul>new energy technology
    16. 16. Trends in new energy for Europe <ul><li>Coal will be the dominating new energy source for the next 30 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels will be delivering 83% of the increased energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Gas will continue to grow 3% per year, but will increasingly been imported from outside Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Energy diversification will lead to a strong growth of LNG imports </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable energy sources will need strong governmental support to become economic </li></ul>new energy technology
    17. 17. Worldwide CO2 emission reduction targets new energy technology Business as usual
    18. 18. How can we comply our new energy sources with the CO2 emission reduction targets? <ul><li>Coal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency with coal gasification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement CO 2 Carbon Capture and Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Towards low carbon fuel, i.e. from Oil to Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a world liquid market for Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce costs of transport by pipeline or LNG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable Offshore LNG liquefaction and regasification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve efficiency and reduce cost of solar PV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale up of (offshore) wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second generation Biomass conversion </li></ul></ul>new energy technology Key to success: Technology Development
    19. 19. Technology Development in New Energy <ul><li>Technology development in clean coal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Capture and Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CATO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of Offshore LNG </li></ul>new energy technology
    20. 20. Capture Technology Strategy at TNO: Post Combustion Capture new energy technology Image: Vattenfall AB
    21. 21. CO 2 sources and sinks in Europe new energy technology
    22. 22. The Netherlands is in a good position for CCS new energy technology
    23. 23. new energy technology New CO 2 network from Maasvlakte – Europoort – 2008-2010 Existing CO 2 network OCAP from Pernis to Amsterdam Rotterdam is in a even better position for CCS CO2 capture and transport in the Port of Rotterdam E.ON Elec trabel ENECO GEN Abengoa X Shell Exxon Mobil AVR New CO 2 network to Barendrecht – Moerdijk - - - Antwerp (2008-2010) Green houses New CO 2 network to offshore storage fields (2012-2015) X
    24. 24. McKinsey study: economic gap delays CCS implementation new energy technology
    25. 25. Technology development: new solvents for CO2 Absorption new energy technology 1 2 3 1 2 3
    26. 26. Next generation: Membrane Gas Absorption new energy technology <ul><li>- Reduced investment, 5 to 10 times more compact than packed columns </li></ul><ul><li>Gas/liquid flow are controlled independently, not influencing surface area </li></ul><ul><li>No absorption liquid carry over </li></ul><ul><li>. . . </li></ul>= CO 2 Liquid Gas
    27. 27. Opening CATO pilot CO 2 - Catcher by Joost van Dijk (CEO E.ON Benelux) Jaqueline Cramer (minister VROM), Jan Mengelers (CEO TNO) and Stan Dessens (Taskforce CCS) new energy technology April 3, 2008
    28. 28. CATO CO 2 Catcher - Technical Facts <ul><li>Fluegas Details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1250 m 3 /hr flue gas, 250 kg/hr CO 2 captured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluegas gas from pulverized coal power plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of CO 2 captured from fluegas side-stream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CORAL ® Amine Acid Absorption Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligible losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-toxic, environmental friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good thermal and chemical stability (e.g. O 2 , NO x ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved operational performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compact Membrane Contactors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-10 times more compact, reduced investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas/Liquid interface is fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent operational control </li></ul></ul>new energy technology CATO CO2 Catcher - 1) SO2 scrubber, 2) Absorption tower, 3) Desorption tower. 1 2 3
    29. 29. CCS – Capture Implementation Roadmap new energy technology CO2 capture maturity level 2 nd generation solvent (scrubbing) systems up to 50% cost reduction, down to € 20 per ton CO 2 3 rd generation systems more than 50% cost reduction, down to € 10 per ton CO 2 pilots capture only demo’s incl. storage commercial CCS pilots capture only demo’s incl. storage commercial CCS lab facilities Zero Emission Power Plants Only ZEP Flagships in operation target
    30. 30. Technology Development in New Energy <ul><li>Technology development in clean coal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Capture and Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CATO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of Offshore LNG </li></ul>new energy technology
    31. 31. International transport of gas via pipelines or ships new energy technology (Mta)
    32. 32. New gas developments in EU <ul><li>Geopolitical issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less dependence of GCC and FSU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security of supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less dependence of pipeline transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dutch Roundabout for natural gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UGS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New pipelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LNG import </li></ul></ul>new energy technology
    33. 33. Challenges in LNG development <ul><li>Market Drivers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction, standardisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer to spot market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating LNG liquefaction units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large and small scale (niche) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small LNG carriers for local transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7500 m 3 instead of 200.000 m 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger process trains for liquefaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiscal metering, volume flow and LNG quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety of LNG transport, storage and regassification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore regassification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of LNG in harsh environment (Ship to Ship) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to handle (offshore) LNG spills? </li></ul></ul></ul>new energy technology
    34. 34. Innovative LNG transfer systems Ship to shore, ship to ship new energy technology Loading arms Ship-to-shore Composite hoses Side-by-side Aerial transfer Stern-to-bow
    35. 35. Qualification of flexible composite hoses for LNG transfer new energy technology <ul><li>Flow tests </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue tests </li></ul><ul><li>Product innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Test procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Product qualification </li></ul>Copyright © 2006 2007 Gutteling BV
    36. 36. Development of offshore LNG Transfer new energy technology Present application: Supply LNG to regasification vessels Side-by-side loading is sufficient Future application: Transfer from floating liquefaction units to carriers Other configurations needed for offloading in severe environment Subject of development: Multi composite hose needs to be justified as a reliable and safe principle for side by side transfer of LNG
    37. 37. Qualification program <ul><li>Technical challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>Complex behaviour of the composite hose </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment time consumption (thermal cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown material properties under cryogenic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Health, safety and environment issues of test-elaborations </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown external loads during transfer (ship movement) </li></ul><ul><li>EN-1474 specifies only the baseline of qualification </li></ul>new energy technology Subject : LNG transfer with 8 inch multi composite hose in side by side configuration Program based on preliminary guideline EN-1474-II “ Not only the test methods need to be developed, but rules need to be interpreted and requirements have to be detailed”.
    38. 38. Results so far <ul><li>Performed tests: </li></ul><ul><li>Material tensile test </li></ul><ul><li>Full scale flow test </li></ul><ul><li>Impact test </li></ul><ul><li>Burst test </li></ul><ul><li>Cryogenic static strength tests </li></ul><ul><li>… ., </li></ul>new energy technology
    39. 39. Testing of flow performance of cryogenic hose at Deltares new energy technology <ul><li>pressure loss measurements </li></ul><ul><li>flow-induced pressure pulsations </li></ul><ul><li>vibrations on the hose in 3 directions </li></ul><ul><li>modal analyses of the hose </li></ul>
    40. 40. Full scale LNG test of 8” flexible hose at Nikkiso Cryo (USA) new energy technology <ul><li>Pressure loss measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Flow-induced pulsations </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrations along the hose </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Modal analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Methane gas permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum LNG flow test </li></ul>
    41. 41. Next step: Qualification of other configurations new energy technology TNO’s qualification strategy: Have a better understanding of multi composite hose behaviour under cryogenic conditions. Different offloading concepts Bluewater OTC2007 Better understanding -> Higher confidence -> Better specification of next step in test program -> Reduction of test time consumption -> Reduced project duration General idea: Current qualification process provides basis to qualify different offloading configurations with the same hose.
    42. 42. Planned development of LNG storage and regassification units in Rotterdam Maasvlakte area new energy technology
    43. 43. Future: LNG Test and Technology Centre new energy technology Full scale LNG test of 8” flexible hose at Nikkiso Cryo (USA) <ul><li>Task for LNG TTC: </li></ul><ul><li>support to regulations development offshore LNG </li></ul><ul><li>Perform independent quality-assessment (compare and qualify LNG cryogenic system components and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Support development of new technology and equipment innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer LNG technology to (smaller) supplying companies </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate LNG cryogenic research and testing </li></ul>
    44. 44. Future: LNG Test and Technology Centre <ul><li>Advantages Netherlands: </li></ul><ul><li>Supports ‘Gas Roundabout’ ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Supports ‘Gas’ ambition of Dutch offshore industry </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens connection of industry and (smaller) supplying companies </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with development of CCS chain and CO2 ambitions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The LNG Test and Technology Centre would be the first available on the market. </li></ul></ul>new energy technology
    45. 45. Conclusions <ul><li>New energy sources to deliver the growth in energy demand are coming from fossil fuels, in particular coal </li></ul><ul><li>In order to meet the CO 2 emission reduction targets the fossil energy sources need to shift to low carbon fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Clean coal requires low cost CCS technology. Technology innovation in CO 2 capture and storage can reduce the cost to 40 euro/ton in 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of the cleanest fossil fuel can be enabled by developing a global gas market with a liquid market for LNG </li></ul><ul><li>The growth of the renewable energy market needs to be supported by government incentives and regulations. Grid parity is not expected before 2015 without economic incentives. </li></ul>new energy technology
    46. 46. new energy technology
    47. 47. new energy technology Contact information: René Peters TNO Science and Industry Postbus 155 2600 AD Delft Tel.: 015 269 2114 Mob. 06 – 515 515 66 E-mail: [email_address] visit us on the web at: