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  2. 2. Introduction to Information Technology Your Digital World Chapter 1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Why become computer savvy? <ul><li>Know what computers can do for you </li></ul><ul><li>Know the limitations of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Know how computers can harm you </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to solve computer problems </li></ul><ul><li>Know when & how to get help </li></ul>1- Discussion Question: What was your worst computer problem?
  4. 4. IT & Your Life: The Future Now <ul><li>Definition: Information Technology (IT) describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 1: Computer Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 2: Communication Technology </li></ul></ul>1- <ul><ul><li>Discussion Question: How many times today did YOU use one of these technologies? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How is IT being used in Education? <ul><li>99% of schools have internet access </li></ul><ul><li>85% of college students own their own computer </li></ul><ul><li>¾ of college students use the internet 4 or more hours per week </li></ul><ul><li>½ of all college professors require students to use email in their classes </li></ul><ul><li>Many college classes are either taught online or have a class website </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: Distance Learning is online education </li></ul>1- Discussion Question: Have you ever used the computer in your classroom for something other than the work in that class?
  6. 6. Rules for Computers in Classrooms <ul><li>Problem: Computers in the classroom can be used or misused. </li></ul><ul><li>What should they be used for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the lecture slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working along with the instructor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing instructor-assigned internet searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completing assignments for this class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is misuse? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text messaging or emailing friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surfing the internet for entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing assignments for other classes </li></ul></ul>1-
  7. 7. Health: High Tech for Wellness <ul><li>Telemedicine: Medical care via telecommunications lets doctors treat patients from far away </li></ul><ul><li>3D Computer models allow accurate tumor location inside a skull </li></ul><ul><li>Robots permit precise microsurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld computers allow patients to measure blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Medical implants allow stroke patients to directly control computers to talk for them </li></ul><ul><li>Health websites provide medical information </li></ul>1-
  8. 8. Money: Cashless Society? <ul><li>Definition: Virtual means something that is created, simulated, or carried on by means of a computer or a computer network </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual airline tickets </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online bill paying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PayPal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic payroll deposit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micropayments for online music </li></ul></ul>1- Discussion Question: How important is security if all your money is virtual?
  9. 9. Leisure: Infotech in Entertainment & the Arts <ul><li>Videogames </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term papers???? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical/legal questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most movies use computer animation </li></ul><ul><li>Digital editing </li></ul>1-
  10. 10. IT in Government & Democracy <ul><li>Governments can’t control information </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals can find multiple viewpoints on internet </li></ul><ul><li>Email makes it easier to contact the government </li></ul><ul><li>Competing websites promote & criticize politicians </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blogs are a tool for political candidates </li></ul>1-
  11. 11. Jobs & Careers <ul><li>Hotels: Desk clerks use computerized reservations systems </li></ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement: Officers use computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On patrol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To check stolen cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To check criminal records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To check arrest warrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entertainment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office uses like budgets, payroll, ticketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also virtual set design, 3-D animation, special effects </li></ul></ul>1-
  12. 12. Jobs & Careers <ul><li>Office careers: Budget, payroll, letter-writing, email </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching: Automated grading systems, emailing parents </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion: Sales/inventory control systems, ordering, personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Job-hunting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use word processor to create resumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post resumes online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online job searches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion Question: Can anyone think of a career that does NOT require computer skills? </li></ul>1-
  13. 13. The Telephone Grows Up <ul><li>1973: First cellphone call </li></ul><ul><li>2006: Nokia estimates 2 billion mobile phone subscribers </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s cellphones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take and send pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can connect to the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can send and receive text messages </li></ul></ul>1- Discussion Question: Why are cellphones banned in high-security military bases?
  14. 14. Internet, World Wide Web, & Cyberspace <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The worldwide computer network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links thousands of smaller networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links educational, commercial, military entities, and individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally developed to share only text and numeric data </li></ul></ul>1-
  15. 15. Internet, World Wide Web, & Cyberspace <ul><li>World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The multimedia part of the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An interconnected system of servers that support specially formatted documents in multimedia form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes text, still images, moving images, sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the growth and popularity of the internet </li></ul></ul>1-
  16. 16. Internet, World Wide Web, & Cyberspace <ul><li>Cyberspace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Term coined by William Gibson in Neuromancer (1984) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described a futuristic computer network people “plugged” into directly with their brains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The web </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chat rooms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online diaries (blogs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The wired and wireless communications world </li></ul></ul></ul>1-
  17. 17. Email Tips <ul><li>Always put a subject line in your message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For short messages, that’s all you need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Send attachments only when necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every recipient gets a copy – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For 500 people that’s 500 copies! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a short attachment, copy the text to the email itself instead of sending the attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t open attachments unless you know the sender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It could contain a virus or malware </li></ul></ul>1-
  18. 18. Email Tips <ul><li>Use discretion about sending emails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emails aren’t secret </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be easily forwarded to others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check grammar, spelling to bosses, customers </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use email to express criticism or sarcasm </li></ul><ul><li>Email received at work is the property of your employer </li></ul><ul><li>Deleting email messages does not remove them everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t neglect real personal contact </li></ul>1-
  19. 19. 5 Computer Types <ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priced from $1 million to $350 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-capacity machines with thousands of processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-user systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To learn more about one, go to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mainframe Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Microcontrollers </li></ul>1-
  20. 20. 5 Computer Types <ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Until late 1960’s, the only computer available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $5,000 - $5 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-user systems; accessed using a terminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminals only have a keyboard and monitor; can’t be used alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To see one, go to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Microcontrollers </li></ul>1-
  21. 21. 5 Computer Types <ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in early 1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive, powerful personal computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for scientific, mathematical, engineering, computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A less-expensive alternative to mainframes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To see some examples with current pricing, go to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Microcontrollers </li></ul>1-
  22. 22. 5 Computer Types <ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal computers that cost $500 to $5000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used either stand-alone or in a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types include: desktop, tower, notebooks, or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microcontrollers </li></ul>1-
  23. 23. 5 Computer Types <ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Microcontrollers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called embedded computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny, specialized microprocessors inside appliances and automobiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are in: microwaves, programmable ovens, blood-pressure monitors, air bag sensors, vibration sensors, MP3 players, digital cameras, e-pliances, keyboards, car engine controllers, etc. </li></ul></ul>1- Discussion Question: Now, how many of you would say you have NOT used a computer today?
  24. 24. Servers <ul><li>Are central computers </li></ul><ul><li>May be any of the 4 larger computer types. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Server” describes a function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold data (databases) and programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to and supply services for clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients are other computers like PCs, workstations, other devices </li></ul></ul>1-
  25. 25. Understanding Your Own Computer <ul><li>3 key concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn data into information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data: the raw facts and figures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information: data that has been summarized and manipulated for use in decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware vs. Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware is the machinery and equipment in the computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software is the electronic instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task </li></ul></ul></ul>1-
  26. 26. Understanding Your Own Computer <ul><li>3 key concepts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input: What goes in to the computer system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing: The manipulation a computer does to transform data into information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storage: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary storage: Memory is primary storage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent storage: Disks and media such as DVDs and CDs are secondary storage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Output: What comes out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers or pictures on the screen, printouts, sounds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communications: Sending and receiving data </li></ul></ul></ul>1-
  27. 27. Building Your Own PC <ul><li>What would you need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard & Mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside the system cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case and power supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processor chip – the Central Processor Unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory chips – Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard – the system board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory chips plug in </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processor chip plugs in </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard attaches to system cabinet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power supply is connected to system cabinet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power supply wire is connected to motherboard </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Hardware: Floppy, Hard Drive, Zip, CD/DVD, USB </li></ul></ul>1-
  28. 28. Building Your Own PC <ul><li>Storage Hardware: Floppy, Hard Drive, Zip, CD/DVD, USB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage capacity is represented in bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 byte = 1 character of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 kilobyte = 1,024 characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 megabyte = 1,048,576 characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 gigabyte = over 1 billion characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 terabyte = over 1 trillion characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 petabyte = about 1 quadrillion characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanently installed: floppy drives, hard drives, Zip drives, CD/DVD drives, USB ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removable media: floppy disks, Zip disks, CDs, DVDs, flash drives </li></ul></ul>1-
  29. 29. Building Your Own PC <ul><li>Output hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video and sound cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joystick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communications hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem (internal or external) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Card </li></ul></ul>1-
  30. 30. Software <ul><li>System Software (Operating System) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be installed before application software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System (OS) options for the PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System (OS) options for the Mac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Application Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install after the OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application depends on OS, for example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linux applications won’t work on Windows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows applications won’t work on Linux </li></ul></ul></ul>1-
  31. 31. Future of Information Technology <ul><li>3 directions of Computer Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miniaturization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 directions of Communications Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul></ul>1-
  32. 32. Convergence, Portability, & Personalization <ul><li>Convergence: the combination of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration: software that allows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People to share anything instantly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People to enhance the information as they forward it </li></ul></ul>1-
  33. 33. Ethics <ul><li>Definition: Ethics is the set of moral values or principles that govern the conduct of an individual or group </li></ul><ul><li>Is ethics relevant for Information Technology? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s revisit the discussion question from slide 1-7 </li></ul><ul><li>How important is ethics if all your personal information, health information, AND virtual money is stored on computers? </li></ul><ul><li>Would YOU trust a physician who downloaded his/her term papers from the Internet? </li></ul>1-
  34. 34. 2-
  35. 35. The Internet & the World Wide Web <ul><li>Exploring Cyberspace </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>How Does the Internet work? </li></ul><ul><li>The World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net </li></ul><ul><li>Telephony, Multimedia, Webcasting, Blogs, E-Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Snooping, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming, Cookies, & Spyware </li></ul>Chapter 2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Internet History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began with 1969’s ARPANET for US Dept. of Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>62 computers in 1974 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500 computers in 1983 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28,000 computers in 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 1990s, multimedia became available on internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To connect you need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An access device (computer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A means of connection (phone line, cable hookup, or wireless) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Internet Service Provider (ISP) </li></ul></ul>2-
  37. 37. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Definition: Bandwidth is an expression of how much data – text, voice, video and so on – can be sent through a communications channel in a given amount of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: Baseband is a slow type of connection that allows only one signal to be transmitted at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: Broadband is a high speed connection that allows several signals to be transmitted at once. </li></ul>2-
  38. 38. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Data Transmission Speeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally measured in bits per second (bps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 bits are needed to send one character, such as A or a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently measured in kilobits per second (Kbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilo- stands for a thousand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 28.8 Kbps modem sends 28,800 bits per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many characters per second would that be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mbps connections send 1 million bits per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gbps connections send 1 billion bits per second </li></ul></ul>2- 28,800 / 8 = 3600 characters per second
  39. 39. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be either internal or external to your PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most ISPs offer local access numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need call waiting turned off; either manually or in Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-speed phone lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Modems </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi & 3G </li></ul>2-
  40. 40. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed phone lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Services Digital Network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows voice, video, & data transmission over copper phone lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can transmit 64 to 128 Kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses regular phone lines, DSL modem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receives data at 1.5-9 Mbps; sends at 128Kbps – 1.5 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is always on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Modems </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi & 3G </li></ul>2-
  41. 41. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>28.8 Kbps takes 4 3/4 hours to download 6 minute video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>High-speed phone lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 hour to download 6 minute video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 minutes to download 6 minute video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Modems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects the PC to a cable-TV system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 minutes to download a 2 minute video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi & 3G </li></ul>2-
  42. 42. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed phone lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Modems </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always-on connection using satellite dish to satellite orbiting earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send data at 56 – 500 Kbps; receive at 1.5 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi & 3G </li></ul>2-
  43. 43. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed phone lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Modems </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi & 3G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name for a set of wireless standards set by IEEE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically used with laptops that have Wi-Fi hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed wireless that does not need access points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses cell phones </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  44. 44. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Internet Access Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Service Providers (ISP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local, regional, or national organization that provides internet access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: AT&T Worldnet, EarthLink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Online Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A members-only company that provides specialized content and internet access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: AOL, MSN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Internet Service Providers </li></ul></ul>2-
  45. 45. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Internet Access Providers </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Online Service </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Internet Service Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Access for laptops, notebooks, smartphones, PDA users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These devices contain wireless modems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: AT&T Wireless, Verizon Wireless, Earthlink Net Zero </li></ul></ul>2-
  46. 46. How Does the Internet Work? <ul><li>The internet consists of thousands of smaller networks </li></ul><ul><li>These link educational, commercial, nonprofit, and military organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Most are Client/Server networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client: a computer requesting data or services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server or Host: a central computer supplying data or services requested of it </li></ul></ul>2-
  47. 47. How Does the Internet Work? <ul><li>Point of Presence (POP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A local access point to the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A local gateway to the ISP’s network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Access Point (NAP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A routing computer at a point on the internet where several connections come together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned by Network Service Providers (NAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four major NAPs established in 1993 when the internet was privatized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of much internet congestion  PNAPS </li></ul></ul>2-
  48. 48. How Does the Internet Work? <ul><li>Private/Peer NAPs (PNAP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established in late 1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide more backbone access locations than the original 4 NAPs in Chicago, Washington D.C., New Jersey and San Francisco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>100 in U.S.A. at present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate more efficient routing since there are more backbone access locations </li></ul></ul>2-
  49. 49. How Does the Internet Work? <ul><li>Internet Backbone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-capacity, high-speed data transmission lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the newest technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providers include AT&T, Cable & Wireless, Sprint, Teleglobe, UUNET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative university/business research project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New standards for large-scale higher-speed data transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires state-of-the-art infrastructure </li></ul></ul>2-
  50. 50. How Does the Internet Work? <ul><li>Protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The set of rules a computer follows to electronically transmit data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP is the internet protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in 1978 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for all internet transactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed-length blocks of data for transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transmissions are broken up into packets </li></ul></ul>2-
  51. 51. How Does the Internet Work? <ul><li>IP Addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every device connected to the internet has an address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each IP address uniquely identifies that device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The address is four sets of 3-digit numbers separated by periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each number is between 0 and 255 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Static IP addresses don’t change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic IP addresses don’t change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Since addresses are limited, and most PCs are not connected a lot of the time, dynamic addresses are common </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  52. 52. How Does the Internet Work? <ul><li>The board of trustees of the Internet Society (ISOC) oversees the standards </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) regulates domain names </li></ul><ul><li>American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARINN) administers the unique IP addresses for North & South America, Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Two other organizations administer the unique IP addresses for Europe and the Asia-Pacific region </li></ul>2-
  53. 53. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Browsers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software for web-surfing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Mozilla FireFox, Opera, Apple Macintosh browser </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The location on a particular computer that has a unique address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The website could be anywhere – not necessarily at company headquarters </li></ul></ul>2-
  54. 54. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Web Pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The documents and files on a company’s website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can include text, pictures, sound, and video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home page </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main entry point for the website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains links to other pages on the website </li></ul></ul>2-
  55. 55. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Uniform Resource Locator (URL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A character string that points to a specific piece of information anywhere on the web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A website’s unique address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It consists of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The web protocol, http </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The domain name of the web server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The directory or folder on that server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The file within the directory, including optional extension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// / yose / home.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>2- protocol domain name file name . extension directory
  56. 56. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Domain names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the website, and the type of site it is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> is NOT the same as </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.gov means government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.org means professional or nonprofit organization </li></ul></ul></ul>2- Discussion Question: Have you ever mistyped a URL and gone to a website you weren’t expecting? As we learn later in this chapter, some unscrupulous websites take advantage of this.
  57. 57. The World Wide Web <ul><li>HTTP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The internet protocol used to access the World Wide Web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HTTPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The secure version of HTTP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The language used in writing and publishing web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The set of tags used to specify document structure, formatting, and links to other documents on the web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypertext links connect one web document to another </li></ul>2-
  58. 58. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Web Browsers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your tool for using the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes preinstalled on most PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 basic elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menu bar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toolbar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>URL bar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workspace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Status bar </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  59. 59. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Home Page </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The page you see when you open your web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can change the Home Page on your browser </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back,Forward, Home & Search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the menu bar icons to move from one page to another </li></ul></ul>2-
  60. 60. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History Lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A list of websites you visited since you opened up your browser for this session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to easily return to a particular site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bookmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to store the URL from a site on your PC so you can find it again in another browser session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To save the URL for a site, click on “Bookmark” in Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or just type in the URL of the page you want to visit </li></ul></ul>2-
  61. 61. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Web portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A gateway website that offers a broad array of resources and services, online shopping malls, email support, community forums, stock quotes, travel info, and links to other categories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft Network (MSN), Lycos, or Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most require you to log in, so you can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check the home page for general information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use the subject guide to find a topic you want </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a keyword to search for a topic </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  62. 62. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Search Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations that maintain databases accessible through websites to help you find information on the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: portals like Yahoo Search and MSN, and Google, Ask Jeeves, and Gigablast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases are compiled using software programs called spiders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spiders crawl through the World Wide Web </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow links from one page to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Index the words on that site </li></ul></ul></ul>2- Discussion Question: If you publish an embarrassing web page and then take it down, is it REALLY gone?
  63. 63. The World Wide Web <ul><li>4 web search tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword Indexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type one or more search keywords, and you see web pages “hits” that contain those words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For phrases with two or more words, put phrase in quotes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are Google, Gigablast, HotBot, MSN Search, Teoma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search by selecting lists of categories or topics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example sites are Beaucoup, Galaxy, LookSmart, MSN Directory, Netscape, Open Directory Project, Yahoo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metasearch Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized Search Engines </li></ul></ul>2-
  64. 64. The World Wide Web <ul><li>4 web search tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword Indexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metasearch Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to search several search engines simultaneously </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are Dogpile, Ixquick, Mamma, MetaCrawler, ProFusion, Search, Vivisimo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized Search Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help locate specialized subject matter, like info on movies, health, jobs </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  65. 65. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Multimedia Search Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow you to search for nontext resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Search Tool Site </li></ul></ul>2- A9 ( Blinkx Google ShadowTV StreamSage Virage Yahoo!
  66. 66. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Should you trust information you find online? </li></ul><ul><li>There is no central authority that verifies all internet sites </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines to evaluate Web Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the information appear on a professional site maintained by a professional organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the website authority appear to be legitimate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the website objective, complete, and current? </li></ul></ul>2-
  67. 67. Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net <ul><li>Email Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables you to send email by running email software on your computer that interacts with an email server at your ISP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming mail is stored on the server in an electronic mailbox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon access, mail is sent to your client’s inbox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Microsoft’s Outlook Express, Netscape’s Mail, Apple Computer’s Apple Mail, QualComm’s Eudora </li></ul></ul>2- Discussion Question: If your email is stored at the server and servers are backed up, when you delete an email is it gone for good?
  68. 68. Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net <ul><li>Web-based Email </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You send and receive messages by interacting via a browser with a website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: You can easily send and receive messages while traveling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail, Bluebottle, Sacmail </li></ul></ul>2-
  69. 69. Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net <ul><li>Using email </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get an email address, following the format [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type addresses carefully, including capitalization, underscores, and periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the reply command to avoid addressing mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the address-book feature to store email addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort your email into folders or use filters </li></ul></ul>2- User Name Domain name
  70. 70. Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net <ul><li>Email Attachments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A copy of a file or document that you send attached to an email to one or more people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful about opening attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many viruses hide in them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know who is sending it to you before you open it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The recipient must have compatible software to open the attachment. If they don’t have Excel, they probably can’t read the spreadsheet you sent them. </li></ul></ul>2-
  71. 71. Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net <ul><li>Instant Messaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any user on a given email system can send a message and have it pop up instantly on the screen of anyone logged into that system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: AOL Instant Messenger, MSN Messenger, ICQ, AT&T IM Anywhere, Yahoo Messenger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all IM systems interoperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To get it, you: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>download the software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>connect to the internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>register with the service </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  72. 72. Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net <ul><li>FTP – File Transfer Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A software standard for transferring files between computers with different Operating Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows  Linux </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unix  Macintosh OS, and so forth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can transfer files from an FTP site on the internet to your PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your FTP site! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the FTP site is offering copyrighted material such as music and movies for free, you are breaking US law if you download files! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You may also get a virus or spyware on your PC from them </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  73. 73. Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net <ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A giant electronic discussion board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are thousands of free internet newsgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usenet is the worldwide public network of servers on the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To participate you need a newsreader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listserv </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An email-based discussion group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses an automatic mailing-list server that sends email to subscribers on selected topics </li></ul></ul>2-
  74. 74. Email & Other Ways of Communicating over the Net <ul><li>Real-Time Chat (RTC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants have a typed discussion while online at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is not allowed in most college classrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IM is one-on-one, but RTC has a list of participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Netiquette – appropriate online behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before you ask a question, consult the FAQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid flaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t SHOUT – use all capital letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful with jokes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t send huge file attachments unless requested </li></ul></ul>2-
  75. 75. Telephony, Multimedia, Webcasting, Blogs, E-Commerce <ul><li>Internet Telephony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the internet to make phone calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-distance calls are either very inexpensive or free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With no PC, dial a special phone number to packetize your call </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With a PC that has a sound card, microphone, Internet connection, and internet telephone software such as Netscape Conference or Microsoft NetMeeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently inferior in quality to normal phone connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also allows videoconferencing </li></ul></ul>2-
  76. 76. Telephony, Multimedia, Webcasting, Blogs, E-Commerce <ul><li>Multimedia on the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to get images, sound, video, and animation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require a plug-in, player, or viewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A program that adds a specific feature to a browser so it can view certain files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Adobe Acrobat Reader, RealPlayer, QuickTime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Applets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small programs that can be quickly downloaded and run by most browsers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Java is the most common Applet language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft’s Visual Studio creates ActiveX and com objects </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  77. 77. Telephony, Multimedia, Webcasting, Blogs, E-Commerce <ul><li>Multimedia on the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rapid sequencing of still images to create the appearance of motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in video games and web images that seem to move </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming video is process of transferring data in a continuous flow so you can begin viewing a file before it is all completely sent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio may be transmitted either: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downloaded completely before the file can be played, or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downloaded as streaming audio </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  78. 78. Telephony, Multimedia, Webcasting, Blogs, E-Commerce <ul><li>RSS newsreaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs that scour the web and pull together “feeds” from several websites to one place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short for web log, a diary-style web page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have become popular, both privately and in politics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recording internet radio or similar internet audio programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some radio stations webcast their audio programs over the internet </li></ul></ul>2-
  79. 79. Telephony, Multimedia, Webcasting, Blogs, E-Commerce <ul><li>E-Commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting business activities online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B2B Commerce is business-to-business e-commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Finance now involves online banking, stock trading online, and e-money such as PayPal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online auctions link buyers with sellers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eBay is the most well-known example of person-to-person auctions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OnSale is a vendor-based auction that buys merchandise and sells it at a discount </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priceline is an auction site for airline tickets and other items </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  80. 80. Snooping, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming, Cookies, & Spyware <ul><li>The internet was founded as a collaborative tool based on trust </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone on the internet is honest </li></ul><ul><li>Snooping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email is not private </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate management has the right to view employees’ email </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Email that travels over the internet may be captured and monitored and read by someone else </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not all ISPs protect their customers’ privacy </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  81. 81. Snooping, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming, Cookies, & Spyware <ul><li>Spam: Electronic Junk Mail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsolicited email that takes up your time and may carry viruses or spyware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete it without opening the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never reply to a spam message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you sign up for something, don’t give your email address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use spam filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight back by reporting new spammers to or or </li></ul></ul>2-
  82. 82. Snooping, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming, Cookies, & Spyware <ul><li>Spoofing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using fake email sender names so the message appears to be from a different source, so you will trust it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t know the sender, don’t open it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using trusted institutional names to elicit confidential information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some common schemes look like they are from your bank or from eBay and ask you to “update” your account. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t do it – the legitimate company already knows your account information! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to update your information, CALL the number in the phone book, not the number in the email! </li></ul></ul>2-
  83. 83. Snooping, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming, Cookies, & Spyware <ul><li>Pharming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redirecting you to an imposter web page. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thieves implant malicious software on your PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redirects you to an imposter web page even when you type the correct URL! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To foil it, type the URL with https first (for http secure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Use this one with https, not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Since it has http, it could be spoofed </li></ul></ul>2-
  84. 84. Snooping, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming, Cookies, & Spyware <ul><li>Cookies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little text files left on your hard disk by some websites you visit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can include your log-in name, password, and browser preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be convenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But they can be used to gather information about you and your browsing habits </li></ul></ul>2-
  85. 85. Snooping, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming, Cookies, & Spyware <ul><li>Spyware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications that download without your knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They hide on your PC and capture information about what is on the PC and what you are doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That information is then transmitted to the spyware master’s website on the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information may be used against you to steal your identity, get credit cards in your name, or for other crimes </li></ul></ul>2-
  86. 86. Snooping, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming, Cookies, & Spyware <ul><li>Spyware (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent spyware, you must install and use “Antispyware software” at all times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Ad Aware, AntiSpyware, Spybot Search & Destroy, Pest Patrol, SpyCatcher, Yahoo toolbar with Anti-Spy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful about free and illegal downloads since they are a source of spyware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t say “I agree” when you are downloading something – read the fine print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beware of unsolicited downloads </li></ul></ul>2-
  87. 87. 3-
  88. 88. Software 3.1 System Software: The Power behind the Power 3.2 The Operating System: What It Does 3.3 Other System Software: Device Drivers & Utilities 3.4 Common Features of the User Interface 3.5 Common Operating Systems 3.6 Application Software 3.7 Word Processing 3.8 Spreadsheets 3.9 Database Software 3.10 Specialty Software Chapter 3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  89. 89. System Software: The Power behind the Power <ul><li>Application Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software developed to solve a particular problem for users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either performs useful work on a specific task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or provides entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We interact mainly with this software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables application software to interact with the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps the computer to manage its own internal and external resources </li></ul></ul>3-
  90. 90. System Software: The Power behind the Power <ul><li>System Software has 3 basic components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System (OS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The principal component of system software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-level, master system of programs to manage basic computer operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some hardware requires specific Operating Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh computers run Macintosh OS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCs run Microsoft Windows, Linux, or BSD Unix </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IBM Mainframes run MVS or VM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cray supercomputers run COS or UNICOS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help the computer control peripheral devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to support, enhance, or expand existing programs in the computer </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  91. 91. The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>Booting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of loading an OS into the computer’s main memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The steps are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn the computer on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic routines test main memory, CPU, and other hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) programs are copied to main memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS contains instructions for operating the hardware </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The computer needs those instructions to operate the hardware and find a copy of the OS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boot program obtains the OS and loads it into computer’s main memory </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  92. 92. The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel is the supervising software that manages CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel must remain in memory while the computer runs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If another program uses the kernel’s memory when the kernel needs it, the computer will crash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OS keeps track of memory locations to prevent programs and data from overlapping each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swaps portions of programs and data into the same memory but at different times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps track of virtual memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queues, Buffers, Spooling </li></ul></ul>3-
  93. 93. The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) Management (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queues, Buffers, Spooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Queue: First-in, First-out (FIFO) sequence of data or programs that waits in line for its turn to be processed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer: The place where the data or programs sit while they are waiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Spool: The act of placing a print job into a buffer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed because the CPU is faster than printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The CPU can work on other tasks while the print jobs wait </li></ul></ul>3-
  94. 94. The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>File Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A file is either a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data File: a named collection of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program File: a program that exists in a computer’s secondary storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The File System arranges files in a hierarchical manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top level is Directories (aka Folders) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subdirectories come below Folders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find files using their pathname </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C:/MyDocuments/Termpaper/section1.doc </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  95. 95. The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>Task Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required for computers that accommodate multiple users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required for computers that allow multiple simultaneous applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of processing two or more programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By one user on one processor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiprogramming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By multiple users concurrently on one processor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By multiple users in round-robin fashion on one processor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By one or more users simultaneously on two or more processors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>3-
  96. 96. The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>Security Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Systems permit users to control access to their computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users gain access using an ID and password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You set the password the first time you boot up a new computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Administrators can set up new accounts and assign new passwords </li></ul></ul>3-
  97. 97. Other System Software: Device Drivers & Utilities <ul><li>Device Drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized software programs that allow input and output devices to communicate with the rest of the OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you get a brand-new printer or monitor, you may also need to install the device driver for it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device drivers come with new hardware, or download from the manufacturer’s website, or sites like or </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service programs that perform tasks related to the control and allocation of computer resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some come with the OS, others can be bought separately like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norton SystemWorks, McAfee Utilities </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  98. 98. Other System Software: Device Drivers & Utilities <ul><li>Practical Utility programs perform the following tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data compression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File defragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk scanner & disk cleanup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data recovery </li></ul></ul>3- Discussion Question: How many of you have lost important files such as a term paper? Didn’t you wish you had made a backup copy? ALL data media are subject to possible failure and data loss!
  99. 99. Common Features of the User Interface <ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The user-controllable display screen you use to interact with the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keyboard and Mouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User input devices that you use to interact with the display screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both devices have special-purpose keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard Special-purpose keys: Esc, Ctrl, Alt, Del, Ins, Home, End, PgUp, PgDn, Num Lock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse special-purpose keys: left-click, right-click, and (on some mice) scroll wheel or center click </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  100. 100. Common Features of the User Interface <ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function Keys – let you quickly perform specific tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape Key – lets you quit a task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl and Alt – use combination with another key to bypass using the mouse – Ctrl + S will save a document, Alt + Tab will let you switch between running applications </li></ul></ul>3-
  101. 101. Common Features of the User Interface <ul><li>Keyboard continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application key – quickly displays the shortcut menu for any item on your screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status lights – indicate if your Num Lock or Caps Lock keys are on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numeric Keypad – allows you to type in numbers when the Num Lock light is on </li></ul></ul>3-
  102. 102. Common Features of the User Interface <ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handy tool for dragging and dropping text, graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for navigating menus on unfamiliar applications </li></ul></ul>3-
  103. 103. Common Features of the User Interface <ul><li>Graphical User Interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to use a mouse or keystrokes to select icons and commands from menus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaces command-driven interfaces used in earlier programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three main features are: desktop, icons, and menus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop: The system’s main interface screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Icon: Small pictorial figure that represents a program, data file, or procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rollover: A small text box that explains the icon when you roll your mouse over it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menus: A list of built-in commands and/or options from which to choose </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  104. 104. Common Features of the User Interface <ul><li>To start an application, pick one of 3 methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on the Start button on the lower left corner of the Windows desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on the My Computer icon on the desktop, find the application executable on your hard disk, and click it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on the My Documents icon on the desktop, find the document you want to open, and click it. It should automatically open the application that created it, if you have that application installed </li></ul></ul>3-
  105. 105. Common Features of the User Interface <ul><li>Most Operating Systems have the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title Bar: runs across the top of the display window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menu Bar: shows the names of the pull-down menus available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toolbar: Displays menus and icons representing the most-frequently used commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taskbar: The bar across the bottom of the Windows screen that contains the Start button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A window: A rectangular frame on the computer screen through which you can view a file of data or an application </li></ul></ul>3-
  106. 106. Common Operating Systems <ul><li>Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The particular processor model and operating system on which a computer system is based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating Systems are platform-specific </li></ul><ul><li>PC (Wintel) platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dell, Compaq, Hewlett-Packard, IBM PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally ran Disk Operating System (DOS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently run Linux, Unix, Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apple (Macintosh) platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Mac OS (System 9 was proprietary, OS X is Unix-based) </li></ul></ul>3-
  107. 107. Common Operating Systems <ul><li>Mac OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The OS that runs on Apple Macintosh computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneered the easy-to-use GUI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System 9 is OS from 1999, but still popular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X is based on BSD Unix kernel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiger is 2005 release of Mac OS X; features include </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spotlight – a desktop search engine for locating files on local hard disk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dashboard – for creating desktop “widgets” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automator – automatically helps users to script repetitive tasks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>3-
  108. 108. Common Operating Systems <ul><li>Unix, Solaris, BSD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1969 as minicomputer operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a multitasking operating system with multiple users that has built-in networking capability and a version for every platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GUI – An optional shell program that starts after the kernel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Command interface – starts when kernel loads </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  109. 109. Common Operating Systems <ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A flavor (version) of Unix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A free, nonproprietary version of UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May legally be downloaded and used for free </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May legally be modified for free, as long as modifications aren’t copyrighted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2000, adopted by China as national standard OS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux vendors produce Linux Distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software is distributed for free </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support services are sold for a profit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many PCs are set up to dual-boot Linux and Windows </li></ul></ul>3-
  110. 110. Common Operating Systems <ul><li>Operating Systems for Handhelds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant handheld OS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary OS requires proprietary software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows CE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has familiar Windows look and feel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be directly programmed using Visual Basic 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbian OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbian is world’s largest producer of smartphone software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software is open-source </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  111. 111. Application Software <ul><li>There are 5 ways to legally obtain software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrighted – license must be purchased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public-domain software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not copyrighted – legal to copy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shareware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrighted – download for free, then pay if you use it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freeware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrighted – but available for free. Pay on honor system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rentalware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrighted – lease for a fee </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  112. 112. Application Software <ul><li>Software License Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow software to be used on all computers at a specific location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrent-user license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows a specified number of copies to be used at one time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May require additional license-monitoring software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-user license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies the number of people who may use the software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-use license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limits the software to one user at a time </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  113. 113. Application Software <ul><li>Other software categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pirated software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software obtained illegally in violation of copyright </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software & Industry Information Association Anti-Piracy division prosecutes violators of software copyright laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t pirate software!!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abandonware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software that is no longer being sold or supported by its publisher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to copyright for 95 years from date of publication </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  114. 114. Application Software <ul><li>Importing files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting data from another source and converting it into a format for the application you are using </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to edit files from other applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exporting files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforming data into a format that can be used by a different application, then transmitting it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common export files end in the .rtf extension </li></ul></ul>3-
  115. 115. Word Processing <ul><li>Software that uses computers to create, edit, format, print, and store text. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Word licensed for Windows and Mac OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus Smart Suite licensed for Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun Microsystems Star Office licensed for Windows- Linux- and Solaris-based systems (was free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corel Word-Perfect licensed for Windows </li></ul></ul>3-
  116. 116. Word Processing <ul><li>Tools for creating documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cursor is on screen to show you where to enter text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrolling means moving quickly forward, up, down, or sideways through document test display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word wrap automatically continues text to next line when you reach the right margin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline view puts tags on headings within a document to organize it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inserting is the act of adding text to documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deleting is the act of removing text from documents </li></ul></ul>3-
  117. 117. Word Processing 3-
  118. 118. Word Processing <ul><li>Find & Replace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find lets you go straight to any text in your document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace lets you go to the text and automatically replace it with something else </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cut, Copy, & Paste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the text you want to move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy to clipboard, then paste in new location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or drag the text to the new location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spelling Checker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests for incorrectly spelled words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often shows them with a squiggly line underneath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may choose to use the “Autocorrect” feature </li></ul></ul>3-
  119. 119. Word Processing <ul><li>Grammar Checker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlights poor grammar, wordiness, sentence fragments, and awkward phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts different-color squiggly line under suspect phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thesaurus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be called up on-screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers suggestions for alternative words with the same meaning </li></ul></ul>3- Discussion Question: How doze a spell-checker Handel different spellings for the same word? Should ewe trust the spell-checker for everything?
  120. 120. Word Processing <ul><li>Formatting Documents using Templates & Wizards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A template is a preformatted document that provides basic tools for shaping a final document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can customize a template with your company’s name, address, etc, then save it and use it again and again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use them when you have to repeatedly create the same basic document </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A wizard is an interactive computer utility program that leads the user through a task asking questions and using the user’s answers to customize a solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Letter wizards create customized letters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memo wizards help you to create memoranda </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  121. 121. Word Processing <ul><li>Formatting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Font </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The typeface, size, and color of your letters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also lets you specify underlined , italic , or bold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacing & Columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose how far apart the lines will be (single- or double-spaced) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose single-column or multi-columned text for your document </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Margins & Justification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate width of left, right, top, and bottom margins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Justify text left, right, or center </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  122. 122. Word Processing <ul><li>Headers, footers, page numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A header is text printed at the very top of the page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A footer is text (like page number) at the page bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Formatting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can specify a border around a document or around a paragraph – it can really highlight a point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can also use shading, tables, and footnotes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Default Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the settings automatically used by the program unless you change them </li></ul></ul>3-
  123. 123. Word Processing <ul><li>Saving a document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store a document as an electronic file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File  Save or click Floppy icon or Ctrl + S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save often, and save in two places </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print individual pages, the whole document, or several copies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File  Print or click printer icon or Ctrl + P </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Track Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Save as Web Document </li></ul>3-
  124. 124. Spreadsheets <ul><li>Electronic spreadsheets were created in 1978 by Daniel Bricklin at Harvard Business School and Daniel Fylstra at M.I.T. and HBS as a study tool </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets are organized into columns and rows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are where a row and a column meet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell address is the position of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range is a group of adjacent cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values are numbers or dates entered into a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell pointers or cursors are where the data is to be entered </li></ul></ul>3-
  125. 125. Spreadsheets 3-
  126. 126. Spreadsheets <ul><li>Formulas, Functions, Recalculation, What-If </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulas are instructions for calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They define mathematically how one cell relates to another cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: =SUM(A5:A15) sums the values of the cells A5, A6, A7, and so forth up through cell A15 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions are built-in formulas, such as SUM() </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recalculation is the process of recomputing values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What-If analysis allows users to see what happens to totals when one or more numbers change in cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is the powerful feature of spreadsheets over manual calculations </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  127. 127. Spreadsheets <ul><li>Charting and Analytical Graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets allow you to automatically create graphs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the cells change, the graphs change too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts are a type of graph that include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bar charts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Column charts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Line graphs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pie charts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scatter charts </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  128. 128. Database Software <ul><li>A database is a structured collection of interrelated files in a computer system with built-in data input and retrieval methods. </li></ul><ul><li>In databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data redundancy is minimized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is integrated and stored in a structured fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data in databases has more integrity than does data stored in separate files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is organized into tables, records, and fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data may include text, numbers, and graphics </li></ul></ul>3-
  129. 129. Database Software 3-
  130. 130. Database Software <ul><li>Database features include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking records using a key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tables that contain the same field are linked together by fields, so the key can be updated just once </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key fields can also be used to sort data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Querying and displaying records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer a quick way to locate records quickly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving, Formatting, Printing, Copying, Transmitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database software allows you to create custom input forms, custom reports, copy search results and paste them into Word, print out addresses to mailing labels, or attach to email </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  131. 131. Specialty Software <ul><li>Presentation Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Software </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing and Painting Software </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Software </li></ul><ul><li>Video-audio Editing Software </li></ul><ul><li>Animation Software </li></ul><ul><li>Web Page Design Software </li></ul>3-
  132. 132. Specialty Software <ul><li>Presentation Graphics Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use graphics, animation, sound, data, or information to make visual presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, this presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design and content templates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slide sorters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outline view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slide view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notes Page View </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  133. 133. Specialty Software 3-
  134. 134. Specialty Software <ul><li>Financial Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges from personal-finance managers to entry-level accounting programs to business financial-management packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Track income and expenses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow checkbook management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do financial reporting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer tax categories to assist with tax recordkeeping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May also offer financial-planning and portfolio-management features </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  135. 135. Specialty Software <ul><li>Desktop Publishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves mixing text and graphics to produce high-quality output for commercial printing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a mouse, scanner, printer, and DTP software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the following features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of text with graphics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offers varied type and layout styles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows import of files from other programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawing programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics software used to design and illustrate objects and products </li></ul></ul>3-
  136. 136. Specialty Software <ul><li>Painting programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics programs that allow users to simulate painting on-screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce bit-mapped or raster images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called image-editing software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphics file formats </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.bmp (bit-map) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.gif (Graphic Interchange Format) – copyrighted format used in web pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.jpeg (Joint Photographic Experts Group)- high-resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.tiff (Tagged Image File Formats) – PC and Macs for high-resolution images to print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.png (Portable Network Graphics) – public domain alternative to gif </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  137. 137. Specialty Software <ul><li>Video editing software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows import to and editing of video footage on PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video editing examples include Adobe Premiere, Sony Pictures Digital Vegas, Apple Final Cut Express, Pinnacle Studio DV, and Ulead VideoStudio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audio editing software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows import to and editing of sound files on PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound editing examples include Windows Sound Recorder, Sony Pictures Digital Sound Forge, Audacity (freeware), Felt Tip Software’s Sound Studio (shareware), GoldWave, and WavePad. </li></ul></ul>3-
  138. 138. Specialty Software <ul><li>Animation Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulates movement by rapidly displaying a series of still pictures, or frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIF is the first format to catch on </li></ul></ul>3-
  139. 139. Specialty Software <ul><li>Multimedia Authoring Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in an integrated way to create stand-alone multimedia applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires fast computer, lots of memory, and good, fast graphics card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macromedia Director and Macromedia Authorware are popular examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Page Design Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to create web pages with sophisticated multimedia features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not required to create simple web pages </li></ul></ul>3-
  140. 140. Specialty Software <ul><li>Project Management Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A program used to plan and schedule the people, costs, and resources required to complete a project on time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows project broken down into steps and tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each task has a beginning and end date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks can be scheduled concurrently or consecutively </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer-Aided Design (CAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs intended for design of products, structures, civil engineering drawings, and maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide precise dimensioning and positioning of design elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include AutoCAD, ProEngineer, CorelCAD, CATIA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To see an example, go to for CATIA </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  141. 141. 4-
  142. 142. Hardware: The CPU & Storage 4.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility 4.2 The System Unit: The Basics 4.3 More on the System Unit 4.4 Secondary Storage 4.5 Future Developments in Processing & Storage Chapter 4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  143. 143. Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility <ul><li>Vacuum Tubes vs. Transistors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum tubes were the original logic gates of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They looked like light bulbs, were hot, and burned out like them too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The original transistors were 1/100 th the size of vacuum tubes (less power, faster, more reliable too) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transistors vs. Integrated Circuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare 1955’s 45 lb “portable” color TV to today’s 7 oz Casio 2.3 inch color TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One integrated circuit contains thousands of transistors </li></ul></ul>4-
  144. 144. Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility <ul><li>Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A material whose electrical properties are intermediate between a good conductor and a nonconductor of electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect substrate to overlay complex circuits on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microchips are made from semiconductors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain millions of microminiature integrated circuits </li></ul></ul>4-
  145. 145. Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility <ul><li>Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The miniaturized circuitry of an entire computer processor on a single chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the CPU, which processes data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microcontroller or Embedded Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A microprocessor that was modified for use in a machine that isn’t a computer </li></ul></ul>4-
  146. 146. The System Unit: The Basics <ul><li>Binary System: the basic unit of computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses just two numbers: 0 and 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All data and program instructions in the computer are represented as binary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit: each 0 or 1 is a bit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byte: a group of 8 bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilobyte: ~1,000 (1,024) bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megabyte: ~1 Million (1,048,576) bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigabyte: ~1 Billion (1,073,741,824) bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terabyte: ~ 1 Trillion (1,009,511,627,576) bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petabyte: ~ 1 quadrillion bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exabyte: ~ 1 quintillion bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the printed material in the world is ~ 5 exabytes </li></ul></ul>4-
  147. 147. The System Unit: The Basics <ul><li>Binary coding schemes assign a unique binary code to each letter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EBCDIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires 8 bits per character </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for IBM mainframes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires 7 or 8 bits per character, depending on the version </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 bit Extended ASCII provides 256 characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for PCs, Unix hosts, Macs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires 16 bits per character </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handles 65,536 characters </li></ul></ul></ul>4-
  148. 148. The System Unit: The Basics <ul><li>Error Checking: Parity Bits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in modems & communications to verify correctness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One check bit is added to 7 bit byte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The check bit is defined as either odd or even </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For odd parity, if the data sent is correct, the parity bit plus the first 7 data bits is an odd number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For even parity, if the data sent is correct, the parity bit plus the first 7 data bits is an even number </li></ul></ul>4- Discussion Question: If the 7 data bits are 1101011, and the modem is sending odd parity, what should the parity bit be set to? Answer: Since the data bits add up to 5, an odd number, the parity bit will be 0.
  149. 149. The System Unit: The Basics <ul><li>Machine Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A binary-type programming language built into the CPU that is run directly by the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each CPU type has its own machine language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Translators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System programs convert the programming instructions for you into machine language </li></ul></ul>4-
  150. 150. The System Unit: The Basics 4-
  151. 151. The System Unit: The Basics Computer Terms <ul><li>Names </li></ul><ul><li>Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Power Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Surge Protector </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage Regulator </li></ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Chipset </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Shell or opening used for the installation of electrical equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>This converts AC to DC to run the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Protects the computer from being damaged by power spikes. Plug your computer into one. </li></ul><ul><li>Protects a computer against brownouts or low power conditions that happen a lot in summer. </li></ul><ul><li>Uninterruptible Power Supply. Battery-operated device that provides power for a time when there is a blackout. </li></ul><ul><li>The main system board of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The miniaturized circuitry of a computer processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of interconnected chips on the motherboard that control information flow between the microprocessor and other system components connected to the motherboard. </li></ul>4-
  152. 152. The System Unit: The Basics <ul><li>The CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older CPUs processing speeds are in MegaHertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 MHz = 1 Million ticks per second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current CPUs processing speeds are in GigaHertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 GHz = 1 Billion ticks per second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The faster a CPU runs, the more power it consumes, and the more heat it generates </li></ul></ul>4-
  153. 153. The System Unit: The Basics <ul><li>The CPU Continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframe and minicomputer speed is measured in MIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MIPS stands for millions of instructions per second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workstations perform at 100 MIPS or more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframes perform at 200 – 1,200 MIPS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputer processing speed is measured in flops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flops stands for floating point operations per second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IBM’s Blue Gene/L cranks out 70.72 teraflops (tera = trillion) per second </li></ul></ul></ul>4-
  154. 154. More on the System Unit Parts of the CPU <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Word size </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Logic Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Registers </li></ul><ul><li>Buses </li></ul>4- <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The number of bits the processor can process at any one time </li></ul><ul><li>The part of the CPU that deciphers instructions and carries them out </li></ul><ul><li>The ALU performs mathematical and logical operations and controls the speed of them </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed storage areas that temporarily store data during processing </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical data roadways used to transmit bits within the CPU and between CPU and other motherboard components </li></ul>
  155. 155. More on the System Unit How Memory Works <ul><li>Memory Chip </li></ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul><ul><li>ROM </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS </li></ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Random Access Memory chips are volatile and hold: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data before & after the CPU processes it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read only memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be written on or erased without special equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are loaded at factory with fixed start-up instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powered by a battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains time, date, calendar, boot password </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed more than once </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require a battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in newer PCs for BIOS instructions </li></ul></ul>4-
  156. 156. More on the System Unit Types of RAM <ul><li>RAM Types </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM </li></ul><ul><li>SDRAM </li></ul><ul><li>SRAM </li></ul><ul><li>DDR-SDRAM </li></ul><ul><li>SIMM </li></ul><ul><li>DIMM </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic RAM must be constantly refreshed by the CPU or it loses its contents </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous Dynamic RAM is synchronized by the system clock and is much faster than DRAM </li></ul><ul><li>Static RAM is faster than DRAM and retains its contents without having to be refreshed by CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Double-data rate synchronous dynamic RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Single Inline Memory Module has RAM chips on only one side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FPM is fast page mode type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDO is extended data output; is faster than FPM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual Inline Memory Module has chips on both sides </li></ul>4-
  157. 157. More on the System Unit Speeding up Processing <ul><li>The CPU works much faster than RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So it could sit there waiting for information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache temporarily stores instructions and data that the processor uses frequently to speed up processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1 cache is part of the microprocessor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds 8 to 256 kb </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster than Level 2 cache </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 cache is SRAM external cache </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds 64 kb to 2 Mb </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 cache is on the motherboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comes on very high-end computers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>4-
  158. 158. More on the System Unit Speeding up Processing <ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Interleaving </li></ul><ul><li>Bursting </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelining </li></ul><ul><li>Superscalar Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthreading </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>CPU alternates communications between two or more memory banks </li></ul><ul><li>CPU grabs a block of data from memory instead of retrieving one piece at a time </li></ul><ul><li>CPU doesn’t wait for one instruction to complete before fetching its next instruction </li></ul><ul><li>The computer can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle </li></ul><ul><li>A technique used in superscalar architecture in which the OS treats the microprocessor as though it is two microprocessors </li></ul>4-
  159. 159. More on the System Unit Ports <ul><li>Port Type </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Port </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Port </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI Port </li></ul><ul><li>USB Port </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Used to transmit slow data over long distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends data sequentially, one bit at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to connect keyboard, mouse, monitors, dial-up modems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For transmitting fast data over short distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits 8 bytes simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects printers, external disks, backups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small Computer System Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects up to 7 devices in a daisy chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits data 32 bits at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal Serial Bus can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices in a daisy chain </li></ul>4-
  160. 160. More on the System Unit USB <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be low-cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to connect lots of devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be hot swappable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People hate rebooting because it takes time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot swapping means a device can be connected/disconnected without rebooting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit plug and play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devices are automatically configured when they are installed – no need to download new drivers </li></ul></ul></ul>4-
  161. 161. More on the System Unit USB Continued <ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USB 1.1 – the original standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB 2.0 – the current standard for new PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB On The Go (OTG) – currently under development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A – in USB Type 1.1 and 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B – in USB Type 1.1 and 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini B – in USB Type 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini A – in USB OTG used for smaller peripherals like cellphones </li></ul></ul>4-
  162. 162. More on the System Unit Specialized Expansion Ports <ul><li>Port Type </li></ul><ul><li>FireWire </li></ul><ul><li>MIDI </li></ul><ul><li>IrDA </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Intended for devices working with lots of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for camcorders, DVD players, TVs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles up to 400 megabits per second </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Musical Instrument Digital Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects musical instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in creating, recording, editing, performing music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrared Data Association: Infrared ports used to make a cableless connection </li></ul><ul><li>Uses short-range radio waves that transmit up to 30 ft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects computers to printers, keyboards, headsets, even refrigerators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named after King Harald Bluetooth, son of Gorm, who united the Norway and Denmark. Ruled 910-940 A.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The standard for linking all devices in a Local Area Network </li></ul>4-
  163. 163. More on the System Unit Expansion Cards 4-
  164. 164. More on the System Unit Expansion Buses <ul><li>Bus </li></ul><ul><li>PCI bus </li></ul><ul><li>AGP Bus </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Component Interconnect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For high-speed connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 or 64 bits wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically used for sound cards, modems, high-speed network cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accelerated Graphics Port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twice the speed of PCI bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Video and 3-D graphics cards </li></ul></ul>4-
  165. 165. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Storage Types </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy and Zip disks </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>Optical disks </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic tape </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul><ul><li>Online secondary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Removable disks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppies store 1.44 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip disks store 100, 250, or 750 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Made from thin rigid metal covered with magnetizable substrate. Most disks have 2 or more platters </li></ul><ul><li>Removable CDs and DVDs </li></ul><ul><li>Thin plastic tape coated with magnetizable substance </li></ul><ul><li>Like a credit card, but contains a microprocessor and memory chips </li></ul><ul><li>Nonvolatile memory – no moving parts </li></ul><ul><li>Lets you store data on an online vendor’s server </li></ul>4-
  166. 166. Secondary Storage Floppies and Zip Disks <ul><li>Floppies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat piece of mylar plastic inside a 3.5” plastic case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store about 1.44 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a write-protect notch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is recorded in tracks: concentric recording bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting breaks the tracks into small wedge-shaped sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/Write head transfers data between the computer and disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppies DO wear out! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zip Disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disks with a high-quality magnetic coating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store 100, 250, or 750 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require a Zip drive; won’t work on floppy drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store larger files than floppies can hold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip disks wear out too! </li></ul></ul>4-
  167. 167. Secondary Storage Hard Disks <ul><li>Thin, rigid metal, glass, or ceramic platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more platters there are, the higher the drive capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store data in tracks, sectors, and clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting creates a file allocation table that maps files to clusters or inodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical file systems are VFAT & NTFS for Windows, HFS and ext2 for Unix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive heads ride on .000001” cushion of air, and can crash! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important data should always be backed up! </li></ul></ul>4-
  168. 168. Secondary Storage Hard Disks <ul><li>Hard Disk Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External Hard Disks – a freestanding disk drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removable Hard Disk – inserted into a cartridge drive on the PC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard Disk Controllers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EIDE – Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports up to 4 disks at 137 GB per disk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketed as SATA, Fast ATA, Ultra ATA, ATA-2, ATA/100 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI – Faster than EIDE controllers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibre Channel – used in large servers – faster and costlier than SCSI </li></ul></ul>4-
  169. 169. Secondary Storage Optical Disks <ul><li>CDs and DVDs are Optical disks </li></ul><ul><li>Data is written and read using lasers, not a disk head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM is Compact Disk Read-Only Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R is used for recording only once </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW is an erasable optical disk that can both record and erase data over and over again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD is a CD-style disk with extremely high capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores 4.7 or more GB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-R is used for recording only once </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, DVD+RW are reusable DVDs </li></ul></ul></ul>4-
  170. 170. Secondary Storage Magnetic Tape <ul><li>Thin plastic tape coated with a substance that can be magnetized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store 200 GB and higher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in the form of tape cartridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still popular for large backups because of their large data capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But don’t get it near a magnet as that will erase it! </li></ul></ul>4-
  171. 171. Secondary Storage Smart Cards <ul><li>Resembles a credit card, but contains a microprocessor and memory chips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds more information than standard magnetic-strip credit cards; 8 – 40 MB of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UltraCard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a magnetic shim that draws out of the card to be read, then retracts into the drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides 2 GB of storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact smart cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be swiped through card readers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can wear out from use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contactless smart cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read when held in front of a low-powered laser </li></ul></ul></ul>4-
  172. 172. Secondary Storage Flash Memory <ul><li>Nonvolatile memory with no moving parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But the electronics can wear out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insert these into a flash port of a camera, handheld PC, smartphone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory sticks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A form of flash memory that plugs into a memory stick port </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A finger-sized module of flash memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plugs into the USB port of most PCs and Macintoshes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>4-
  173. 173. Secondary Storage Online Secondary Storage <ul><li>Allows you to use the internet to back up your data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign up with a vendor and receive access to software that allows you to upload your data to that company’s server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files should be encrypted to maintain security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use only for vital files that require immediate availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use tape, removable hard disk cartridges, zip disks, optical storage or tape for normal backup </li></ul></ul>4-
  174. 174. Future Developments in Processing & Storage <ul><li>Moore’s Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gordon Moore predicted the number of transistors on a silicon chip will double every 18 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has held up since the 1960s! </li></ul></ul>4-
  175. 175. Future Developments in Processing & Storage <ul><li>New Technology </li></ul><ul><li>M-RAM </li></ul><ul><li>OUM </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Computing </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Description of Processing Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic RAM uses miniscule magnets rather than electrical charges </li></ul><ul><li>Ovonic Multiplied Memory stores bits by generating different levels of low and high resistance on a glossy material </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny machines work at a molecular level to make nanocircuits </li></ul><ul><li>Uses lasers and light, not electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Uses strands of synthetic DNA to store data </li></ul><ul><li>Based on quantum mechanics and stores information using particle states </li></ul>4-
  176. 176. Future Developments in Processing & Storage <ul><li>New Technology </li