1.1 introduction to it and development of it


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  • Every now and then you might have seen advancements in this field because the changes are coming up very rapidly. Therefore it is very important that the people who are in to this field must quickly adapt themselves to the changing needs and requirements.
  • Example we use information technology in every aspect of life from business area to education, health, communication and etc.
  • Nota ini adalah hide kerana tidak terdapat dalam senarai. Hanya untuk pengetahuan umum.
  • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is an architecture and specification for creating, distributing, and managing distributed program objects in a network. It allows programs at different locations and developed by different vendors to communicate in a network through an "interface broker.“ DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model) is a set of Microsoft concepts and program interfaces in which client program object s can request services from server program objects on other computers in a network. DCOM is based on the Component Object Model (COM), which provides a set of interfaces allowing clients and servers to communicate within the same computer (that is running Windows 95 or a later version).
  • CRM solution: CRM (customer relationship management) is an information industry term for methodologies, software, and usually Internet capabilities that help an enterprise  manage customer relationships in an organized way.  Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers. The Google API stands for ‘Application Programmable Interface’. As it’s name implies, it is an interface that queries the Google database to help programmers in the development of their applications. 
  • 1.1 introduction to it and development of it

    1. 1. Learning Outcomes At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: (a) Define Information Technology. (b) Describe the development of Information Technology.
    2. 2. Introduction to Information Technology The information technology definition can be described with the technological improvement and innovation in the filed of information technology. The field of Information technology is a very wide field in which you use the technology together with the computers.
    3. 3. 1.1 Definition of Information Technology Information technology or IT can be defined briefly as the use of computer hardware and software to store, retrieve, and manipulate information. manage computer hardware information and software
    4. 4. 1.1 Definition of Information Technology ITAA (Information Technology Association of America) has defined information technology as being the study, design, development, implementation, support and/or management of any computer based information system
    5. 5. 1.1 Definition of Information Communication and Technology is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.
    6. 6. 1.1 Definition of Information Communication and Technology a. Information - Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading, investigation, study or research. b. Communication - Act of transmitting messages . - Process whereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbal interactions . c. Technology - Use of scientific knowledge, experience and resources to create processes and product that fulfill human needs
    7. 7. 1.1 Definition of Computer ScienceComputer science or computing sciencedesignates the scientific and mathematicalapproach in computing. (wikipedia)Curriculum that focuses on the theory ofprogramming and operating system ( Shelly Cashman Series)
    8. 8. Definition of InformationTechnology When covering the aspects of information technology as a whole, the use of computer and information are typically associated. Everything from data management, networking, the Internet, engineering, computer hardware, software design, database design and management and administration of system is included in the term of information technology.
    9. 9. Definition of InformationTechnology Information technology is also concerned with improvement of human and organizational problem- solving through the design, development and use of technology to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of using information.
    10. 10. Definition of InformationTechnology IT jobs include computer programming, network administration, computer engineering, Web development, technical support, and many other related occupations. Since we live in the "information age," information technology has become a part of our everyday lives. That means the term "IT," already highly overused, is here to stay.
    11. 11. 1.1 When the Information Technology was started? In the 1960s and 1970s, information technology was limited to people working in the banking sector, mathematical engineers and computer scientists.
    12. 12.  In 1980s, the arrival of personal computers made it possible to be used in many more sectors and gave rise to a surge in the field of information technology. Computer has been used in the home and workplace, the world move into the information age.
    13. 13.  By the early 21st century, nearly every child in the world, knew how to use a personal computer and people have started communicating, using e-mails. It is an industry which deals with the usage of computer hardware , software and networking.
    14. 14. 1.1 When the Information Technology was started?YEARS HISTORY •Information technology was limited to people working in the 1960 & banking sector, mathematical engineers and computer scientists. 1970 •The arrival of personal computers made it possible to be used in many more sectors and gave rise to a surge in the field of information 1980 technology. •Computer has been used in the home and workplace, the world move into the information age •Nearly every child in the world, knew how to use a personal computer and people have started communicating, using e-mails.early 21st •It is an industry which deals with the usage of computer hardware ,century software and networking
    15. 15. The Importance of IT
    16. 16. Why is information technology important?1. Speed and accuracy in information processing.  With the help of IT, more work can be done by individuals, business, services and government organizations.  Function enhancement programs such as word processor, database programs also graphic can get work done in less time with increased accuracy and efficiency.
    17. 17. 2. Global social interaction.  IT has made global social and culture interaction very simple.  This is evident with the emergence and success of social networking such as Facebook and Twitter.  More so, the use of information technology has eliminated language barriers with technologies such as language traslators.
    18. 18. 3. Entertainment  The introduction and use of high tech applications and gadgets such as iTunes, iPod and iPone has been revolutionary.  Downloading, buying, playing and organizing, music, videos, movies and TV shows has been made super easy and accessible.
    19. 19. 4. Communication  the advancement of the Internet and technologies such as VoIP (Voice over IP), organizations, businesses and individuals can communicate any time from different parts of the world through video and voice calls, web conferencing, seminars and virtual meetings.
    20. 20. 5. Economic Advancement  A major step to global economic advancement is the removal of distance and time barriers brought about by the application of information technology to buying and selling of goods and services (e- commerce).  E-commerce gave room for tiny, small and big business players to emerge. Interconnection of businesses is made painless.
    21. 21. 6. Education  Education has gone far beyond the use of bricks and mortal classrooms or traditional blackboard.  The world is now in the era of e- learning, using technologies such as VLEs (Virtual Learning Environments).  Students can have access to all teaching materials and resources online; engage in virtual classrooms real time or asynchronously.
    22. 22. 7. Health  The health care sector is positively impacted by the use of electronic health records, virtual healthcare team technologies, telemedicine, e-health grids and various specialist health care information systems.
    23. 23. 1.1 Development of ITGreat technological advances have been made sincethe days when computers were huge pieces ofequipment that were stored in big, air conditionedrooms, getting their information from punch cards.
    24. 24. 1.1 Development of ITIn this chapter, we will see some of the developmentof IT from stand-alone computer and operatingsystem, mainframe, client-server network, distributedcomputing and up to the latest trend which is the cloudcomputing.
    25. 25. 1. Stand-Alone ComputerWhat is a stand-alone computer? A desktop or laptop computer that is used on its own without requiring a connection to a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN). Although it may be connected to a network, it is still a stand-alone computer as long as the network connection is not mandatory for its general use.
    26. 26. 1. Stand-Alone Computer
    27. 27. 1. Stand-Alone ComputerWhat is a stand-alone operating system? A complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook, or mobile computing device. Some are known as client operating system that can operate with/without a network.• Examples of currently used stand-alone operating systems are: Windows 7 Mac OS X UNIX Linux
    28. 28. 2. MainframeWhat is a mainframe? A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously. Stores tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and information. Mostly used by major corporations for business activities.
    29. 29. 2. MainframeIBM System z10 mainframe Example of mainframe system
    30. 30. 2. Mainframe Mainframes can also act as servers in a network environment. Servers and other mainframes can access data and information from a mainframe. People can also access programs on the mainframe using terminals or personal computers.
    31. 31. 2. MainframeAdvantages of mainframe: 1.Lots of processes, memory and channels Mainframes support symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) with several dozen central processors (CPU chips) in one system. They are highly scalable. CPUs can be added to a system, and systems can be added in clusters. Built with multiple ports into high-speed caches and main memory, a mainframe can address thousands of gigabytes of RAM. They connect to high-speed disk subsystems that can hold petabytes of data.
    32. 32. 2. MainframeAdvantages of mainframe:2. Enormous throughput A mainframe provides exceptional throughput by offloading its input/output processing to a peripheral channel, which is a computer itself. Mainframes can support hundreds of channels, and additional processors may act as I/O traffic cops that handle exceptions (channel busy, channel failure, etc.).
    33. 33. 2. MainframeAdvantages of mainframe:3. Super reliable Mainframe operating systems are generally rock solid because a lot of circuitry is designed to detect and correct errors. Every subsystem may be continuously monitored for potential failure, in some cases even triggering a list of parts to be replaced at the next scheduled maintenance. As a result, mainframes are incredibly reliable with mean time between failure (MTBF) up to 20 years!
    34. 34. 3. Client-Server NetworkWhat is a client-server network? An architecture in which the users PC (the client) is the requesting machine and the server is the supplying machine, both of which are connected via a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) such as the Internet. One or more computers act as a server, and the other computers on the network request services from the server.
    35. 35. 3. Client-Server Network The Clients The Server (aka host computer) Other computers and Controls access to the mobile devices on the hardware, software, andnetwork that rely on the other resources on the server for its resources network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information.E.g.: Access customer E.g.: Store a database ofdatabase on the server customers.
    36. 36. 3. Client-Server Network Example of client-server network
    37. 37. 3. Client-Server NetworkAdvantages of client-server network:3.Computer can easily be added or replaced without purchasing any additional hardware or software.  It is because a client server is centralized, server can easily move files and applications from an old computer to a new one5.Flexible to adapt and to change new technologies because it has a centralized management.
    38. 38. 3. Client-Server NetworkAdvantages of client-server network:3. Secure because servers ensure that everything that goes in and out of the network passes through stringent security measures.  Servers can allow certain users to access the network from the internet or externally without compromising the network from hackers and unauthorized users.
    39. 39. 4.Distributed ComputingWhat is distributed computing? Refers to the means by which a single computer program runs in more than one computer at the same time. In particular, the different elements and objects of a program are being run or processed using different computer processors. A type of computing in which different components and objects comprising an application can be located on different computers connected to a network.
    40. 40. 4.Distributed Computing For example, a word processing application might consist of an editor component on one computer, a spell-checker object on a second computer, and a thesaurus on a third computer. In some distributed computing systems, each of the three computers could even be running a different operating system One of the requirements of distributed computing is a set of standards that specify how objects communicate with one another. There are currently two chief distributed computing standards: CORBA and DCOM.
    41. 41. 4.Distributed ComputingDistinct characteristics of distributed computing: In a distributed computing setup, the program runs like it would in a single computer even when it is, in fact, using different computer processors.This means that no single computer carries the entire burden on system resources that running a computer program usually implies.
    42. 42. 4.Distributed ComputingDistinct characteristics of distributed computing: However, distributed computing is not actually used to lighten the load of an individual computer’s processor. It is in fact done to be able to process or run complex and resource-draining programs with greater speed and efficiency.Distributed computing, in effect, can be deemed as an attempt to produce a virtual supercomputer out of hundreds or thousands of individual computers.
    43. 43. 5. Cloud ComputingWhat is cloud computing? An internet service that provides computing needs to computer users. Using the Web server facilitiesof a third party provider on theInternet (the "cloud") to store,deploy and run applications.
    44. 44. 5. Cloud Computing For example, an employee working during the day in Malaysia could use computing power in a Dubai network system located in an office that is closed for the evening. When the company uses the computing resources, they pay a fee based on the amount of computing time and other resources that they consume, much in the way that consumers pay electric company based on how much electricity they used.
    45. 45. 5. Cloud Computing
    46. 46. 5. Cloud ComputingTypes of cloud provider (service provider):• Software as a Service(SaaS) is the service based on the concept of renting software from a service provider rather than buying it yourself. The software is hosted on centralized network servers to make functionality available over the web or intranet. Also known as “software on demand” it is currently the most popular type of cloud computing because of its high flexibility, great services, enhanced scalability and less maintenance and very effective in lowering the costs of business. E.g.: Google Apps., Yahoo Mail
    47. 47. 5. Cloud ComputingTypes of cloud provider (service provider):2. Platform as a Service(PaaS) offers a development platform to clients for different purposes. based on a subscription model so users only pay for what they use without worrying about the complexity behind the scenes.
    48. 48. 5. Cloud ComputingTypes of cloud provider (service provider):2. Platform as a Service(PaaS)
    49. 49. 5. Cloud ComputingTypes of cloud provider (service provider):3. Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS) Provides rental services for hardware, operating systems, storage and network capacity over the Internet. Some services included in IaaS are managed hosting and development environments. IaaS is based on “Pay as you go” model ensuring that the users pay for only what they are using. Some of the benefits of IaaS are dynamic scaling, usage based pricing, reduced costs and access to superior IT resources. E.g.: Office 365
    50. 50. 5. Cloud Computing Cloud (Service) Provider
    51. 51. 5. Cloud ComputingAdvantages of cloud computing: Easy Expansion – you can quickly access more resources if you need to expand your business without the need to buy extra infrastructure. Security - offer real-time backup which results in less data loss. In case of outage, customers can use the backup servers that sync with the main ones as soon as they are up, clouds are less prone to hacks as people don’t know the whereabouts of your data. Environmentally Friendly - Usage of ready-made resources tailored to your needs helps you reduce the electricity expenses. While you save on electricity, you also save on resources required to cool off computers and other components. This reduces the emissions dangerous to environment
    52. 52. 5. Cloud ComputingAdvantages of cloud computing: Reduced cost - users pay only for what they are using Easy maintenance - users don’t have to worry about the complexity behind the scenes. Easy reallocation of resources Remote Accessibility - business is not restricted to a particular location. You can access the services from anywhere.
    53. 53. RECAP