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Glyn Moody: from open source to open research
 

Glyn Moody: from open source to open research

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We are moving from closed, analogue innovation to an open, digital form. That was first seen with the creation of GNU/Linux, but is now driving exciting developments like open access, open data and ...

We are moving from closed, analogue innovation to an open, digital form. That was first seen with the creation of GNU/Linux, but is now driving exciting developments like open access, open data and open research.

This presentation was given at the European Parliament in the context of the announcement of Horizon 2020 research programme.

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    Glyn Moody: from open source to open research Glyn Moody: from open source to open research Presentation Transcript

    • from open source to open research
        glyn moody
      • once in a lifetime?
      • global society is passing through a major transition
      • transition from analogue to digital
      • *not* once in a lifetime
      • once in a *civilisation*
    • ”analogue” innovation
      • traditional innovation in an analogue (pre-Web) world
        • centralised
        • top-down
        • collaboration hard
        • not scalable
      • *closed* innovation
      • what does open/digital innovation look like?
    • GNU/Linux
      • GNU (1984 – Richard Stallman): a free version of the leading Unix operating system
      • Linux (1991 – Linus Torvalds): operating system kernel
      • key inflection was August 1991, when Torvalds opened up his ”Linux” project using the Internet
    • open innovation
      • decentralised
        • anyone, anywhere, could join in
      • bottom-up
        • people fed suggestions, problems and solutions to Linus
      • collaboration easy
        • Internet was more affordable
      • scalable
        • no formal training required – everything is out in the open
    • Linus' Law
      • Eric Raymond: ”given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow”
      • adding more people to a project increases the probability that someone’s approach will match the problem in such a way that the solution is obvious (”shallow”) to that person
      • power of open innovation derives from its openness to all
    • fruits of open innovation
      • 91% of top 500 supercomputers run Linux
        • 0.2% run Microsoft Windows
      • Google runs its services on millions of servers running Linux
        • so does Facebook, Twitter etc.
      • Android mobile phone system runs on Linux
        • 200,000,000 handsets activated
        • launched November 2007
    • open access
      • scientific method based on sharing knowledge originated 17th century
      • undermined in later 20th century
        • US Bayh-Dole Act (1980)
        • scientific publishing
      • open access – free online access to research
        • arXiv.org - 713,177 e-prints (1991)
        • Public Library of Science (2001)
    • open access potential
      • increases citations of research articles
      • increases likelihood of others building on work
      • allows new discovery through text and data mining
      • allows schools to explore latest research
      • allows public to use what they have paid for
    • open data - HGP
      • Human Genome Project
        • started 1991, budget of $3.8 billion
        • first "complete" human genome published 2001
        • first and biggest open data project
        • Bermuda Agreement (1996)
          • all human genomic data placed in public domain immediately, no restrictions
    • open data potential
      • Human Genome Project
        • cost: $3.8 billion
        • benefit: $796 billion economic impact, created 310,000 jobs
      • new ecosystem of open data companies, like open source
      • mashups - business, educational, general use
      • allows public to benefit from what they have paid for
    • open research
      • not just about opening up results and data, but the *process* too
      • Galaxy Zoo
        • July 2007
        • there are too many galaxy images for experts: 10,000,000
        • anyone can help classify
      • 250,000 people taken *active* part in "citizen science"
    • open research potential
      • citizen science has big benefits for education and public: true democratisation of research
      • another key part of 21st-century research process is use of computers: need to open that too
      • as well as results and data, release all research software produced as open source
      • allows researchers to check, and everyone to use
    • from open source to open research
        [email_address] @glynmoody on Twitter/identi.ca opendotdotdot.blogspot.com