CORDILLERA ADMINISTRATIVE REGION The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) is a region in the Philippines composed ofthe provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City,the regional center. The Cordillera Administrative Region encompasses most of the areas withinthe Cordillera Central mountains of Luzon, the largest mountain range in the country. It is the countrysonly land-locked region. The region is home to numerous indigenous tribes collectively called the Igorot.CAR Provinces and PopulationCAR is subdivided into 6 provinces and one chartered city, Baguio.Province/City Capital Population Area Pop. (2007) (km²) density (per km²) Abra Bangued 230,953 3,975.6 58.1 Apayao Kabugao 103,633 3,927.9 26.4 Benguet La 372,533 2,599.4 143.3 Trinidad Ifugao Lagawe 180,711 2,517.8 71.8 Kalinga Tabuk 182,326 3,119.7 58.4 City Mountain Bontoc 148,661 2,097.3 70.9 Political map of Cordillera Province Administrative Region Baguio City — 301,926 57.5 5,250.9EconomyCordillera has abundant mineral reserves. These include metallic ores such as gold, copper, silver, zinc,and non-metallic minerals like sand, gravel and sulfur. Mineral reserves are found in all the provinces.However, mining is concentrated in Benguet.Baguio City and La Trinidad, Benguet are considered as the industrial centers in the region due. InBaguio, you will find an Export Processing Zone where operations of big companies like TexasInstruments, and MOOG are located. In La Trinidad you will find the Provincial Capitol and regionalbranches of government organizations.Tourist attractionsTourist attractions in the region include the world-famous Banaue Rice Terraces in the provinceof Ifugao. Nations around the world boast of their own self-proclaimed "eighth wonder of the world."The Philippines considers Banaue Rice Terraces as its "Eighth Wonder of the World." The Banaue
terraces, ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2,000 to 6,000 years old, are a UNESCO WorldHeritage Site. They are part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, widely found in theprovinces of Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, and Mountain Province.Natural attractions of the region include the Sumaguing Cave in Sagada and the mummy cavesof Benguet and Mt. Province. There are four National Parks: Cassamata Hill, Mount Pulag, the highestmountain in Luzon, and second highest mountain in the Philippines, following Mount Apo of Davao, withan elevation of 2,922 meters above mean sea level, Mt. Data, and Balbalasang-Balbalan, located in theprovince of Kalinga. Kalinga also offers world-class white water rafting along the Chico River. Thesummer capital of the Philippines is Baguio, within the Cordillera Administrative Region.The Banaue Rice Terraces (Tagalog: Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe) also called Payew, are 2000-year old terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of theindigenous people. The Rice Terraces are commonly referred to by Filipinos as the "Eighth Wonder ofthe World". It is commonly thought that the terraces were built with minimal equipment, largely byhand. The terraces are located approximately 1500 meters (5000 ft) above sea level and cover 10,360square kilometers (about 4000 square miles) of mountainside. They are fed by anancient irrigation system from the rainforests above the terraces. It is said that if the steps are put endto end it would encircle half the globe.CultureThe Cordillera region is known for its unique musical instruments including the gangsa kalinga, noseflute, bamboo flute, buzzer, bangibang, tongatong, diwdiw-as, saggeypo, and bamboo zither.The region also has various festivals. They include:Panagbenga / Baguio Flower Festival which is celebrated in February. The festival focuses on Baguio asthe Flower Garden City of the North. Highlights include flower exhibits, lectures, garden tours, floralcompetition and a parade of floats.Adivay festival in Benguet which means "coming together of people to celebrate" is celebrated everymonth of November. The month-long activities highlights the Agro-industrial and trade fair whichshowcase the different products of Benguet.Ullalim Festival/ in Kalinga which is celebrated every February 14. It is in celebration of the foundinganniversary of the province and the Peace acts calledBodong. It is the poetic expression of the heroicexploits, romance, joys, successes as well as tribulations, and the way of life of the Kalingas from birth todeath. The Festival highlights the weaved clothes (laga) exhibits, world class coffee beans and otherproducts of Kalinga.
LANG-AY Festival in Mountain Province celebrated every April 7. This is a week-long agro-industrialtrade, tourism and cultural fair with tribal dances and songs. Lang-ay is a native term which describesthe tradition of the people of Mountain Province to celebrate festivities, share happiness, foster familysolidarity, hospitality and nurture friendship - all with a toast of home-brewed wine.Banaue Imbayah festival which is celebrated every 4 years. It is a three-day festival from December 5 to8 consisting of a parade portraying the evolution of the Ifugao culture followed by ethnic games.Tabuk Matagoan Festival which features G-String marathon (runners wear G-String only), culturaldances and songs. The festival showcases the different products of tabuk coming from the differentparts of Kalinga such as the aromatic Kalinga coffee. Abra (province)Abra is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Itscapital is Bangued, and it borders Ilocos Norteand Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and MountainProvince on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga, and Apayao on the east.DemographicsAbras inhabitants are mostly descendants of Ilocano settlers and members of the Tingguian tribe. As of2007, the population of the province is 230,953.The predominant languages are Ilocano and Itneg. Based on the 2000 census survey, the majority of theprovince population is Ilocano 71.9%. Other ethnic groups living in the province arethe Tinguian 18.7%, Ibanag 4.5%, Isneg 3.2% and Tagalog 0.4%.HistoryThe first inhabitants of Abra were the ancestors of the Bontocs and the Ifugaos. These inhabitantseventually left to settle in the old Mountain Province. Other early inhabitants were the Tingguians, orItnegs, as they are also known. The Ilocos came to trade with the tinguians but eventually they saw theprovince to be very good so they invaded and the tinguians were forced to go to the mountains.In 1598 a Spanish garrison was established in Bangued to protect the Ilocanos who converted toChristianity from Tingguian raids. During the British Occupation of the Philippines, Gabriela Silang andher army fled to Abra from Ilocos and continued the revolt begun by her slain husband, Diego Silang.She was captured and hung by the Spanish in 1763.In 1818 the Ilocos region, including Abra, was divided into Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. In 1846 Abra wascreated as a political-military province with Lepanto as a sub-province. It remained so until the arrivalof the Americans in 1899.In 1908 the Philippine Commission once again in annexed Abra to Ilocos Sur in an attempt to resolveAbras financial difficulties. But on March 9, 1917, the Philippine Assembly re-established Abra as aprovince.In 1942, the Japanese forces occupied the Philippines and entered Abra.In 1945, the liberation in Abra in Northern Luzon by the Philippine Commonwealth forces and the localCordilleran guerrillas against the Japanese during the Battle of Abra at the end the Second World War.The revolutionary Marxist priest, Conrado Balweg, who fought for the rights of the Cordillera tribes,began his crusade in Abra. After successfully negotiating a peace accord with Balwegs group in 1987,the Philippine government created the Cordillera Administrative Region, which includes Abra.PhysicalAbra is hemmed in by the towering mountain ranges of the Ilocos in the west and the Cordillera Centralin the east. It has an extremely rugged terrain, with mountains and hills rising along its perimeter andinterior. The plains are drained by the Abra River, which flows northward from Mt. Data in the MountainProvince.
EconomyAs of 1990, there were 743 cottage industries in Abra, of which 208 are registered with the Departmentof Trade and Industry. 59% are engaged in bamboo and rattan craft making, both leading industries inthe area.In 1992, the natural dye industry, together with loom weaving and embroidery, was revived by formerGovernor Ma. Zita Claustro-Valera, the first woman governor of Abra.Abras economy is agriculture-based. Its major crops are rice, corn, and root crops; and commercialproduce are coffee, tobacco, and coconut. Extensive grassland and pasture areas are used for livestockproduction. Apayao Apayao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera AdministrativeRegion in Luzon. Its administrative capital is Luna and founding capital Kabugao. It borders Cagayan tothe north and east, Abra and Ilocos Norte to the west, and Kalinga to the south. Prior to 1995, Kalingaand Apayao comprised a single province named Kalinga-Apayao, until they were split into two to betterservice the needs of individual native tribes in the provinces.EconomyApayao is devoted to agricultural production, particularly food and industrial crops such as palay, corn,coffee, root crops and vegetables. Main fruits produce are lanzones, citrus, bananas and pineapples.Rice production totals 42,602 metric tons annually, as food crops totals 96,542 metric tons.Economic activity is also based on livestock and poultry breeding such as swine, carabao, cattle, goatand sheep. Other additional investment includes manufacturing, food processing, furniture, crafts andhouse wares making.HistoryAlthough Apayao was among the earliest areas penetrated by the Spaniards in the Cordilleras, theregion, inhabited by the Isneg tribe, remained largely outside Spanish control until late in the 19thcentury. As early as 1610, the Dominican friars established a mission in what is now the town ofPudtol.In 1684, the friars again made vain attempts to convert the people and established a church in what isnow Kabugao. The ruins of the early churches in Pudtol and Kabugao still stand as mute testimony to thefailed attempts to occupy Apayao.The Spanish authorities were then able to establish the comandancias of Apayao and Cabugaoan in1891, which covered the western and eastern portions of what is now Apayao. The comandancias,however, failed to bring total control and the Spanish government only maintained a loose hold over thearea.The Americans established the Mountain Province on August 13, 1908, with the enactment of Act No.1876. Apayao, along with Amburayan,Benguet, Bontoc, Ifugao, Kalinga, and Lepanto, became sub-provinces of this new province. Before this, Apayao had been a part of Cagayanprovince.In 1942, Japanese Imperial forces entered Apayao, starting a three-year occupation of the provinceduring the Second World War. Local Filipino troops of the 1st, 2nd, 12th, 15th and 16th Infantry Divisionof the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the military forces of the USAFIP-NL 11th and 66th InfantryRegiment, supported by the Cordilleran guerrillas, drove out the Japanese in 1945.After almost 60 years, on June 18, 1966, the huge Mountain Province was split into four provinces withthe enactment of Republic Act No. 4695. The four provinces were Benguet, Bontoc (renamed MountainProvince), Kalinga-Apayao and Ifugao. Kalinga-Apayao, along with Ifugao, became one of the provincesof the Cagayan Valley region in 1972.
On July 15, 1987, the Cordillera Administrative Region was established and Kalinga-Apayao was madeone of its provinces. Finally, on February 14, 1995, Kalinga-Apayao was split into two distinct provinceswith the passage of Republic Act No. 7878.The merged outlines of Apayao and Kalinga resemble a bust of a man akin to formerPresident Ferdinand Marcos (looking toward his home province,Ilocos Norte) whom the media called asthe "Great Profile" during the Marcos Era.DemographicsBased on the 2000 census survey, half of the population is Ilocano 50.82% and almost 1/3 of thepopulation is Isnag 29.95%. Other ethnic groups living in the province arethe Malaueg 3.69%, Isneg3.48%, Kalinga 3.08%, Ibaloi 1.01%, Kankana-ey 1.24% and Bontok 1.04%. Benguet ɡet]Benguet [beŋˈ is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera AdministrativeRegion in Luzon. Its capital is La Trinidad and borders, clockwise from the south, Pangasinan, LaUnion, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya.Baguio, a popular tourist destination in the country, is located in the interior of the province, however,the city is independent of the province.Demographics Based on the May 2000 census, Benguet has a total population of 330,129, which makes it themost populous province in the region. This figure is up by 16,296 from 313,833 persons recorded in the1995 census, giving an annual growth rate of 1.09% during the 5-year period—much, much lower thanthe national average of 2.43%. If this growth rate were maintained, Benguet would double itspopulation in approximately 64 years.The province registered at 63,123 households, an increase of 4,588 households over the 1990 figure.This gave an average household size of 5.2 persons, a little higher than the national average of 4.99.Benguet is the homeland of several tribes, collectively referred to as the Igorot. Two of them,the Ibaloi in the southeast and the Kankana-ey in the northwest, are the dominant tribes of Benguet. Inthe 2000 census, 43% of the household population were Kankana-ey. About 29.2% were Ibaloi and13.4% were Ilocano. Other ethnic groups included Ikalahan (3.7%) and Tagalog (2.4%).LanguagesMost of the tribes in Benguet have their own languages. The Ibaloi tribe speak Ibaloy, which is similarto Pangasinan. The Kankana-ey tribe speak have their own language, which is related to the Bontoclanguage. Many inhabitants also speak Ilocano, Tagalog, and English for trade and commerce.EconomyAgriculture, mining, and tourism are the major industries in Benguet. Because of its temperate climateand high altitude, Benguet is an ideal place for producing vegetables. Benguet is often called the SaladBowl of the Philippines. During February 2007, Benguet suffered crop damage due to freezingtemperatures in the area, reaching as low as 5 Celsius and even lower in some areas, and importantcrops like cabbages were damaged. Major crops include potatoes, Baguiobeans, peas, strawberries, cabbage, lettuce, and carrots. Other agricultural-related activitiesare monggoprocessing, fruit preservation, peanut brittle manufacturing, broom making, basket weaving,and flower growing. Apisang (scientific name: Pittosporum resiniferum), a plant endemic to thePhilippines, is also being grown in Kapangan and Kibungan towns as a potential alternative source of fueland energy, rivaling the overhyped jatropha biofuel plant.Mining is another major industry of Benguet, which is one of the countrys leading gold producers.The Benguet Corporation one of the Philippines largest diversified conglomerates was founded toexploit mines in Benguet Province. Other mineral deposits are silver, copper, pyrite,and limestone. Silversmithing is a large industry in Benguet, and many entrepreneurs sell silver works atlower prices in Baguio City, compared to Manila. In 2006 alone revenues from mining reached a
stunning four billion pesos, and yet this figure comes from just two-Lepanto Consolidated MiningCorporation and Philex Mines- of the many mining firms operating in the province. Nevertheless, theprovinces mining vigor has never translated into better quality of life of the Benguet people, simplybecause a bulk of the mining firms taxes are not paid directly to the province. The two miningcorporations, like many others around the country, have principal offices in the City of Makati, a set-upthat makes Makati the prime mining tax beneficiary.The presence of Baguio City in Benguet draws a large number of tourists from the lowlands. Often,people who go to Baguio also explore the province, especially the strawberry and vegetable plantationsin La Trinidad. IfugaoIfugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon.Covering a total land area of 262,820 hectares, the province of Ifugao is located in a mountainous regioncharacterized by rugged terrain, river valleys, and massive forests. Its capital is Lagaweandborders Benguet to the west, Mountain Province to the north, Isabela to the east, and Nueva Vizcaya tothe south.It is named after the term "i-pugo" which means "i" (from/people) and "pugo" (hill), thus people of thehill.The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras and Banaue Rice Terraces are the main tourist attractionsin the province. These 2000-year-old terraces were carved into the mountains, without the aidof machinery, to provide level steps where the natives can plant rice. In 1995, they were declareda UNESCO World Heritage Site.Mountain tribes in Northern LuzonTraveling to the northern part of the island Luzon will bring you not only to beautiful landscapes withamazing rice terraces. It will bring you also to the regions with remote villages and colorful andtraditional living upland tribal communities. Their ancestors constructed the fascinating rice terraceswith the perfect working irrigation systems. These mountain tribes still distinguish themselves by theirspecific cultural expression and their skills.They have skills in making bowls, baskets, weapons and clothing. It was the Ifugao people who built upthe rice terraces. They are still living and working as in the past.In the past the Ifugao were feared head-hunters, just as other tribes in the mountainous regions ofnorthern Luzon. The war-dance (the bangibang) is one of the cultural remnants of the time of tribalconflict.This dance is traditionally held on the walls of the rice terraces by the men, equipped with spears, axesand wooden shields and a headdress made of leaves.People and cultureThe People of Ifugao are not called "IGOROTS" but are called IFUGAOS. Ifugaos are different from anyother tribe in the cordilleras ranging from culture, tradition, language, and idealism. There have been noIfugao beggar recorded in history. Some neighboring tribes of the Ifugaos tries to annex or connectsthemselves with Ifugao so as to share fame the ifugao people are experiencing.Rice cultureIfugao culture revolves around the rice, which is considered a prestige crop. There is an elaborate andcomplex array of rice culture feasts inextricably linked with taboos and intricate agricultural rites, fromrice cultivation to rice consumption. Harvest season calls for grandiose thanksgiving feasts, while theconcluding harvest rites "tungo" or "tungul" (the day of rest) entail a strict taboo of any agriculturalwork. Partaking of the rice wine (bayah), rice cakes, and moma (mixture of several herbs, powderedsnail shell and betel nut/ arecoline: and acts as a chewing gum to the ifugaos) is an indelible practiceduring the festivities and ritual activities.
Kalinga Kalinga (Tagalog pronunciation: [kɐˈ liŋɐ]) is a landlocked province of the Philippines inthe Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital isTabuk and borders Mountain Province to thesouth, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north. Priorto 1995, Kalinga and Apayao used to be a single province named Kalinga-Apayao, until they were splitinto two to better service the needs of individual native tribes in the provinces.GeographyPoliticalKalinga is subdivided into 1 city and 7 municipalities. Tabuk was proclaimed a component city in 2007,but in November 2008 the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that its cityhood wasunconstitutional. However, Tabuk had its city status reinstated by the Supreme Court on December 22,2009.City TabukMunicipalities Balbalan Rizal (Liwan) Lubuagan Tanudan Pasil Tinglayan PinukpukThe topography of Kalinga province is rugged and sloping with mountain peaks ranging from 1,500 to2,500 meters in height. The province’s geographic feature on the western portion is characterized bysharp crested interlinking peaks of steep slopes, isolated flatlands, plateaus and valleys. The easternportion is generally rolling and gradually sloping foothills.The province is drained mainly by the Chico River with headwater originating from Mt. Province andempties into the Cagayan River.The Chico River has several tributaries: Bunog River in Tinglayan in thesouth, the Tanudan and Biga Rivers in the east, Pasil River in the middle, Mabaca and Saltan Rivers in thenorth. Several small lakes can also be found in Kalinga. These water resources if to be tapped couldprovide abundant sources for power generation, fishing, irrigation and for domestic use, but woulddestroy rice terraces, villages, livelihoods, and complete indigenous cultures.The province enjoys an average temperature ranging from 17 to 22 degrees Celsius and Type 3 weatherpatterns. The dry season extends from November to April. The rest of the year is considered rainy. Theheaviest rains usually occur in the months of July to October.Large portion of the lower regions of the province are open grassland suitable for pasture, but thehighlands have extensive areas of tropical rainforest and at higher elevation in the west, pine. Rizal andTabuk with their flatlands are the biggest rice producers. Next in rice production are the mountainousareas – the rice terraces of Balbalan, Lubuagan, Pasil, Pinukpuk, Tinglayan, and Tanudan.CultureThere are many sub tribes in the province. The strong sense of tribal membership and filial loyaltyresults in frequent tribal unrest and occasional outright war. Due to the mountainous terrain andwarrior-culture of the people, the Kalingas were able to maintain their culture despite the attemptedoccupation of the Spaniards, Japanese, and Americans. Unknown to many, the last stand of PresidentEmilio Aguinaldo (First President of the Philippines) was in this province, in Lubuagan, which heproclaimed the national capital, and where the Aguinaldo museum commemorates him and thoseevents.The people of Kalinga are the most extensive rice farmers of the Cordillera peoples, having been blessedwith some of the most suitable land for both wet and dry rice farming. Like the Ifugaos, the Kalingas are
one of the extensive terrace builders in the country. The Kalingas are also skilled potters with potmaking concentrated in the lower Chico River Valley. They are also excellent in basket and loom weavingand metal works.Demographics Based on the 2000 census survey, 64.4% of the population are Kalinga and Ilocanos are 24% ofthe province population. Other ethnic groups living in the province are the Kankana-ey 2.5%, Ibontoc 1.6%, Tagalog 1.3% and Applai 1%. Mountain ProvinceMountain Province (Filipino:Lalawigang Bulubundukin) is a landlocked province of the Philippines inthe Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc and borders, clockwise from thesouth, Ifugao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Kalinga, and Isabela.Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some foreign references. The name isalso incorrectly shortened by locals to Mt. Province, which in turn is read by native Anglophones as"Mount Province". The province was named so for being in the Cordillera Central mountain range foundin the upper realms of Luzon island.Mountain Province was also the name of the historical province that included most of the currentCordillera provinces. This old province was established by the Americans in 1908 and was later split in1966 into Mountain Province, Benguet, Kalinga, Apayao and Ifugao. Mountain province is known for itsMummy caves which contain naturally mummified bodies which probably became so due to the humidatmosphere. The hanging Coffins are also found in the province, these are literally coffins hanging on tothe branches of trees, many tourists claim there is no foul odor, the bodies were probably mummifiedby the atmosphere according to theory.DemographicsBased on the 2000 census survey, 52% of the population are Kankana-ey. Other ethnic groups living inthe province are the Balangao 13.6%, Ibontoc12%, and other ethnicity compromise about 21.6% of theprovinces population. Baguio The City of Baguio (Ilokano: Ciudad ti Baguio; Filipino: Lungsod ng Baguio) is a highly urbanizedcity in northern Luzon in the Philippines. Baguio City was established by Americans in 1900 at the site ofan Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. Baguio City was designated by the Philippine Commission as theSummer Capital of the Philippines on June 1, 1903 and incorporated as a city by the PhilippineAssembly on September 1, 1909. Baguio is the seat of government of the Cordillera AdministrativeRegion. The name of the city is derived from the word bagiw in Ibaloi, the indigenous language of theBenguet Region, meaning moss. The city is at an altitude of approximately 1500 meters (5100 ft) inthe Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion conducive to the growth of mossy plants and orchids. BaguioCity has become the center of business and commerce as well as the center of education in the entireNorthern Luzon.HistoryThe region around Baguio was first settled primarily by the Ibalois and the kankanaeys. In the nearbytown of La Trinidad, Benguet, Spaniards established a commandante or military garrison, althoughKafagway, as Baguio was once known, was barely touched. In 1901 Japanese and Filipino workers hiredby the Americans built Kennon Road, the first road directly connecting Kafagway with the lowlands ofPangasinan. Before this, the only road to Kafagway was Naguilian Road. On September 1, 1909 Baguiowas declared a chartered city. The famous American architect Daniel Burnham, one of the earliestsuccessful modern city planners, laid a meticulous plan for the city in 1904. His plan was, nevertheless,realized only to a small extent, primarily due to growth of the city well beyond its initial plannedpopulation of 25,000 people. The Americans earlier declared Baguio the Summer Capital of the
Philippines on July 1, 1903 and The American Residence as the residence of the American governor-general to escape Manilas summer heat. They further developed Baguio, building parks and publicstructures such as Wright Park in honor of Governor General Luke E. Wright,Burnham Park in honor ofBaguio city planner Daniel Burnham, Governor Pack Road, and Session Road. Burnham Park is an urban park located at the heart of the City of Baguio, in the Philippines. It was named after the American architect and urban planner, Daniel Hudson Burnham who laid the plans for the city. Several stretch of roads around the park lead to Camp John Hay, a former recreational base of the United States Armed Forces in the Philippines. It is a scenic park overlooking Mount Kabuyao, the tallest mountain in the Baguio region.Baguio is the site of the formal surrender of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and Vice Admiral Okochi. It iswhere they gave up the entire Imperial Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the HighCommissioners Residence (now the United States Ambassadors Residence) in Camp John Hay onSeptember 3, 1945, marking the end of World War II.A very strong (Ms = 7.8) earthquake destroyed most of Baguio on July 16, 1990. A significant numberof buildings and infrastructure were damaged, major highways were temporarily severed, and a numberof houses were leveled or severely shaken with a significant loss of life. Some of the fallen buildingswere built on or near fault lines. Baguio City was rebuilt, however, with the aid from the nationalgovernment and various international donors like Japan, Singapore and other countries.Around May 2003, a petition initiated by Dion Fernandez to declare Baguio a heritage zone wascirculated on the Internet and national print media, gaining more than 10,000 signatures. The petitioncalls upon unspecified officials to create the Zone prior to the Baguio centennial in 2009. In May 2005,the Heritage Conservation Society (HCS) submitted to the Baguio City Council a proposed SpecialHeritage Bill drafted by HCS Trustee Ivan Henares. It has been approved on second reading but is beingopposed by a group of businessmen.Geography and climateGeographyBaguio City is located some 1,500 meters above sea level, nestled within the Cordillera Central mountainrange in northern Luzon. The city is enclosed by the province of Benguet. It covers a small area of 57.5square kilometers. Most of the developed part of the city is built on uneven, hilly terrain of the northernsection. When Daniel Burnham plotted the plans for the city, he made the City Hall as a reference pointwhere the city limits extend 8.2 kilometers from east to west and 7.2 kilometers from north to south. Itis the highest major Philippine city in terms of elevation.ClimateBaguio City features a subtropical highland climate under the Koppen climate classification. The city isknown for its mild climate. It is because of this that Baguio is nicknamed the "Summer Capital of thePhilippines". Owing to its high elevation, the temperature in the city is 8 degrees Celsius lowercompared to the average temperature of the rest of the country. Average temperature ranges from 15to 23 degrees Celsius. It is usually lower during the late and early months of the year. The lowestrecorded temperature was 6.3 degrees Celsius on January 18, 1961. This is in contrast to the all-time
high of 30.4 degrees Celsius recorded on March 15, 1988 during the 1988 El Niño season. Baguioseldom exceeds 26 degrees Celsius even during the warmest part of the year.Like many other cities with a subtropical highland climate, Baguio sees noticeably less precipitationduring its dry season. However, the city has an extraordinary amount of precipitation during the rainyseason, with the months of July and August having on average more than 1,000 mm of rain. Baguioaverages over 4500 mm of precipitation annually.GovernmentLike most Philippine cities, Baguio is governed by a mayor, vice mayor, and twelve (12) councilors.However, being a highly-urbanized city with its own charter, it is not subject to the jurisdiction ofBenguet province, of which it was formerly a part.