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Weather and climate by Daniel Portelli 3.02
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Weather and climate by Daniel Portelli 3.02


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  • 1. What Is the Difference Between Weather and Climate?It’s a sweltering midsummer day. “It must be global warming,”mutters someone. But is it the Earth’s changing climate that hasmade the day so warm? Or, is it just the weather that is sounbearable?WeatherWeather is the mix of events that happen each day in ouratmosphere including temperature, rainfall and humidity.Weather is not the same everywhere. Perhaps it is hot, dry andsunny today where you live, but in other parts of the world it iscloudy, raining or even snowing. Everyday, weather events arerecorded and predicted by meteorologists worldwide.ClimateClimate in your place on the globe controls the weather whereyou live. Climate is the average weather pattern in a place overmany years. So, the climate of Antarctica is quite different thanthe climate of a tropical island. Hot summer days are quitetypical of climates in many regions of the world, even without theaffects of global warming.
  • 2.  The only type of severe  Called tornadoes over land weather event that we and waterspouts over ocean, these wild weather name individually, these events churn air at the are among Earth’s fastest speeds ever recorded largest and fiercest on Earth. While they are storms. Each storm is often short-lived, often only existing for a few able to, for a week or minutes, the intense winds more, travel thousands and flying debris from of miles stirring tornadoes can destroy seas, toppling everything in their path. trees, and leveling  buildings. Hurricanes and typhoons Tornadoes and waterspouts
  • 3.  These storms are common  Waking up in the morning in the spring and summer to find a fresh white when there is warm air near the ground and cool blanket of snow coating air above. Small the ground may be thunderstorms may only commonplace in many exist for an hour while areas, occurring several large Super cell storms can last for several hours times each winter, yet it spawning remains an exciting tornadoes, hail, intense surprise since predicting lightning, and flash winter storms is not easy. flooding. Thunderstorms Blizzards
  • 4. Climate encompasses the statistics of, atmosphericpressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle temperature,humidity count and other meteorological elementalmeasurements in a given region over long periods. Climate canbe contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of theseelements and their variations over shorter periods. A regionsclimate is generated by the climate system, which has fivecomponents: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, landsurface, and biosphere. The climate of a location is affected byits latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodiesand their currents. Climates can be classified according to theaverage and the typical ranges of different variables, mostcommonly temperature and precipitation. Paleo climatology is thestudy of ancient climates. Since direct observations of climate arenot available before the 19th century, paleo climates are inferredfrom proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such assediments found in lake beds and ice cores, and biotic evidencesuch as tree rings and coral. Climate models are mathematicalmodels of past, present and future climates. Climate change mayoccur over long and short timescales from a variety of factors;recent warming is discussed in global warming.
  • 5. A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below thesurrounding area. Depressions may be formed by variousmechanisms.Structural or tectonic related:Structural basin: A circular, syncline-like depression; a region oftectonic down warping ( associated with a subduction zone andisland arc);Graben or rift valley: down dropped and typically linear depressionsor basin created by rifting in a region under tensional tectonic forces.Pull apart basin caused by offset in a strike slip or transformfault (example: the Dead Sea area).Oceanic trench: a deep linear depression located in the ocean floor.Oceanic trenches are caused by the subduction (when one tectonicplate is pushed underneath another) of oceanic crust beneath eitherother oceanic crust or continental crust.Sedimentary related:Sedimentary basin: In sedimentology, an area thickly filled withsediment in which the weight of the sediment further depresses thefloor of the basin.
  • 6. An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) isa weather phenomenon defined by the United States NationalWeather Services glossary as large-scale circulation of windsaround a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise inthe Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the SouthernHemisphere". Effects of surface-based anticyclones includeclearing skies as well as cooler, drier air. Fog can also formovernight within a region of higher pressure. Mid- troposphericsystems, such as the subtropical ridge, deflect tropical cyclonesaround their periphery and cause a temperatureinversion inhibiting free convection near their center, building upsurface-based haze under their base. Anticyclones aloft can formwithin warm core lows, such as tropical cyclones, due todescending cool air from the backside of upper troughs, such aspolar highs, or from large scale sinking, such as the subtropicalridge. Anticyclonic flow spirals in a clockwise direction inthe Northern Hemisphere and anticlockwise in the SouthernHemisphere.
  • 7. In the first investigations of Climate and Weather, your studentsdeveloped a working concept of air—a gas material that surrounds theEarth, fills space and exerts pressure on its surroundings. In Weather 3,you will help them to develop a concept of moving air or wind. Based onobservations of their surroundings and the behavior of a simpleinstrument they make themselves, your students will learn to report twoproperties of moving air; wind speed and direction.The idea that airreaches us from different directions at different times may also be new toyoung children. While they know wind occurs from time to time, theymay not notice the different wind directions. It is also unlikely that theywill associate different wind speeds and directions with particularweather patterns. Do storms always come from the same direction? Dohigh winds mean the weather is going to change? Do winds bring hotweather or cold weather, or both? These are some of the questions thatyoung children may have never asked themselves because their focus inon how the wind is acting on them at a given moment, not over longperiods of hours or days.