Rivers by Miguel Vella, 3.01


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A great powerpoint about the major rivers of the world which have to be studied as part of the Form 3 syllabus

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Rivers by Miguel Vella, 3.01

  1. 1. By Miguel Vella 3.01
  2. 2. Rivers are found all around the world. They are all different in sizes orshapes but the structure of the rivers are all the same. These are :Watershed: an area of highland (e.g. Mountains) forming the edgeof the river basin.River Basin: the area of land drained by a river flowing into a mainriver.Source: from where the river begins.Tributary: a small stream flowing into the main river.Channel: where a river flows.Mouth: where a river flows into a lake or the sea.
  3. 3. These are very important for us humans to get water to drink from orto make fields for the growth of fruit and vegetables and for otherwild animals, livestock, etc..But then there are the major rivers of the world which are:Africa: Nile, Zaire (Congo), ZambeziAsia: Ganges, Volga, YangtzeAustralia: Murray-DarlingEurope: Danube, RhineNorth America: St. Lawrence, Mississippi, ColoradoSouth America: Amazon
  4. 4. The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, generally regardedas the longest river in the world. It is 6,650 km (4,130 miles) long. The Nile is an"international" river as its water resources are shared by elevencountries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic ofthe Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. Inparticular, the Nile River provides the primary water resource and so it is the lifeartery for its downstream countries such as Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has twomajor tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is longer and risesin the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source stillundetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows north throughTanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile is the source ofmost of the water and fertile soil. It begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows intoSudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital ofKhartoum.
  5. 5. The Congo River (in the past also known as the Zaire River) is ariver in Africa, and is the deepest river in the world, with measureddepths in excess of 220 m (720 ft). It is the third largest river in theworld by volume of water discharged. Additionally, its overalllength of 4,700 km (2,920 mi) makes it the ninth longest river. TheCongo gets its name from the ancient Kingdom of Kongo whichinhabited the lands at the mouth of the river. The DemocraticRepublic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo, bothcountries lying along the rivers banks, are named after it. Between1971 and 1997 the government of then-Zaire called it the ZaireRiver.
  6. 6. The Zambezi (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river in Africa, and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean fromAfrica. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 square kilometres(540,000 sq mi), slightly less than half that of the Nile. The 2,574-kilometre-long river (1,599 mi) has its source in Zambia and flows througheastern Angola, along the eastern border of Namibia and the northern borderof Botswana, then along the borderbetween Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, where it crosses that countryto empty into the Indian Ocean.The Zambezis most noted feature is VictoriaFalls. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Falls at the border betweenZambia and Angola, and Ngonye Falls, near Sioma in Western Zambia.There aretwo main sources of hydroelectric power on the river, the Kariba Dam, whichprovides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe, and the Cahora Bassa Dam inMozambique, which provides power to Mozambique and South Africa. There isalso a smaller power station at Victoria Falls.
  7. 7. The Ganges or Ganga is a trans-boundary river of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km(1,569 mi) river rises in the western Himalayasin the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flowssouth and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it emptiesinto the Bay of Bengal. It is the longest river of India and is the second greatest river in theworld by water discharge. The Ganges basin is the most heavily populated river basin in theworld, with over 400 million people and a population density of about 1,000 inhabitants persquare mile (390 /km2).The Ganges is the most sacred river to Hindusand is also a lifeline tomillions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs. It isworshiped as the goddess Ganga in Hinduism. It has also been important historically: manyformer provincial or imperial capitals have been located on its banks. The Ganges was rankedamong the five most polluted rivers of the world in 2007, with fecal coliform levels in the rivernear Varanasi more than one hundred times the official Indian government limits. Pollutionthreatens not only humans, but also more than 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species andthe endangered Ganges river dolphin. The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative toclean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to corruption and lack of technicalexpertise, lack of good environmental planning, and lack of support from religiousauthorities.
  8. 8. The Volga is the longest river in Europe; it is also Europes largest river in terms ofdischarge and watershed. It flows through central Russia, and is widely viewed as thenational river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including thecapital, Moscow, are situated in the Volgas drainage basin. Some of the largest reservoirs inthe world can be found along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russianculture and is often referred to as Volga-Matushka (Mother Volga) in Russianliterature and folklore. It belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea. Rising in the ValdaiHills 225 meters (738 ft) above sea level northwest of Moscow and about 320 kilometers(200 mi) southeast of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past LakeSterzh, Tver, Dubna, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan. From there it turnssouth, flows past Ulyanovsk, Tolyatti, Samara, Saratov and Volgograd, and discharges intothe Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 meters (92 ft) below sea level. At its most strategicpoint, it bends toward the Don ("the big bend"). Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad, is locatedthere.
  9. 9. he Yangtze River, or Chang Jiang is the longest river in Asia, andthe third longest in the world. It flows for 6,418 kilometres (3,988 mi)from the glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in Qinghai eastwardacross southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the EastChina Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the biggest rivers by dischargevolume in the world. The Yangtze drains one-fifth of the land area ofthe Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and its river basin is home to one-third of the PRCs population. Along with the Yellow River, the Yangtze isthe most important river in the history, culture and economy of China.The prosperous Yangtze River Delta generates as much as 20% ofthe PRCs GDP. The Yangtze River flows through a wide array ofecosystems and is itself habitat to several endemic and endangeredspecies including the Chinese alligator and the Yangtze sturgeon. Forthousands of years, people have used the river forwater, irrigation, sanitation, transportation, industry, boundary-markingand war. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world
  10. 10. The Murray–Darling Basin is a large geographical area in the interiorof southeastern Australia, whose name is derived from its two majorrivers, the Murray River and the Darling River. It drains around one-seventh of the Australian land mass, and is one of the most significantagricultural areas in Australia. It spans most of the states of New SouthWales, Victoria, and the Australian Capital Territory, and parts of thestates of Queensland (lower third) and South Australia (south-eastcorner). It is 3,375 kilometres (2,097 mi) in length (the Murray River is2,530 km (1,570 mi) long). Most of the 1,061,469km2 (409,835 sq mi) basin is flat, low-lying and far inland, and receiveslittle direct rainfall. The many rivers it contains tend to be long andslow-flowing, and carry a volume of water that is large only byAustralian standards.
  11. 11. The Danube is a river in Central Europe, the continents second longestafter the Volga.Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the townof Donaueschingen which is in the Black Forest of Germany at theconfluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg. The Danube then flowssoutheast for 2,872 km (1,785 mi), passing through four CentralEuropean capitals before emptying into the Black Sea via the DanubeDelta in Romania and Ukraine. Once a long-standing frontier ofthe Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of tencountries: Romania(29.0% of basinarea), Hungary (11.6%), Serbia (10.2%), Austria (10.0%), Germany (7.0%),Bulgaria (5.9%), Slovakia (5.9%),Croatia (4.4%), Ukraine (3.8%), and Moldova (1.6%). Its drainage basin extends into nine more.
  12. 12. The Rhine is a river that flows from the Swiss canton of Grisons in thesoutheastern Swiss Alps to the North Sea coast in the Netherlands andis the twelfth longest river in Europe, at about 1,233 km (766 mi),withan average discharge of more than 2,000 m3/s (71,000 cu ft/s). TheRhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier ofthe Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vitaland navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. It hasalso served as a defensive feature and has been the basis for regionaland international borders. The many castles andprehistoric fortifications along the Rhine testify to its importance as awaterway. River traffic could be stopped at these locations, usually forthe purpose of collecting tolls, by the state that controlled that portionof the river.
  13. 13. The St. Lawrence is a large river flowing approximately fromsouthwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of NorthAmerica, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. Itis the primary drainage conveyor of the Great Lakes Basin. Theriver traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario andforms part of the international boundary between Ontarioand New York in the United States. The river runs3,058 kilometres (1,900 mi) from the farthest headwater to themouth and 1,197 km (743.8 mi) from the outflow of Lake Ontario.River St.Lawrence have a river basin with the capacity of 1,344,200km2.
  14. 14. The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainagesystem in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States (thoughits drainage basin reaches into Canada), it rises innorthern Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for 2,530 miles(4,070 km) to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With itsmany tributaries, the Mississippis watershed drains all or parts of 31 USstates and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and AppalachianMountains. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth longest and tenthlargest river in the world. The river either borders or cuts through thestates ofMinnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Mississippi river have a basin thatholds 2,981,076 km2 of water.
  15. 15. The Colorado River is the principal river ofthe southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. The 1,450-mile (2,330 km) river drains an expansive, arid watershed thatencompasses parts of seven U.S. and two Mexican states. Rising inthe central Rocky Mountains in the U.S., the river flows generallysouthwest across the Colorado Plateau before reaching LakeMead on the Arizona–Nevada line, where it turns south towardsthe international border. After entering Mexico, the Coloradoforms a large delta, emptying into the Gulf ofCalifornia between Baja California and Sonora. The river’s basinholds 637,137 km2 of water.
  16. 16. The Amazon River in South America is the second longest riverin the world and by far the largest by water flow with anaverage discharge greater than the next seven largest riverscombined (not including Madeira and Rio Negro, which aretributaries of the Amazon). The Amazon, which has thelargest drainage basin in the world, about 7,050,000 squarekilometres (2,720,000 sq mi), accounts for approximately one-fifth of the worlds total river flow and covers about 40% of SouthAmerica. The length of this humongous river is approximately6,400 km (4,000 mi).