Koncefcia 2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,626
On Slideshare
1,032
From Embeds
594
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 594

http://gdri.ge 543
http://www.gdri.ge 43
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com 8

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti GEORGIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE konstantine kandelaki,daviT losaberiZe, irakli melaSvili, Tengiz SergelaSvilisaqarTvelos adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sistemis ganvrcobili koncefcia Tbilisi, 2012
  • 2. saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti (GDRI) _ da-moukidebeli, arakomerciuli organizacia, dafuZnda 2011wels. institutis amocanaa demokratiis ganviTarebis, politi-kuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da sxva reformebis xelSewyobasaTanado kvlevebisa da diskusiebis meSveobiT.veb-gverdi: www.gdri.geel.fosta: gdri@gdri.ge ufaso gamocema© saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti, 2012© konstantine kandelaki, daviT losaberiZe, irakli melaSvili, Tengiz SergelaSvili, 2012gamomcemloba `nekeri~, 2012ISBN 978-9941-436-28-4
  • 3. sarCevi1. Sesavali. ................................................................................. 62. arsebuli situaciis analizi............................................. 8 . 2.1. xelisuflebis decentralizaciisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arsi. ...................... 8 2.1.1. ZiriTadi principebi................................................ 8 . 2.1.2. decentralizaciis funqciebi da sferoebi........ 11 . 2.2. administraciul-teritoriuli reformebi da TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi arsebuli mdgomareoba................................................ 13 . 2.2.1. TviTmmarTveloba saqarTveloSi.......................... 13 2.2.2. damoukideblobis periodi.................................... 15 2.2.3. arsebuli viTarebis analizi. ................................ 18 2.2.4. TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi.............................. 23 . 2.3. situacia calkeuli sferoebis mixedviT. ................ 24 2.3.1. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyoba............. 24 . 2.3.2. TviTmmarTvelobis struqtura, arCevnebi da saqmianobis wesi................................ 30 2.3.3. TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosileba. ................... 33 2.3.4. TviTmmarTvelobis ekonomikuri safuZvlebi...... 39 2.3.5. qoneba. ...................................................................... 45 2.3.6. saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba................................. 473. mmarTvelobis sistemis reformis koncefcia.............. 50 3.1. zogadi nawili.............................................................. 50 . 3.1.1. SemoTavazebuli modelis arsi............................. 50 . 3.1.2. uflebamosileba da misi ganxorcilebis ZiriTadi principebi.............................................. 51 . 3.1.3. TviTmmarTvelobis/mxaris qoneba......................... 54 -3-
  • 4. 3.1.4. xelisuflebis sxvadasxva donis saqmianobis finansuri safuZvlebi....................... 56 3.1.5. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris biujeti......... 63 .3.2. TviTmmarTvelobis pirveli done _ municipaliteti. .............................................. 65 3.2.1. saqarTvelos adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeuli...................................... 65 . 3.2.2. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis warmomadgenlobiTi organo _ sakrebulo. .......... 68 3.2.3. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasrulebeli organoebi _ gamgeoba/meria....... 72 3.2.4. TviTmmarTvelobis organoebSi sazogadoebis monawileobis uzrunvelyofis institutebi....... 78 3.2.5. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosileba..................................................... 81 3.2.6. koncefciiT gansazRvruli TviTmmarTveli erTeulis biujetis Semosulobebi...................... 83 .3.3. saqarTvelos mxareebi (regionebi). ............................ 88 3.3.1. samxareo mowyobis principebi............................... 88 3.3.2. mxaris warmomadgenlobiTi organo _ mxaris sabWo........................................... 92 3.3.3. mxaris aRmasrulebeli organo _ administracia........................................ 94 3.3.4. mxaris xelisuflebis organoTa uflebamosileba................................................... 100 3.3.5. mxaris biujetis Semosulobebi.......................... 101 .3.4. TviTmmarTveloba TbilisSi.................................... 104 3.4.1. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobisa da marTvis principebi....................... 104 . 3.4.2. Tbilisis xelisuflebis organoebi................... 106 . 3.4.3. uflebamosilebebi. ............................................... 113 3.4.4. finansebi............................................................... 115 . -4-
  • 5. 3.5. saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris xelisuflebis organoebis saqmianobaze................ 155 3.5.1. saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobis ZiriTadi principebi............................................ 115 . 3.5.2. samarTlebrivi zedamxedveloba......................... 117 . 3.5.3. saxelmwifo organoebis uflebamosileba dargobriv zedamxedvelobaze. ............................ 118 3.5.4. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTveloba.................. 120 3.6. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis reformis SemoTavazebuli modelis Zlieri da susti mxareebi. ........................................ 123 3.6.1. Zlieri mxareebi.................................................... 123 3.6.2. susti mxareebi...................................................... 125danarTi 1. subnacionaluri doneebis raodenobis gansazRvris principebi............... 127danarTi 2. evrosabWos wevri qveynebis, aSS-sa da israelis municipaluri erTeulebis mosaxleobis saSualo odenoba......................... 129danarTi 3. evrosabWos wevri qveynebis, aSS-sa da israelis municipaluri erTeulebis teritoriaTa saSualo zomebi (kv.km.).............. 131 .danarTi 4. evropis qveynebis dedaqalaqebis ubnebis mosaxleobis saSualo raodenoba, qalaqis sabWoebis Semadgenloba da formirebis wesi.................................................. 132 -5-
  • 6. 1. Sesavali warmodgenili naSromis mizania saqarTvelos admin-istraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis, adgilobrivi TviT­mmarTvelobis organoTa sistemis, centraluri xelisu-flebisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis funqciaTada uflebamosilebaTa gamijvnis da am ukanasknelTaTvisSesabamisi finansuri da qonebrivi bazis gadacemis mod-elis Camoyalibeba. Cven miznad visaxavT saqarTvelosa da misi dedaqa-laqis administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobisa da mar-Tvis iseTi sistemis modelis Camoyalibebas, romelicdafuZnebuli iqneba rogorc saerTaSoriso gamocdile-baze, ise adgilobriv tradiciebze. naSromi Seasrula avtorTa jgufma irakli melaSvi-lis, Tengiz SergelaSvilis, daviT losaberiZis da kon-stantine kandelakis SemadgenlobiT. saqarTvelos admin-istraciul-teritoriuli reformis sxvadasxva modele-bze muSaoba jer kidev gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSidaiwyo, rodesac saqarTveloSi daiwyo adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis institutis formireba. 2004-2005wlebSi zemoaRniSnuli jgufis monawileobiT, saerTa-Soriso donori organizaciebis mxardaWeriT, momzaddaqveynis axali administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobiskoncefcia da reformis uzrunvelyofisaTvis aucileb-el kanonproeqtTa paketi. saqarTvelos parlamentSimoxda am kanonproeqtebis inicireba, sadac gaiara sa-komiteto mosmenebi da parlamentis sesiaze kenWi eyaraalternatiuli winadadebebis saxiT, magram uaryofiliqna. winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens 2004-2005 wlebSiparlamentSi wardgenili koncefciis gadamuSavebul daSevsebul versias, romelic Seiqmna „saqarTvelos ganvi-Tarebis kvleviTi institutis“ dakveTiT. koncefciis gadamuSavebul variantSi gaTvaliswine- -6-
  • 7. bulia is axali realobebi, romelic Camoyalibda saqa-rTveloSi 2005 wlis Semdeg, maT Soris, im reformebisSedegebi, romlebic ukve gatarda qveyanaSi (mag., iustici-is sistemaSi). amasTan, warmodgenil dokumentSi mocemuliar aris Zalovani struqturebis, jandacvisa da social-uri sistemis decentralizaciis, am sakiTxebSi xelisu-flebis doneTa Soris uflebamosilebis gamijvnis mod-eli. es nawilebi Seivseba mas Semdeg, rac CamoyalibdebaaRniSnuli sferoebis ganviTarebis koncefciebi, gairkve-va maTi reformirebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi. isic undaaRiniSnos, rom koncefcia Seesabameba sazogadoebrivisakonstitucio komisiis mier SemuSavebul `saqarTveloskonstituciis axali redaqciis ganvrcobil koncefcias~(2010 w.). -7-
  • 8. 2. arsebuli situaciis analizi2.1. xelisuflebis decentralizaciisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arsi2.1.1. ZiriTadi principebi saxelmwifos efeqturi mmarTvelobiTi sistemisSesaqmnelad aucilebel, magram arasakmaris pirobascentraluri xelisuflebis doneze Zalauflebis dan-awilebis principi warmoadgens (igulisxmeba klasikuridanawileba sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da sasamarT-lo xelisuflebis ganStoebebad). ganviTarebuli qvey-nebis sazogadoebebi da politikuri elitebi karga xaniaSeTanxmdnen imaze, rom verc erTi xelisufleba, raoden„gonieri“ da „informirebulic“ ar unda iyos igi, ver Se-Zlebs, erTi centridan gadawyvitos TiToeuli qalaqisaTu soflis mosaxleobis winaSe mdgari konkretuli daspecifikuri problemebi. saxelmwifos mTel teritori-aze, qveynis yvela moqalaqisTvis Tanabari da efeqtianisaarsebo garemos Seqmna mxolod decentralizaciis sa-SualebiT aris SesaZlebeli. decentralizaciis dadebiTi momentebidan unda aRin-iSnos Semdegi: centraluri xelisuflebisgan gansxvavebiT, adgilo- brivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi ufro moqnilni da ufro ganaxlebadni arian, ukeT icnoben adgilo- briv specifikas da saqmianobas ufro naklebi danax- arjebiTa da meti efeqturobiT axorcieleben; Tavad mosaxleoba, mis mier arCeuli warmomadgenlebis meSveobiT, monawileobs Tavisi uSualo sacxovrebe- li garemos formirebSi. am gziT TviTon iRebs pa- suxismgeblobas sakuTari komunaluri Tu sxva saxis problemebis mniSvnelovani nawilis mogvarebaze da -8-
  • 9. maT gadauwyvetlobas aRar abralebs centralur xe- lisuflebas; sazogadoebis (moqalaqeTa jgufi, ubani, sofeli, Te­ mi, daba, qalaqi, kuTxe, regioni) interesebis dakmayo- fileba TviT mosaxleobis mxridan kontrolis piro- bebSi xorcieldeba. Sesabamisad, ganviTarebul qveynebSi arsebobs say-ovelTao politikuri Tanxmoba mmarTvelobis sistemisZiriTad principze _ saxelmwifos efeqturi mmarTvelo-bis sistemis Camoyalibebis safuZvlad miiCneva subsid-iarobis principi, anu Zalaufleba unda ganxorcieldesmmarTvelobis im doneze, romelic yvelaze ufro axlosaris xalxTan. wamgebiania im uflebamosilebaTa koncentracia cen-traluri xelisuflebis doneze, romelTa aRsrulebacukeTaa SesaZlebeli adgilobriv doneze. meore mxriv, Tugarkveuli uflebamosilebani centralur doneze ufroefeqturad xorcieldeba, maSin maTi ganxorcieleba cen-traluri xelisuflebis organoebma unda aiRon TavisTavze. subsidiarobis principi aris garantia, rom sajaropolitika xelisuflebis yvela doneze iqneba warmate-buli da mis ganxorcielebaSi mosaxleobis farTo fene-bi miiReben monawileobas. Sesabamisad, xelisuflebissxvadasxva doneTa Soris uflebamosilebis ganawilebaefuZneba ramdenime princips: xelisuflebis uflebamosileba aris mxolod saSua­ leba misTvis moqalaqeTa mier dakisrebuli funqci- uri valdebulebebis aRsasruleblad; yvela sakiTxis gadawyveta, romelTa mogvarebac Se­ uZlia Tavad moqalaqes, unda darCes mis ufle- bamosilebaSi da masze pasuxismgebloba ar unda ga- daeces saxelmwifos. xelisuflebas ekisreba mxolod -9-
  • 10. im sakiTxebis gadawyveta, romelTa mogvarebac moqa- laqes ar SeuZlia; ufro maRal safexurze mdgom xelisuflebas insti- tuciurad eniWeba mxolod is uflebamosilebebi, romelTa ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobac ara aqvs ufro dabal safexurze mdgom saxelisuflebo orga- nos; nebismieri sakiTxis gadawyvetaSi zeda donis xelisu- fleba ereva mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu qveda donis xelisuflebas sakuTari ZalebiT ar SeuZlia proble- mis mogvareba. amitom uflebamosilebaTa gamijvnis dros prioriteti unda mieniWos TviTmmarTvelobas (qalaqi, sofeli/Temi) regionTan (aseTis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi) SedarebiT, xolo centraluri xelisu- fleba agvarebs mxolod im problemas, risi mowes- rigebac ar SeuZlia arc TviTmmarTvelobas da arc regions. decentralizaciis procesi sam ZiriTad komponents_ politikur, administraciul da fiskalur decentral-izacias moicavs. politikuri decentralizacia niSnavs adgilobriv doneze warmomadgenlobiTi organoebis arCevas. maT- Tvis sakuTari uflebamosilebis farglebSi politi- kur gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis uflebis miniWebas; administraciuli decentralizacia niSnavs TviTm- marTvelobis organoebisTvis farTo uflebamosile- baTa gadacemas, maT Soris, saxelmwifo saqmeebis mar- Tvisa da sajaro momsaxurebis sferoSi; fiskaluri decentralizacia uflebamosilebaTa gansaxorcileblad TviTmmarTvelobisTvis aucile- beli finansebis gadacemas gulisxmobs. - 10 -
  • 11. 2.1.2. decentralizaciis funqciebi da sferoebi demokratiul saxelmwifoebSi adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobis organoebs ori funqcia eniWeba:1. momsaxurebis gaweva _ yoveldRiuri saWiroebis (ad- gilobriv doneze administrireba, komunaluri mom- saxureba, sayofacxovrebo problemebis mogvareba, minimaluri socialuri garantiebis uzrunvelyofa) dakmayofileba bevrad ufro efeqtianad xorciel- deba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis mier. saer- TaSoriso praqtika gviCvenebs, rom swored am gziT miiRweva momsaxurebis gawevis rogorc efeqturobis, ise efeqtianobis (swori saqmis keTeba da saqmis sworad keTeba) maRali xarisxi.2. mosaxleobasTan siaxlove _ centraluri xelisuf­ lebisgan gansxvavebiT, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba yoveldRiur urTierTobaSia moqalaqeebTan da gamox- atavs uSualod maT interesebs. es gansakuTrebiT naT- lad Cans mcire zomis dasaxlebebSi, sadac mosaxleo- bis mniSvnelovani nawili erTmaneTs piradad icnobs da amitom adgilobrivi xelisuflebis qmedeba bevrad gamWvirvalea. Tu centraluri xelisuflebis xelmZ- RvanelebTan yoveldRiuri Sexvedra rigiTi moqalaq- isTvis SeuZlebelia, mas SeuZlia mudmivi kontaqti iqonios mis mierve arCeuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarT- velobis warmomadgenlebTan, kanonis farglebSi gan- axorcielos maTze zedamxedveloba, akontrolos am ukanasknelTa saqmianoba da uSualod CaerTos gadaw- yvetilebis miRebis procesSi. am ori umTavresi funqciis garda, axali demokrati-is qveynebSi decentralizaciisa da adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobis gaZlierebis procesi kidev or damatebiTmizans isaxavs: - 11 -
  • 12. 1. adgilobrivi politikuri elitis Seqmna _ adgilo- brivi ekonomikuri Tu politikuri klanebis arsebo- ba totalitaruli sistemis memkvidreobaa. swored am klanebis transformacia da maT nacvlad politikuri elitis (am sityvis yvelaze pozitiuri gagebiT) war- moSoba aucilebelia, rogorc politikuri partiebis adgilobrivi kadrebis zrdis (da am gziT politi- kuri pluralizmis gaZlierebis), ise sajaro moxele- Ta kvalificiuri korpusis CamoyalibebisTvis. ro- gorc wesi, qveynis politikuri elita Tu mmarTveli biurokratia Tavis aRmasvlas swored adgilobrivi donidan iwyebs.2. decentralizaciis procesi dezintegraciis winaaRm- deg _ gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom municipalitetebi- saTvis Zalauflebis gadacema eTnikuri, religiuri Tu sxva saxis umciresobaTa kanonieri uflebebis adgilebze dakmayofilebis saSualebad iqca. aman saerTo erovnul interesebs araTu avno, aramed qvey- nebis SigniT integraciuli procesebis gaZlierebas Seuwyo xeli. decentralizaciis procesi TavisTavad uzarmazariTemaa da mTel rig sakiTxebs moicavs: administraciul-teritoriuli mowyoba _ Tu konkre- tulad sad, ra doneebze da ra geografiul garemoSi xorcieldeba TviTmmarTveloba; TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa formirebis (arCevnebi) da saqmianobis (struqtura da regulaciebi) wesi _ Tu rogor xorcieldeba TviTmmarTvelobaze dakisrebu- li movaleobebi; uflebamosilebaTa gamijvna _ uSualod ra funqciebis ganxorcieleba ekisreba TviTmmarTvelobis struq- turebs; - 12 -
  • 13.  finansuri da qonebrivi sakiTxebi _ Tu ra saSualebiT axorcielebs adgilobrivi xelisufleba Tavis ufle- bamosilebas; saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi zedamxedvelobis formebi _ Tu vin akontrolebs TviTmmarTvelobaTa saqmianobas; gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis monaw- ileoba _ Tu ramdenad adekvaturad pasuxobs TviTm- marTveloba sazogadoebriv saWiroebebs.2.2. administraciul-teritoriuli reformebi da TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi arsebuli mdgomareoba2.2.1. TviTmmarTveloba saqarTveloSi istoriulad (winaistoriul, antikur Tu Sua sauku-neebis periodebSi) saqarTveloSi administraciul-ter-itoriuli dayofis ori donis gamoyofa aris SesaZle-beli. esenia: adgilobrivi (e.w. pirveli anu qveda _ qa-laqi, daba, Temi, sofeli) da Sualeduri (anu regionuli_ mxare, kuTxe, provincia) doneebi. maT aerTianebda erTisaerTo principi _ isini iqmneboda garkveuli erTianiekonomikuri Tu geografiuli pirobebis mqone terito-riebze. ucxoelTa batonobis periodSic calkeul pro-vinciaTa sazRvrebi TiTqmis ucvleli rCeboda. bune-brivia, calkeul administraciul erTeulTa sazRvrebisucvleloba ganpirobebuli iyo ara Camoyalibebulitradiciis urRvevobis surviliT, aramed ekonomikur-geografiuli faqtorebis zegavleniT. dasaxlebul punqtebsa Tu teritoriul erTeulebsgaaCndaT TavianTi mmarTvelobis sistemac. TemebSi da - 13 -
  • 14. calkeul soflebSi es iyo uxucesTa da mamasaxlisTainstituti, romelmac (garkveuli saxecvlilebebiT) XXsaukunis dasawyisamde iarseba. qalaqisTvis ufro rTulida sistematizebuli mmarTvelobis formebi iyo damaxasi-aTebeli. Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos qalaqTa umravle-sobaSi moqmedebda kargad organizebuli da sistematize-buli biurokratiuli aparati (bizantiisa Tu maxlobeliaRmosavleTis qveynebis msgavsad), Zlierdeboda mesamewodebac, Tumca saqarTveloSi, mcire gamonaklisis gar-da (Tbilisi, XI-XII ss mijna), ar Camoyalibebula sruliTviTmmarTveloba dasavleT evropis komunebis msgavsad. administraciul-teritoriuli erTeulebis zedadonis (mxareebis) cvlilebis procesi kidev ufro metikonservatizmiT xasiaTdeba. Tanamedrove istoriulikuTxeebis umravlesobis sazRvrebi, ZiriTadad, Zv.wT. IIaTaswleulSi Camoyalibda. es teritoriebi saqarTvelossaxelmwifoebriobis arsebobis mTel manZilze xan da-moukidebel politikur gaerTianebebs warmoadgendnen,xanac erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Semadgenel nawi-lebs. ruseTis imperiis mier saqarTvelos aneqsiis Semdeg,1801 wlidan moyolebuli, mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi mox-da qveynis administraciul-teritoriul mowyobaSi. XIXsaukuneSi ganxorcielebuli reformebis Sedegad, aTamdeistoriuli mxaris nacvlad, Seiqmna 20 mazra. mazrebissazRvrebi ZiriTadad emTxveoda istoriuli olqebissazRvrebs. dasaxlebuli punqtebis doneze mniSvnelovanicvlilebebi ar momxdara, Tu ar CavTvliT XIX saukunis40-60-ian wlebSi SedarebiT msxvil qalaqebSi SezRuduliTviTmmarTvelobis SemoRebis faqts (TbilisSi 1840 wlis10 agvistodan, sxva msxvil qalaqebSi _ 1874-dan). saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis arsebobisperiodSi (1918-1921), 1919 wels qveyanaSi pirveli de-mokratiuli municipaluri arCevnebi swored mazrebis - 14 -
  • 15. bazaze Catarda proporciuli sistemiT. xolo arCeuliorganoebi asrulebdnen rogorc TviTmmarTvelobis, iseadgilobrivi saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis funqciebs. cen-tralur xelisuflebas adgilebze araviTari struqturaar gaaCnda da TviTmmarTvelobis sistemas eyrdnoboda. sabWoTa periodSi (1920-1930-iani wlebi) mazrebissistema gauqmda da saqarTvelo daiyo raionebad. raione-bi zomiT bevrad Camouvardeboda rogorc istoriulmxareebs, ise mazrebs. raionTa raodenoba xSirad icvle-boda. sabWoTa periodis kanonmdebloba ar cnobda ufle-bamosilebaTa mkafiod gamijvnis princips. yvela doniswarmomadgenlobiT da aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas iu-ridiulad erTnairi uflebebi gaaCnda. am garemoebam,totalitaruli da erTpartiuli sistemis kolafsis pe-riodSi, e.w. `kanonTa omis~ saxe miiRo da centralur,regionul Tu adgilobriv xelisuflebebs Soris winaaR-mdegobis gaZlierebas Seuwyo xeli.2.2.2. damoukideblobis periodi sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis momentisTvis saqarTveloSiiyo ori avtonomiuri respublika, 65 raioni da 4 saqa-laqo zona, 13 respublikuri daqvemdebarebis qalaqi da942 sasoflo sabWo (sul 4603 dasaxlebuli punqti, maTSoris, 51 qalaqi da 61 daba). sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg saqarTveloSisazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mTel rig sferoebSi ganxor-cielebuli Zireuli Zvrebis miuxedavad, qveynis TviTm-marTvelobis sistemaSi mniSvnelovani cvlileba ar momx-dara, Tumca, 1991 wels pirveli adgilobrivi arCevnebiCatarda. 1993 wlis oqtombridan qveyanaSi daiwyo saxelmwifosmeTauris rwmunebulisa da samxareo administraciebis - 15 -
  • 16. institutebis SemoReba. 1993-95 wlebSi qveyana, avtono-miuri respublikebis garda, daiyo cxra de facto mxared,sadac dainiSna saxelmwifos meTauris/prezidentis rw-munebuli. amave periods ganekuTvneba axali tipis admin-istraciuli erTeulis, e.w. specialuri Temebis, Seqmnakonfliqtis zonebSi (eredvis, qurTis da TiRvis Temebiyofili samxreT oseTis, xolo aJaris Temi _ afxazeTisteritoriaze), romlebic Tavisi statusiT garkveul-wilad gauTanabres raionebs. 1995 wels miRebul iqna saqarTvelos konstitu-cia, sadac Riad darCa qveynis teritoriuli mowyobissakiTxi. konstituciis me-2 muxlis me-3 punqtSi aRin-iSna, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi teritoriulimowyoba ganisazRvreba konstituciuri kanoniT, ufle-bamosilebaTa urTierTgamijvnis principis safuZvelze,qveynis mTel teritoriaze saqarTvelos iurisdiqciissrulad aRdgenis Semdeg. 1998 wels adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebiCatarda saqarTvelos 1031 administraciul erTeulSi(971 TviTmmarTvel (sofeli, Temi, daba, qalaqi) da ad-gilobriv mmarTvelobiT (6 qalaqi, romelic ar Sediodaraionis SemadgenlobaSi da raionebi) erTeulSi. gatare-buli cvlilebiT gauqmda e.w. qalaqis zonebi (statusiTgauTanabrdnen raionebs). aseve, gauqmda qalaqebis dayo-fa respublikuri, avtonomiuri respublikuri da adgi-lobrivi mniSvnelobis qalaqebad. 1999-2002 wlebSi ganxorcielda administraciul-teritoriuli cvlilebebi. ZiriTadad, moxda soflebisgamoyofa Temebidan da Seiqmna 27 axali administraciulierTeuli. Sesabamisad, 2002 wlis 2 ivniss arCevnebi Cat-arda 998 TviTmmarTvel erTeulSi. 2001 wels saqarTvelos kanonSi `adgilobrivi TviT-mmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ SesworebebisSedegad, SedarebiT gaimijna funqciebi xelisuflebis - 16 -
  • 17. doneebsa da ganStoebebs (warmomadgenlobiTi da aRmas-rulebeli) Soris, magram xelisuflebaSi politikurinebis deficitis gamo, sakanonmdeblo xarvezebis sruligamosworeba ver moxerxda. 2005 wlisTvis saqarTvelos teritoriul mowyobaSide facto arsebobda sami done:a) zeda (e.w. regionaluri) done _ 9 regioni, romlebic de facto arsebobda, Tumca, maTi arseboba ar iyo da- kanonebuli; maTTan erTad, SesaZloa, pirobiTad mov- ixsenioT dedaqalaqi _ Tbilisi (romlis statusic regulirdeboda calke kanoniT), aseve, afxazeTisa da aWaris avtonomiuri respublikebi;b) saSualo done _ 60 raioni da eqvsi qalaqi (soxumisa da cxinvalis CaTvliT), romlebic ar Sedioda raionis daqvemdebarebaSi. raionuli done, kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, warmoadgenda saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis struqturas;g) qveda done _ 1004 erTeuli (sofeli, Temi, daba, qa- laqi). es iyo erTaderTi, iuridiulad dakanonebuli TviTmmarTvelobis done. 2006 wels ganxorcielda arsebiTi cvlileba TviT-mmarTvelobis teritoriuli safuZvlebis gansazRvrisprocesSi: adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebisSedegebis oficialurad gamocxadebis dRidan saer-Tod gauqmda qveda done (sofeli, Temi, daba, qalaqi) daerTaderT, municipalur, TviTmmarTvel-teritoriulerTeulad yofili raionebis farglebSi formirebulimunicipaliteti gamocxadda. 2004-2006 wlebSi mTelirigi sakanonmdeblo aqtebis miRebis Semdeg, 2006 wlis5 oqtombers Catarda saqarTvelos istoriaSi rigiTmexuTe (1919, 1991, 1998, 2002 arCevnebis Semdeg) adgi-lobrivi arCevnebi. Sedegad, saqarTveloSi miviReT 69municipaliteti (Tbilisis CaTvliT), xolo 2008 wlis - 17 -
  • 18. movlenebis Semdeg okupirebul tertoriebze aRmoCnda5 municipaliteti _ eredvi, qurTa, TiRvi, aJara da ax-algori. amJamad saqarTveloSi 64 municipaliteti funq-cionirebs.2.2.3. arsebuli viTarebis analizi saqarTvelo dRes saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis pro-cesSi imyofeba. am procesSi gamoikveTa mravali prob-lema, romelTa mougvareblobam qveynis ganviTarebismniSvnelovani mimarTulebebi, faqtobrivad, CixSi Seiyva-na. gardamaval periodSi qveyanaSi mimdinare cvlilebebiserT-erT ZiriTad mimarTulebas decentralizebuli darealur TviTmmarTvelobaze damyarebuli institutebisCamoyalibeba warmoadgens. Tu erTgvarad SevajamebT ukanaskneli 20 wlis ganma-vlobaSi decentralizaciis sferoSi mimdinare proces-ebs, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom: ver Seiqmna demokratiuli marTvis formebi adgilo- briv doneze; arsebuli marTvis principebi adgilobriv doneze ver uzrunvelyofs socialur-ekonomikur ganviTare- bas, gansakuTrebiT, gadaWarbebuli centralizaciis fonze; qveyanas ar gaaCnia TviTmmarTvelobis reformis grZelvadiani xedva. qveyanaSi sxvadasxva periodSi, sxvadasxva intensivo-biT mimdinare reformebi urTierTwinaaRmdegobiT xas-iaTdeba _ xSirad xdeba erTxel aRebuli kursis cvlacentralizaciisa Tu decentralizaciis mimarTulebiT:Tu SevadarebT 1991, 1998, 2002 da 2006 wlebis modelebs,davinaxavT, rom adgilobrivi xelisuflebis uflebebi - 18 -
  • 19. xan izrdeboda, xan mcirdeboda. magaliTisTvis: Tu 1998wels raionul dones marTvis realuri berketebi gaaCnda,2002 wlidan misi saqmianoba mxolod formaluri iyo (e.w.asocirebuli sakrebuloebis modeli), xolo 2006 welsraionuli done TviTmmarTvelobis erTaderT doned ga-mocxadda. SeniSvnis saxiT: saqarTvelos zomis evropulqveynebSi, rogorc wesi, 2 subnacionaluri done (regio-nuli da municipaluri) arsebobs (ix. danarTi 1). situacias arTulebs is garemoebac, rom qarTulsazogadoebas jer kidev mkafiod ara aqvs warmodgeniliadgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis roli da funqciebi. `vardebis revoluciis~ Semdeg adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobis sferoSi Tavi iCina ara decentralizaciis,aramed centralizaciis tendenciam. 2005 wels ganxor-cielebulma administraciul-teritoriulma refor-mam TviTmmarTvelobis qveda donis (qalaqebis, dabebis,Temebisa da soflebis doneze arsebuli) gauqmebam mo-saxleoba mniSvnelovnad daaSora mmarTvelobis orga-noebs. amave dros, reformis Sedegad, mkveTrad SeizRudaTviTmmarTvelobaTa uflebamosileba da sakuTari finans-uri baza, ramac adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba, rogorcpolitikuri, ise administraciuli da finansuri kuTxiT,centralur xelisuflebaze srulad damokidebuli gaxa-da. amasTan, Tu sawyis etapze (2005-2007 wlebi), aRniSnuliprocesi araformalur doneze mimdinareobda, 2007 wli-dan ukve sakanonmdeblo normebSic iwyebs asaxvas. xelisuflebis centralizacia kidev ufro gaZlier-da 2009-2010 wlebSi. am periodidan moyolebuli, adgi-lobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis SezRudvasTan erTad, iwyebaara mxolod decentralizaciis, aramed dekoncentraciissapirispiro procesic. moxda mTeli rigi saxelmwifo in-stitutebis (iusticiis saministro, ganaTlebisa da mec-nierebis saministro) teritoriuli organoebis gauqmebaan/da maTi uflebamosilebis Sekveca. - 19 -
  • 20. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis rolis dakninebaCans yvela im mimarTulebiT, romelic aCvenebs qveyanaSidecentralizaciis ganviTarebis dones: sakanonmdeblo baza _ konstituciis axali redaqciiT formalurad ganmtkicda TviTmmarTvelobis saqmiano- bis Tavisuflebis garantiebi, magram kanonmdeblobis analizi gviCvenebs, rom kanonebi sul ufro da ufro xSirad ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciiT deklarirebul principebs da erTmaneTsac. amave dros, praqtikaSi xelisufleba xelmZRvanelobs Cveulebrivi kanonebi- sa da sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebis, da ara konsti- tuciuri debulebebis, moTxovnebiT. Camouyalibebe- li da Sinaganad winaaRmdegobrivi sakanonmdeblo ba- zis pirobebSi, adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis praqtika daSorebulia kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebs da kanoniT gansazRvruli mmarTvelobiTi urTierTobebis adg- ils araformaluri urTierTobebi da patron-klien- telisturi qselebi ikavebs; TviTmmarTvelobis struqtura _ adgilobrivi xe- lisufleba srulad kontroldeba centraluri xe- lisuflebis mier. miuxedavad imisa, rom adgilebze moqmedebs faqtobrivad monopartiuli (`erTiani na- cionaluri moZraoba~) warmomadgenlobiTi struq- turebi, centri sul ufro da ufro aZlierebs formalur da araformalur kontrols rogorc sax- elmwifo zedamxedvelobis, ise qonebis marTvis, biu- jetebis damtkicebis da sxva mimarTulebebiT, riTac arRvevs saerTaSoriso valdebulebebiT (`adgilo- brivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ evropuli qartia) nakisr subsidiarobis princips; uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba _ saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebiTa da praqtikiT TviTmmarTv- elobaTaTvis gadacemuli uflebebis ganxorcieleba - 20 -
  • 21. sruladaa damokidebuli centraluri xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebebze, rogorc marTvis, ise saWiro resursebiT uzrunvelyofis mxriv. miuxedavad imisa, rom wlidan wlamde izrdeba adgilebze gansaxor- cielebeli saqmianobis dafinanseba, mcirdeba TviT- mmarTvelobaTa mier damoukidebeli gadawyvetile- bebis miRebis xarisxi. calkeuli programebis dageg- mvisa da maTi sabiujeto uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba centralur xelisuflebaSi miiReba. mcirdeba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis eqskluz- iur uflebamosilebaTa isedac mcire CamonaTvali da xdeba maTi miTviseba centraluri xelisuflebis mier; ekonomikuri safuZvlebi _ qveyanaSi ar ganxorciele- bula fiskaluri decentralizacia. ufro metic, xdeba Semosavlis sul ufro da ufro meti wyaros koncentrireba centraluri xelisuflebis xelSi. mcirdeba adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobaTa sakuTari Semosavlebis odenoba. Wianurdeba da ufro rTul- deba (ara marto praqtikaSi, aramed ukve sakanonmdeb- lo donezec) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis qonebis gadacemis procesi; sazogadoebrivi momsaxureba _ saxelmwifo, qveynis masStabiT, axorcielebs mTel rig msxvil, ZviradRi- rebul infrastruqturul programebs, romelTa nawilis Sesrulebac TviTmmarTvelobebis ufle- bamosilebis sferos ganekuTvneba. TviTmmarTvelo- bebi an saerTod ar arian CarTulni am procesSi, an, faqtobrivad, am momsaxurebis adgilobriv gamtarebs warmoadgenen. dagegmvisa da ganxorcielebis proces- Si, rogorc wesi, ar xdeba adgilobriv Tavisebure- baTa gaTvaliswineba, rac negatiurad aisaxeba Sede- gebis xarisxze da, amave dros, mniSvnelovnad aZvirebs produqtis/momsaxurebis Rirebulebas. kvlav daba- - 21 -
  • 22. lia sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gawevis xarisxi. sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis sferos ukontrolo, xSirad ki monopolizebuli, komercializacia iwvevs fasebis permanentul zrdas. saxelmwifos mier in- frastruqturaSi investirebuli xarjebi ver iZleva saTanado efeqts; sazogadoebis CarTuloba _ mimdinare cvlilebeb- ma gaarTula TviTmmarTvelobis ganxorcielebisas sazogadoebis CarTvis isedac susti procesi. TviTm- marTvelobis raionul doneze atanam municipaluri organoebi kidev ufro daaSora sazogadoebas. Sede- gad izrdeba sazogadoebis gaucxoeba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisgan. centralizaciis procesis gaZlierebas saqarTveloSiTavisi mizezebi gaaCnia. pirvel yovlisa, gasaTvaliswine-belia is, rom, tradiciulad, arc erTi centraluri xe-lisufleba, gansakuTrebiT, revoluciis gziT mosuli,ar aris decentralizaciis momxre da miiswrafis sakuTarxelSi Zalauflebis maqsimaluri koncentraciisken. bolo wlebSi qveyanaSi TandaTanobiT damZimebu-li politikuri, socialuri Tu ekonomikuri situa-ciis fonze (2007 wlis politikuri krizisi, 2008 wlisagvistos omi ruseTTan, msoflio ekonomikuri krizisiszegavlena da sxv.), centraluri xelisufleba TandaTanzRudavs adgilebze TviT sakuTari, mmarTveli partiiswevri moxeleebis uflebamosilebebs. amJamad Zneli saTq-melia, es adgilobrivi (Tundac saxelisuflebo) elitismimarT undoblobis maCvenebelia, Tu centraluri xe-lisuflebis mier Zalauflebis maqsimaluri koncentra-ciis survils warmoadgens. formalurad, decentralizaciis procesis Seferxebakvlav mis nakleb prioritetulobas ukavSirdeba. ape-lireba xdeba qveynisTvis sxva, ufro mniSvnelovanisakiTxebis gadaWris saWiroebaze. - 22 -
  • 23. 2.2.4. TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso valdebulebebi 2002 wlis 23 maiss saqarTvelo SeuerTda `adgilobri-vi TviTmmarTvelobis evropul qartias~ da 2004 wlis 26oqtombers moaxdina misi ratifikacia (ZalaSi Sevida 2005wlis 1 aprils). parlamentis mier miRebuli rezoluciiT,saqarTvelo qartias SeuerTda daTqmebiT, amasTan, igi arSeerTebia yvela muxls/punqts. kerZod, saqarTvelo arSeerTebia qartiis me-4 muxlis me-6 punqts, me-5 muxls,me-6 muxlis me-2 da me-9 punqtebs, me-10 muxlis me-2 da me-3punqtebs: xelisuflebis adgilobrivi organoebis ufle-bas gaerTianebaze (saerTaSoriso asociaciebis CaTvliT)saerTo interesebis xelSewyobisTvis da msgavs sazoga-doebriv organizaciebTan TanamSromlobisTvis. qartias, rogorc saerTaSoriso aqts, upiratesi iu-ridiuli Zala aqvs qveynis Sida kanonmdeblobis mimarTda konstituciis Semdgom upiratesi uflebiT sarge-blobs. saqarTvelos organuli kanoni `adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ eyrdnoba saqarTvelos kon-stituciasa da evropuli TviTmmarTvelobis qartias,rogorc sabaziso safuZvlebs. kanonmdeblobis mixedviT (ix. kanoni `adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis organoebis saqmianobis saxelmwifozedamxedvelobis Sesaxeb~ da sxv.), yvela axali sakanon-mdeblo iniciativis erT-erTi umTavresi mizani qarTulikanonmdeblobis qartiasTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanaa. amave dros, arsebobs Seusabamobebi saqarTvelos kanon-mdeblobasa da qartias Soris. saqarTvelos normatiuliaqtebiT dadgenili mTeli rigi normebi ewinaaRmdegeba anqartiis calkeul muxlebs, an qartiis suliskveTebas. viTarebas kidev ufro amZimebs is garemoeba, romqveynis marTvis praqtikaSi damkvidrda sakanonmdebloregulaciebisgan gansxvavebuli midgomebi. amdenad, er-Tia qartiis da saqarTvelos erovnuli kanonmdeblobis - 23 -
  • 24. Sesabamisoba, xolo meore _ Tu ramdenad sruldeba praq-tikaSi qartiis is ZiriTadi moTxovnebi, risi Sesrulebisvaldebulebac saqarTvelos aqvs aRebuli. praqtikaSi`adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ evropuli qa-rtiis umetesi punqtebi irRveva da saerTod dabaliaadgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebSi qartiis gacnobierebisdone. amas isic erTvis, rom, rogorc qveynis SigniT, isesaerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis mxridan ar SeiniSneba de-centralizaciis aucileblobis maincdamainc daJinebulimoTxovna. Sesabamisad, xelisuflebis mier ganxorciele-buli sakanonmdeblo Tu struqturuli cvlilebebimoqmed sistemaSi arsebuli calkeuli (xSirad meorex-arisxovani) xarvezebis aRmofxvras isaxavda miznad daara problemaTa warmomSobi mizezebis safuZvlebis nive-lirebas Zireuli cvlilebebis gziT. zemoTqmuli ar niSnavs, rom saqarTvelos evropelipartniorebi saerTod ar aqceven yuradRebas Cvens qveya-naSi TviTmmarTvelobis sferoSi arsebul situacias. ammxriv aRsaniSnavia evropis sabWos rigi rekomendaciebisa(# 1415 (2005) da # 1477 (2006), rezoluciebi da dokumen-ti # 10779 (2006), romlebic asaxaven saqarTveloSi mimdi-nare reformebis (maT Soris, decentralizaciis sferoSi)suraTs da iZlevian Sesabamis rekomendaciebs. am rekomen-daciebis Sesrulebis aucilebloba aRiarebulia `evropissamezoblo politikis~ samoqmedo gegmis mierac.2.3. situacia calkeuli sferoebis mixedviT2.3.1. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyoba 2006 wels ganxorcielebuli gamsxvilebis SedegebsTvalsaCinod asaxavs municipalitetTa mosaxleobis ode-noba. Tu adre arsebuli pirveli donis TviTmmarTvelo-bebSi saSualod 4354 mcxovrebi iyo, raionis (dRevandeli - 24 -
  • 25. municipalitetis) mosaxleobis saSualo maCvenebeliTbilisis CaTvliT 66235 adamians Seadgens, Tbilisis ga-reSe _ 48380-s. es maSin, roca, rogorc evropis qveynebisabsolutur umravlesobaSi, ise rigi ganviTarebuliqveynis (aSS, iaponia da a.S.) municipalitetebSi saSualod5-dan 25 aTasamde mcxovrebia, xolo evropis qveynebisgasaSualoebuli maCvenebeli 6-7 aTas mcxovrebs Sead-gens. aranakleb araadekvaturad gamoiyureba dReisaTvisarsebuli municipalitetebis teritoriuli sidide. ammaCvenebliT saqarTvelo zogi Crdiloevropuli qveynis(skandinavia, ruseTis federacia) gverdiT dgas, miuxeda-vad imisa, rom qveyanaSi CrdiloeTisaTvis damaxasiaTebe-li arc arqtikuli da arc daWaobebuli didi dausaxle-beli sivrceebi ar arsebobs (ix. danarTebi 2 da 3). TviTmmarTvelobis teritoriul safuZvlad raionisarCevis is argumenti, rom TviTmmarTvelobis 1998 wlismodelma ver gaamarTla, araseriozulad gamoiyureba.TviTmmarTvelobam ver imuSava verc 50-kacian sofelSida verc iseT did qalaqebSi, rogorebicaa foTi, quTaisida Tbilisi. TviTmmarTvelobebma ver gaamarTla ara maTiteritoriuli simciris, aramed qveyanaSi realuri TviTm-marTvelobis ararsebobis gamo. reformis ganxorcielebisas ZiriTadi aqcenti mo-saxleobasTan siaxloveze unda yofiliyo gakeTebuli.gasaTvaliswinebeli iyo isic, rom ar arsebobs marTvisprocesSi mosaxleobis Tanamonawileobisa da, Sesabamis-ad, pasuxismgeblobis ganawilebis tradicia, rac bolo20 wlis politikuri arastabilurobis erT-erTi mTavarimizezia. TviTmmarTvelobis teritoriuli gamsxvileba undamomxdariyo iq, sadac resursebis simciris gamo TviTm-marTvelobis ganxorcieleba SeuZlebeli iqneboda. amas-Tan, TiToeul dasaxlebaSi arCeviTi organoebis Camoya-libeba unda yofiliyo uzrunvelyofili. - 25 -
  • 26. TviTmmarTvelobis qveda donis (sofeli, Temi, daba,qalaqi) gauqmebisa da TviTmmarTvelobis erTaderTdoned raionis gamocxadebis Sedegad miviReT: adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebze saxelm- wifo zegavlenis gaZliereba _ jer araformalurad, xolo Semdeg sakanonmdeblo donezec adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs SeezRudaT mTeli rigi ufle- bamosilebani da dReisaTvis isini, faqtobrivad, cen- traluri xelisuflebis teritoriuli organoebis funqciebs asruleben; moqalaqeTa umravlesobis ufro meti daSoreba adgil- obrivi TviTmmarTvelobis ganmaxorcielebeli orga- noebidan (gansakuTrebiT, im municipalitetebSi, rom- lebic municipaluri centrisgan daSorebuli bevri mcire dasaxlebisgan Sedgeba) _ Temebisa da calkeuli dasaxlebuli punqtebis doneze TviTmmarTvelobis gauqmebam moqalaqeebi iZulebulni gaxada, sakuTari yoveldRiuri problemebis gadasaWrelad gamsxvile- buli municipalitetebis centrs mimarTon, rac re- gionebSi arsebuli mouwesrigebeli infrastruqtu- ris, geografiuli Taviseburebebisa da gaumarTavi administraciuli meqanizmebis (TviTmmarTvelobaTa uflebebis Sekveca) arsebobis pirobebSi, mTel rig damatebiT problemebs uqmnis moqalaqeebs; saqalaqo da sasoflo tipis dasaxlebebisagan Sem- dgar municipalitetebSi mosaxleobis gansxvave- buli sazogadoebrivi interesebis arseboba. munici- palitetebis umravlesoba warmoadgens qalaqebis (yo- fili raionuli centrebi) da soflebis erTobliobas. ramdenime municipalitetSi erTze meti qalaqis tipis dasaxlebaa. soflisa da qalaqis tipis dasaxlebebSi mosaxleobis saWiroebebi, interesebi da prioritete- bi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba. aseve gansxvavdeba es - 26 -
  • 27. interesebi Tavad sasoflo dasaxlebasa da sxvadasxva soflebis erTobliobebs Soris, vinaidan arsebul municipalitetebSi bunebrivad Camoyalibebulia sx- vadasxva geografiuli Tu infrastruqturis zonebi; adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa mier ganx- orcielebuli calkeuli saxis momsaxurebis araTana- bari xelmisawvdomoba TviTmmarTvel erTeulSi gaer- Tianebuli sxvadasxva dasaxlebis mosaxleobisTvis _ SezRuduli resursebis arsebobisa da sakuTari, da- moukidebeli Semosavlebis ararsebobis pirobebSi re- gionebSi xSirad xorcieldeba iseTi saxis centrali- zebuli proeqtebi, romelTac araviTari kavSiri ara aqvT realurad arsebul adgilobriv saWiroebebTan; adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis politizaciis xaris­ xis gadaWarbebuli amaRleba _ TviTmmarTvelobaTa winaSe centri, faqtobrivad, ayenebs erTaderT moT­ xovnas _ arCevnebis periodSi nebismieri xerxebiT (amomrCevelTa mosyidva da daSineba, arCevnebis Sede- gebis falsifikacia) uzrunvelyon mmarTveli parti- isTvis xmebis absoluturi umravlesobis mopoveba; materialur-safinanso resursebis moculobisa da real- uri ekonomikuri potencialis araadekvaturoba gamsx- vilebuli TviTmmarTveli erTeulis gazrdil ambiciebT- an da moTxovnilebebTan _ is finansuri re­ ursebi, ro- s melic municipalitetebisTvis centridan gamoiyofa, sakmarisi ar aris gamsxvilebul municipalitetTa adgi- lobrivi saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad; zecentralizaciis pirobebSi mosaxleoba nebismieri problemis mougvareblobas centralur xelisufle- bas abralebs _ es qmnis adgilobrivi socialur-eko- nomikuri problemebis gadauwyvetelobis zedmetad politizirebis saSiSroebas, riTac umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi, SesaZloa, xeli Seewyos sepa- - 27 -
  • 28. ratistuli tendenciebis gazrdas. administraciuli erTeulebis gamsxvilebis tenden-cia Seexo saqarTvelos dedaqalaqsac. 2000 wlis noember-Si TbilisSi arsebuli 10 raioni meqanikurad dawyvilda5 raionad (isani-samgoris, mTawminda-krwanisis, vake-sa-burTalos, didube-CuRureTisa da gldani-naZaladevisraionebi), romelTac Tbilisis teritoriis gafarToebisSemdeg daemata kidev ori raioni. TiToeuli maTgani, mo-saxleobis raodenobiT, saqarTvelos sididiT meore qa-laqs _ quTaiss gautolda da mosaxleobis raodenobiTbevrad aRemateba saqarTvelos nebismier municipalitets(saSualod 220 aT. mcxovrebi), maSin, roca evropis mcireqveynebis dedaqalaqTa umetesobaSi administraciuli er-Teulis mosaxleoba meryeobs 30 _ 60 aTasi mcxovrebisfarglebSi (ix. danarTi 4). arsebuli cvlilebis negatiuri efeqti ukve aSkaraa.2008 wels TviT xelisuflebisTvisac ki cxadi gaxda axa-li teritoriuli mowyobis iracionaluri (araefeqturi)xasiaTi. aRniSnulis magaliTad gamodgeba `soflis dax-marebis programis~ amoqmedeba _ centralur xelisufle-bas uwevs xarjis gaweva im programebis dasafinanseblad,romelTa ganxorcieleba, wesiT, adgilobrivi TviTmmarT-velobebis eqskluziur uflebamosilebas unda warmoad-gendes. Sedegad, umravles SemTxvevaSi miviReT sabiujetoTanxebis araefeqtianad xarjva, rac iwyeba imiT, rom adgi-lobrivi organos nacvlad centri iRebs gadawyvetilebas,ra saxis programebis ganxorcieleba esaWiroeba ama Tu immunicipalitets. magaliTad, centraluri xelisuflebisgadawyvetilebiT, municipalitetebSi did Tanxebi ixarje-boda Senobebis fasadebis SeRebvasa da sxva proeqtebze,maSin, roca gadawyvetili ar iyo am dasaxlebebSi wyalmo-maragebisa da sxva elementaruli problemebi. 2005-2006 wlebSi ganxorcielebuli qveynis axali ad-ministraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis reforma miznad - 28 -
  • 29. isaxavda adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis realuriresursebis gadacemas. sinamdvileSi ki:a) TviTmmarTvelobebs realurad ar miuRiaT sakuTari resursebi da kidev ufro damokidebulni gaxdnen centralur xelisuflebaze;b) isini gamsxvilebis Sedegad kidev ufro daSordnen mosaxleobas. am problemis aRmosafxvrelad kanon- mdebelma teritoriuli organoebis rwmunebulTa Stati SemoiRo. es ver CaiTvleba arsebuli sistemis naklovani mxaris (TviTmmarTvelobis saqmianobaSi mosaxleobis CarTulobis ignorireba) gamosworebad. rwmunebulebs irCevs ara mosaxleoba, aramed niSnavs municipalitetis administracia. amitom isini, Ses- abamisi uflebamosilebisa da resursebis gadacemis SemTxvevaSic ki, ver iqnebian adgilobrivi Temebis mosaxleobis nebis gamomxatvelni;g) momavalSi qveyanaSi regionuli donis SemoRebam re- gionebsa da maT SemadgenlobaSi Semaval ramdenime msx- vil municipalitets Soris SeiZleba garkveuli dapiri- spirebis safuZveli Seqmnas, vinaidan zogierTi munici- paliteti (gori, gardabani, marneuli...) adamianuri da sxva resursebiT zog sust regions (mcxeTa-mTianeTi, guria, raWa-leCxumi-qvemo svaneTi) aRemateba;d) arsebulma sistemam kidev ufro gazarda moqalaqisa da sazogadoebis xelisuflebasTan gaucxoeba. Tuki mo- qalaqes ar ekiTxebian, ra unda gakeTdes mis sofelsa Tu qalaqSi da es wydeba misgan Sors _ centralur xelisuflebaSi, moqalaqes, faqtobrivad, ekargeba motivacia, aqtiuri monawileoba miiRos qalaqis, soflis da, saboloo jamSi, qveynis sazogadoebriv- politikur cxovrebaSi, ris gareSec SeuZlebelia sazogadoebrivad aqtiuri moqalaqisa da, zogadad, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibeba. - 29 -
  • 30. 2.3.2. TviTmmarTvelobis struqtura, arCevnebi da saqmi- anobis wesi 2010 wels, wina wlebis TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis-gan gansxvavebiT, sadac xelisufleba mandatebis garkveulraodenobas opoziciis sasargeblod `Tmobda~, yvelasakrebuloSi didi umravlesoba mmarTvelma partiam _`erTianma nacionalurma moZraobam~ moipova (proporci-uli mandatebis 85% da maJoritaruli mandatebis 92%).dRevandeli TviTmmarTveloba saqarTvelos istoriaSiarsebuli yvela wina adgilobrivi arCevnebis (1919 wli-dan moyolebuli) Sedegad Seqmnil TviTmmarTvelobebTanSedarebiT yvelaze ufro erTpartiulia, Tu ar CavTvliTsabWoTa periodSi moqmed saxalxo deputatTa sabWoebs. aRniSnuli kidev erTxel metyvelebs mmarTveli par-tiis mier adgilobrivi xelisuflebis srul monopoli-zaciaze. iseT pirobebSic ki, roca adgilobrivi TviTm-marTvelobebi araviTar Zalas ar warmoadgens, central-uri xelisufleba cdilobs, sruli kontroli daawesosmaT struqturebze. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTiorganoa 4 wlis vadiT arCeuli sakrebulo, xolo aRmas-rulebeli organo _ gamgeoba (meria), romlis xelmZR-vanels (gamgebels/mers), sakrebulos biuros mier Catare-buli konkursis Sedegebis mixedviT amtkicebs sakrebulo.sakrebulo tradiciulad, saqarTveloSi adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTi rgoli aRmas-rulebel StosTan SedarebiT susti iyo. im SezRuduluflebamosilebasac ki, rac TviTmmarTvelobas formal-urad Tu realurad gaaCnda, praqtikaSi aRmasrulebeliSto axorcielebda. aRniSnuli tendencia dResac, axalisistemis formirebis Semdegac, ganagrZobs arsebobas, ra- - 30 -
  • 31. sac mTeli rigi mizezebi ganapirobebs: realuri funqciebis ararseboba _ 1998-2002 wlebSi raionul doneze moqmed sakrebuloebSi bevrad meti interesi iyo warmodgenili (politikuri speqtri, mcire, magram realurad arsebuli uflebebi da Ses- abamisi sakuTari finansuri resursebi), rasac dRevan- del sakrebuloze veRar vityviT. aqtivobis xarisxiT dReisaTvis moqmedi sakrebulo adre arsebul I do- nis (qalaqi, daba, Temi, sofeli) sakrebulos waagavs, romelsac arc realuri funqciebi gaaCnda da arc misi ganxorcielebisTvis saWiro berketebi; araformaluri (da xSirad formaluri) wnexi _ es wnexi, erTi mxriv, aRmasrulebeli Stos _ meriis/gam- geobis, meore mxriv, centraluri xelisuflebis sx- vadasxva institutis mxridan auaresebs sakrebulos damoukideblobas da efeqturi muSaobis xarisxs; erTpartiuli sistema _ municipalitetTa nawil- Si mxolod mmarTveli partiaa warmodgenili, rac aZlierebs kidev erTi, damatebiTi, Sidapartiuli zewolis gaCenis albaTobas. mTel rig municipa­ litetebSi ar arsebobs opoziciuri fraqcia, xolo mmarTveli partiis fraqciaTa garda, ramdenime mu- nicipalitetSi Seqmnilia maJoritarTa fraqcia, ro­ melTa wevrebic imave mmarTveli partiis saxeliT gamodiodnen arCevnebze.gamgeoba/meria TviTmmarTvelobis aRmasrulebeli Stos saqmiano-bisTvis damaxasiaTebelia struqturis xelmZRvane-lis (gamgeblis/meris) dominanturi pozicia, romelicgamyarebulia rogorc tradiciiT, ise kanonmdeblobiTada yoveldRiuri praqtikiT. gamgeoba warmoadgens arakolegialur organos, aramed sxvadasxva struqturisa - 31 -
  • 32. Tu ganyofilebis menejerTa TaTbirs, sadac gadamwyve-ti roli gamgebels/mers eniWeba. magaliTisTvis: gamgeb-els ufleba aqvs, sabiujeto saxsrebis garkveuli nawilisakrebulos daukiTxavad gankargos, rac zrdis sakrebu-los mxridan yovelgvari kontrolis gareSe TviTmmarT-velobis aRmasrulebeli Stos moqmedebis Tavisuflebas. aseTi midgoma sakmaod Zabavs urTierTobas sakrebu-losa da gamgeobas, aseve, sakrebulosa da regionSi sax-elmwifos rwmunebuls/gubernators Soris. es ukanaskne-li, rogorc wesi, urTierTobaSi upiratesobas aniWebsgamgeobas, rogorc saxelisuflebo vertikalis bunebrivgagrZelebas. formalurad, 2010 wels sakrebulos gaezarda ufle-bamosileba _ sakrebulos Tavmjdomare ukve TviTm-marTveli erTeulis umaRlesi politikuri piria dagamgebeli mis winaSea angariSvaldebuli, Tumca, es wesipraqtikaSi xSirad mxolod formaluri xasiaTis matare-belia. sapirispiro suraTs vxedavT q. TbilisSi _ aq xdebaqalaqis meris uflebebisa da legitimurobis xarisxiszrda (pirdapiri arCevnebi) da dedaqalaqis sakrebulosrolis Semdgomi daknineba.teritoriuli organoebi municipalitetTa gamsxvilebis Semdeg, sazogadoebi-sagan TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa daSorebis sakompen-saciod, kanonmdeblobiT Seiqmna gamgeobis teritoriu-li organoebi. gamgeobis/meriis teritoriuli organosxelmZRvaneli gamgeobis/meriis rwmunebulia. rwmuneb-ulebi dainiSnen yvela yofil pirveli donis sakrebu-loSi (daaxloebiT 1000 erTeuli). am instituciam undamoagvaros municipalitetTan (sakrebulo/gamgeoba) cen-tridan daSorebiT mcxovrebi mosaxleobis urTierToba. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis administraciis terito- - 32 -
  • 33. riuli erTeulis xelmZRvaneli, romelmac xelisufle-basTan adgilobrivi mosaxleobis interesebis dacvasunda Seuwyos xeli, gamgeobis mier aris daniSnuli dasajaro mosamsaxurea. bunebrivia, rom biurokratiulierarqias daqvemdebarebuli moxeleebi mosaxleobis kiara, swored adgilobrivi xelisuflebis aRmasrulebeliStos interesebs icaven. amasTan, teritoriuli erTeu-lis xelmZRvanelebi iniSnebian mxolod yofili Temebisteritoriebze da ara yvela dasaxlebaSi da daSorebulniarian TemSi arsebuli dasaxlebebis umravlesobas. realurad, rwmunebulebs ar gaaCniaT arc uflebebida arc finansebi aRniSnuli funqciis Sesasruleblad.maTi kavSiric municipalitetebis centrebTan xSirad Za-lze sustia. saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi ki, rwmunebulebi gam-geobis gadawyvetilebebis adgilobriv mcxovrebTaTvisgacnobas axdenen da ara adgilobrivi interesebis lo-birebas TviTmmarTvelobaSi an, miT umetes, garkveulimomsaxurebis gawevas mosaxleobisaTvis.2.3.3. TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosileba TviTmmarTvelobebis uflebamosilebis ganxor-cielebis sferoSi TvalSisacemia centraluri xelisu-flebis sasargeblod subsidiarobis principis ignorire-ba. moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, TviTmmarTvelo-bebs gaaCniaT sakuTari da delegirebuli uflebamosile-bebi, Tumca, praqtikaSi sakmaod xSiria maTi aRreva. Tureformamde TviTmmarTvelobebs formalurad maincgaaCndaT garkveuli uflebamosilebebi, magram ar hqon-daT maTi aRsrulebisTvis saWiro resursebi, 2006 wlisTviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis Semdeg daiwyo am ufle-bamosilebaTa centraluri xelisuflebisTvis gadacemisprocesi, rac sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gawevis gaum-jobesebisa da resursebis mobilizebis motiviT xor-cieldeba. - 33 -
  • 34. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis formalurad Tuaraformalurad miniWebul uflebamosilebaTa CamonaT-valSi SesaZlebelia 3 jgufis gamoyofa:1. uflebamosilebebi, romlebic, arc Tavisi bunebiT da arc kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, ar warmoadgens adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sferos, magram re- alurad, saxelmwifos politikidan gamomdinare, maTi ganxorcieleba swored TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs evalebaT.2. uflebamosilebebi, romlebic, rogorc Tavisi arsiT, ise kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, ganekuTvneba adgilo- brivi xelisuflebis uflebamosilebas, magram praq- tikaSi, mokle Tu grZelvadiani politikuri intere- sebidan gamomdinare, nawilobriv an srulad aqvs miT- visebuli centralur xelisuflebas.3. uflebamosilebebi, romlebic, Tavisi arsiT, ad- gilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis regulirebis sferos warmoadgens, magram privatizaciis procesSi moxda maTi komercializacia (wyliT, bunebrivi airiT da eleqtroenergiiT mosaxleobis momarageba). adgilo- brivi TviTmmarTvelobebi, bunebrivia, ver erevian komerciuli struqturebis saqmianobaSi, romlebsac saxelmwifosTan aqvT dadebuli xelSekruleba. maT arc tarifebis regulirebaze SeuZliaT zegavlenis moxdena, Tumca, sazogadoebis TvalSi, swored munic- ipalitetebi aRiqmebian maRal tarifze an cud ser- visze pasuxismgeblad.sakuTari uflebamosileba centraluri xelisufleba Tavis kontrols uqvemde-barebs iseT sferoebs, romlebic yvela droSi da yvelaganviTarebul qveyanaSi (TviT sabWoTa periodSic ki) ad- - 34 -
  • 35. gilobrivi xelisuflebis prerogativas warmoadgenda: adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs CamoerTvaT wyalmo- maragebis sistemebi da maTze kontroli, amave dros, Riad darCa moqmedi sistemebis sakuTrebis sakiTxi. igegmeboda aRniSnul obieqtTa CarTva privatiza- ciis nusxaSi, magram mZime finansur valdebulebaTa (davalianebebi), amortizebuli materialur-teqni- kuri bazisa da metad mcire masStabis gamo msxvil in- vestorTa mozidva ver moxerxda. aman 2008 wlis gan- mavlobaSi saqarTvelos bevr municipalitetSi wyal- momaragebis sferoSi katastrofuli situacia Seqmna. xelisufleba iZulebuli gaxda, kvlav TviTmmarTv- elobebisTvis „daevalebina“ aRniSnuli struqturis dafinanseba, miuxedavad imisa, rom am ukanasknelT aRar gaaCndaT Sesabamisi uflebamosileba; 2010 wlidan TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sakuTar ufle- bamosilebaTa nusxidan amoRebul iqna socialur-eko- nomikuri ganviTarebis prioritetebis damtkicebis uflebamosileba. „sabiujeto kodeqsis“ Tanaxmad, am funqcias, saxelmwifo rwmunebulis administracias- Tan konsultaciiT, axorcielebs TviTmmarTvelobis aRmasrulebeli organo. sakrebulos roli dokumen- tis Sedgenis proceSi formaluria; iseTi uflebamosilebebi, rogoricaa narCenebis mar- Tva (maT Soris, narCenebis utilizacia) da sxva, gasu- lia TviTmmarTvelobaTa kontrolis sferodan; TviTmmarTveli erTeulis uflebamosilebis SezRud- vis pirobebis CamonaTvalSi gaCnda damateba, romlis Tanaxmadac, aikrZala „TviTmmarTveli erTeulis mier sakuTari uflebamosilebebis imgvari gamoyeneba, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios saxelmwifo organoebis, agreTve, organizaciebisa da dawesebulebebis gamarTuli fun- qcionirebis Seferxeba“. es SezRudva, aseTi saxis - 35 -
  • 36. bundovani definiciisas da normatiuli ganmartebis gareSe, qmnis centraluri xelisuflebis mier adgi- lobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebze damatebiTi, SesaZloa, politikuri, zemoqmedebis berkets. am mxriv saqarTvelo kidev ufro daSorda ara mar-to Zveli demokratiis qveynebs (dasavleT evropa, aSS dasxva), aramed CamorCa dsT-s qveynebsac, maT Soris, Taviskavkasiel mezoblebs. arsebul sistemaSi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis saku-Tari uflebamosilebis nawilis aRsrulebac ki SeuZle-belia, ris magaliTadac kanonmdeblobasa da praqtikaSiarsebuli suraTis dapirispireba gamodgeba. kerZod:1. municipalitetis uflebamosilebas, uzrunvelyos saxanZro usafrTxoeba, daemata „samaSvelo RonisZie- bebis uzrunvelyofa“, magram TviTmmarTveli er- TeulebisTvis saxanZro usafrTxoebis infrastruq- turis gadacema dRemde ar momxdara.2. adgilobrivi samgzavro gadazidvebis uflebamosile- ba „regulirdeba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dad- genili wesiT“, xolo „saavtomobilo transportis Sesaxeb“ da „licenziebisa da nebarTvebis Sesaxeb“ kanonebis Tanaxmad, regularuli samgzavro gadayva- nis nebarTva mxolod saqarTvelos TviTmmarTveli qalaqebisTvis dgindeba.3. sakuTar uflebamosilebas warmoadgens, agreTve, dasaqmebis xelSewyobis municipaluri programebis damtkiceba, magram, q. Tbilisis garda (programebi: „daiwye biznesi q. Tbilisis meriis daxmarebiT“, „ing- lisuris da kompiuteris ufaso kursebi“, „socialurad daucveli mravalSviliani ojaxebis dasaqmebis pro- grama“), es uflebamosileba versad xorcieldeba (Tavad am programebis efeqturoba calke ganxilvis Temaa). - 36 -
  • 37. 4. municipaluri arqivis Seqmna da momsaxurebis ta- rifebis dadgena kidev erTi sakuTari damatebiTi uflebamosilebaa, Tumca, „erovnuli saarqivo fon- disa da erovnuli arqivis Sesaxeb“ kanonis Tanaxmad, saarqivo fondze pasuxismgebeli kvlav mxolod ius- ticiis saministroa. sakuTari arqivis droebiT Senax- visTvis TviTmmarTvelobebi saqarTvelos erovnul arqivs 2010 wlidan momsaxurebis solidur safasurs uxdian. amasTan, xSiria TviTmmarTvelobis xelSi darCeniluflebamosilebaTa ganxorcielebaSi (keTilmowyoba, ad-gilobrivi gzebi) saxelmwifos Careva da „saxelmwifossaxeliT“ TviTmmarTvelobebis SezRuduli finansebisxarjze calkeuli programebis dafinanseba.delegirebuli uflebamosileba ukeTesi mdgomareoba arc delegirebul ufle-bamosilebaTa ganxorcielebis procesSia. problemasaq dargobrivi kanonmdeblobis (daaxloebiT 50-mdesakanonmdeblo aqti) dauxvewaoba warmoadgens. ro-gorc wesi, es kanonebi winaaRmdegobaSi modis organulikanonis debulebebTan. seriozuli winaaRmdegobebia,erTi mxriv, „aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis statu-sis Sesaxeb“ konstituciur kanons (TviTmmarTvelobisuflebamosilebaTa gamijvna aWaris avtonomiur respub-likaSi), „saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis _ Tbilisis Sesaxeb“kanonsa da, meore mxriv, saqarTvelos konstituciasada „adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb“ organulkanons Soris. maSin, roca centraluri xelisufleba, gansakuTrebiT,winasaarCevno periodSi, sul ufro da ufro aqtiuradereva TviTmmarTvelobaTa sakuTar uflebamosilebaSi(adgilobrivi gzebis dageba, fasadebis SeRebva, xidebis - 37 -
  • 38. aRdgena da sxv.), yoveldRiur praqtikaSi xSiria munici-palitetebis mier centraluri xelisuflebis ama Tu imuflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis precedenti. 2009 wlis martSi TviTmmarTvel erTeulebs „mieni-WaT“ droebiTi uflebamosileba, daafinanson central-uri xelisuflebis is uflebamosilebani, romlebic arganekuTvneba arc sakuTar da arc delegirebul ufle-bamosilebebs (aRniSnuli uflebamosilebis vada 2013wlamde gagrZelda). Sedegad, municipalitetebSi xde-ba sabiujeto saxsrebis aramiznobrivi xarjva. amasTan,aseTi xarjebis gaweva TiTqmis ucvlelad, erTdrouladda paralelurad xdeba TiTqmis yvela municipalitetSi(policiis ganyofilebebis, saqarTvelos parlamentSiarCeuli maJoritari deputatis biuroebis, jandacvis,zogadi ganaTlebis da a.S. xarjebis dafinanseba), racimaze metyvelebs, rom aRniSnuli aqtivobebi „zemodan“aris nakarnaxevi da sanqcirebuli. es xdeba maSin, roca adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebsdaufinansebeli rCebaT sakuTari eqskluziuri ufle-bamosilebebi. xarjebis udidesi nawili TviTmmarTvelo-bis aparatisa da sxva, erovnuli donis programebis xel-Semwyobi xarjebis dafinansebas xmardeba. amdenad, adgi-lobriv TviTmmarTvelobaTa mier realur ganviTarebazeorientirebuli programebis dafinanseba ar xorcield-eba. adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobaTa umetesobaSi mou-wesrigebelia infrastruqtura, mwiri Tanxebi ixarjebasazogadoebriv RonisZiebebze. mZime suraTia sazogadoebisTvis momsaxurebis gaw-evis sferoSic. momsaxurebis sferos komercializacia amSemTxvevaSi saukeTeso gamosavalia. Tumca, monopolistiprovaiderebis gaZliereba da kvalificiuri kadrebis de-nadoba, fasebis ganuxreli zrdis fonze, momsaxurebisdabali kulturis SenarCunebas uwyobs xels. aseT pirobebSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis fun- - 38 -
  • 39. qcia adgilobrivi mosaxleobis yoveldRiuri intere-sebis dacva unda iyos, magram amJamad es gadaulaxavamocanas warmoadgens. adgilobriv xelisuflebas kerZokompaniebze zemoqmedebis araviTari berketi ar gaaCnia.municipalitetebs momsaxurebaze (wyalmomarageba dakanalizacia,) tarifis kontrolis uflebac ki CamoerT-vaT.2.3.4. TviTmmarTvelobis ekonomikuri safuZvlebi vinaidan qveyanaSi ar aris Camoyalibebuli ekonomi-kis ganviTarebis mwyobri strategia, mizerulia rogorcTviTmmarTvelobaSi Cadebuli realuri investiciebi, iseTviTmmarTvelobaTa sakuTari Semosavlebi. SezRudu-li finansuri da administraciuli resursebis piro-bebSi TviTmmarTvelobebi survilis SemTxvevaSic ki vermoaxerxeben municipalitetebis ekonomikuri politikisformirebaze realuri gavlenis moxdenas. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis Semosavlebiszrda saqarTveloSi bolos gatarebuli administraci-ul-teritoriuli reformis umTavres mizans warmoad-genda. reformis avtorebi Tanaxmani iyvnen, Seemcire-binaT adgilobrivi demokratiisa da mosaxleobasTansiaxlovis xarisxi, Tu gamsxvilebuli TviTmmarTvelo-bebi miaRwevdnen realur finansur mdgradobas da Se-Zlebdnen efeqturi sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gaw-evas. qveda donis, „susti“ municipalitetebis gauqmebisa daTviTmmarTvelobaTa yofil raionul doneze atanis Sem-deg naTeli gaxda, rom centri ukve axal, gamsxvilebulTviTmmarTvelobaTa uflebamosilebisa da resursebisSemcirebasac iwyebs. - 39 -
  • 40. cxrili 1. adgilobrivi biujetebis sakuTari sagadasaxado Semosavlebis wili mTlian Sida produqtTan da konsolidirebul biujetTan mimarTebaSi (%) konsolidirebul mSp-Tan wlebi biujetTan mimarTebaSi (%) mimarTebaSi (%) 2003 12,0 30,0 2004 6,1 23,3 2005 5,9 20,1 2006 4,9 14,7 2007 5,1 14,1 2008 2,5 6,0 2009 2,3 6,3 2010 0,8 2,3 mTliani Sida produqtisa da, gansakuTrebiT, saxelm-wifo biujetis zrdis miuxedavad (aRniSnul wlebSi sax-elmwifo biujeti 11-jer da metad gaizarda), mcirdebaadgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sakuTari sagadasaxdoSemosavlebi absolutur maCvenebelSic: 2004 wels _ 596,9mln lari, xolo 2010 wels _ 155,3 mln lari. amasTan, sakuTari sagadasaxado Semosavlebis 66,7%xuT TviTmmarTvel qalaqze modis da es maCvenebeli zr-dis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba. Semosulobebs Soris umTavresia Semosavlebi (1,412mln. lari _ 2010 w.), sadac ikveTeba sagadasaxado da sxvaSemosavlebis wilis Semcirebis uaryofiTi tendencia(24,7% _ 2009 wels, 23,4% _ 2010 wels). TviTmmarTvelo-bebis SemosulobebSi umTavres punqts (88,5%) centridanmiRebuli Tanxebi Seadgens. - 40 -
  • 41. adgilobrivi biujetebi centris dotaciebze xde-ba damokidebuli. am mxriv saqarTvelo seriozuladCamorCeba rogorc evropul demokratiebSi, ise kavkasiisqveynebSi arsebul maCveneblebs.Semosulobebi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis finansuri da-moukideblobis sailustraciod gamodgeba reformam-deli da reformisSemdgomi situaciebis urTierTSedar-eba. 2002-2003 wlebSi TviTmmarTvelobebi mTlianad annawilobriv iRebdnen 12 saxis adgilobriv da ziar ga-dasaxads. 2004-2005 wlebSi, gadasaxadebis saxeebis Sem-cirebisa da ziari gadasaxadebis gauqmebis Semdeg, maT4 saxis gadasaxadi darCaT; mogvianebiT, darCenili ga-dasaxadebidan yvelaze mniSvnelovani _ saSemosavlo damogebis gadasaxadebi _ centrSi `wavida~. adgilebze, faq-tobrivad, mxolod qonebis gadasaxadi darCa. arasaku-Tari Semosavlis (miznobrivi da specialuri transfere-bi da sxva moziduli saxsrebi) miReba da misi odenobaki mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli centraluri xelisu-flebis politikur gadawyvetilebebze. amasTan, zogjer centraluri xelisufleba TviTm-marTvelobis xarjze gaumarTlebel SeRavaTebs awesebs.adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis gansakuTrebiTmZime iyo qonebis gadasaxadze didi SeRavaTebis daweseba,Tumca, sawyis etapze am politikas mZime Sedegi ar mohyo-lia, vinaidan adgilobrivi biujetebi, ZiriTadad, ziarigadasaxadebis (mogebis, saSemosavlo) xarjze ivseboda.mas mere, rac es gadasaxadebic centralurma xelisu-flebam `waiRo~, adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs Semo-savlis ZiriTad wyarod qonebis Semcirebuli gadasaxa-diRa darCaT, rac adgilobrivi biujetebis saSemosavlonawilis mxolod 9%-s Seadgens; amasTan, misi udidesi - 41 -
  • 42. wili Tbilisze modis. rac Seexeba adgilobriv mosakreblebs, maTi rolimunicipalitetTa umetesobisTvis nulovania (magaliTad,mosakrebeli saTamaSo biznesidan). kidev erTi problema, rac adgilobrivi biujetebisSemosavlebis simwires ganapirobebs, aris maT teritori-aze arsebuli msxvili (komerciuli Tu saxelmwifo) obi-eqtebis ukontrolo funqcionireba. maTi nawili (porte-bi, rkinigzis kvanZebi da sxv.) araTu ar ixdian adgilo-briv biujetSi qonebis gadasaxads, aramed adgilobrivxelisufalT TavianTi funqcionirebis Sesaxeb araviTarinformacias ar awvdian.gaTanabreba aRniSnuli politikis Sedegad municipalitetebimetwilad centris transferebze arian damokidebul-ni, rac zogierTi municipalitetis Semosavlis udidesnawils _ 2/3-ze mets Seadgens. es, Tavis mxriv, zrdiscentris mxridan maTze zemoqmedebis berketebs. centridan miRebuli Tanxis lomis wili (77,8%) sax-elmwifo transferebia. garkveulwilad, dadebiT gare-moebad unda Sefasdes transferebis moculobis zrda(2010 wels 222,6 mln lariT _ 26%-iT meti 2009 welTanSedarebiT). 2009 wels grantebis 59%-s Seadgenda specialuri,32%-s _ gaTanabrebiTi, 7%-s _ sxva araklasificirebuli,xolo 2%-s _ miznobrivi granti. 2010 wels es maCveneble-bi, Sesabamisad, 41, 48, 10 da 1%-iT ganisazRvra. gaTana-brebiTi grantis wilis zrda da specialuri da mizno-brivi transferebis wilis Semcireba misasalmebelia da,Tu am movlenam tendenciis saxe miiRo, igi dadebiTadSeiZleba aisaxos TviTmmarTvelobaTa biujetebze. gaTanabrebiTi grantis (2010 wlamde ewodeboda `ga-moTanabrebiTi transferi~) sisustes warmoadgens Sez- - 42 -
  • 43. Ruduli sakanonmdeblo reglamentacia im dros, rocafinansTa saministros, faqtobrivad, SeuzRudavi ufle-bamosileba gaaCnia. adgilobrivi biujetebis Semosulo-bebi mTlianad finansTa saministros nebazea damokide-buli (SemosulobaTa ZiriTadi parametrebis gansazRvra,Semosavlebis yovelkvartaluri gegmebis SemuSaveba, ad-gilobrivi gadasaxadebis administrireba, sxvadasxva xar-jebis subsidireba). Sedegad, maRalia TviTmmarTveloba-Ta biujetebSi SesworebaTa Setanis sixSire: wlis ganma-vlobaSi biujetebSi cvlilebebi 8-10-jer xorcieldebada xSirad biujeti sabiujeto wlis ganmavlobaSi orma-gdeba. yovelive es centralur xelisuflebas saSuale-bas aZlevs, survilis SemTxvevaSi, SeuzRudavad CaeriosTviTmmarTvelobaTa saqmianobaSi.gadasaxdelebi adgilobrivi biujetebis xarjviTi politikisTvisdamaxasiaTebelia centraluri xelisuflebis mxridan amprocesSi CarTulobis da politizacis maRali xarisxi(gansakuTrebiT, saarCevno periodebSi). uflebamosilebaTa sruli (rogorc formaluri, isearaformaluri) gamijvnis ararsebobis pirobebSi adgil-obrivi biujetebi aramiznobrivad ixarjeba. garda amisa,prioritetebis dagegmvisas, rogorc wesi, adgilobriviinteresebis gaTvaliswineba ar xdeba. es SesaZlebelia anZlieri lobistis (rogorc wesi, gavleniani maJoritar-is), an centraluri xelisuflebis mxridan koniunqtu-ruli (rogorc wesi, populisturi) midgomebis pirobebSi(magaliTad, konfliqturi regionebis momijnave terito-riaze pompezuri mSeneblobebis Catareba da a.S.). samwuxarod, es ar aris adgilobrivi biujetebisaramiznobrivi xarjvis erTaderTi SemTxveva _ mniS-vnelovani saxsrebia gamoyofili TviTmmarTvelobis ara-sakuTari uflebamosilebis (policiis ganyofilebebis, - 43 -
  • 44. zogadi ganaTlebis, jandacvis xarjebi da a.S.) dasafi-nanseblad. is faqti, rom dafinanseba yvelgan erTdrou-lad da msgavsi saqmianobebisTvis xorcieldeba, aCenseWvs, rom davaleba centraluri xelisuflebisgan modisda srulebiTac ar warmoadgens adgilobriv iniciativas.jamSi, yovelwliurad adgilobrivi biujetebis daaxloe-biT 10% aramiznobriv xarjebs Seadgens. TviTmmarTvelobis biujetebis gadasaxdelebisyvelaze didi nawili (55-60%) administraciis Senaxvasada saerTo erovnul uflebamosilebaTa ganxorcielebisdasafinanseblad ixarjeba. marTalia, reformis Sede-gad ganxorcielda adgilobrivi struqturebis optimi-zacia, magram amJamad Semcirebuli struqturebi admin-istrirebisTvis ramdenjerme ufro met Tanxas xarjaven(magaliTisTvis, mxolod 2008 wels daaxloebiT 175 mlnlari), vidre reformamdeli yvela donis adgilobrivistruqtura jamSi xarjavda erTad aRebul administraci-ul da programul nawilebze. saxelmwifo da adgilobriv uflebamosilebaTa dabiujetebis aseTi aRreva zrdis administrirebis xarjebsda saSualebas aZlevs centrs, akontrolos ara martoTavisi, aramed TviTmmarTvelobaTa resursebic. sailustraciod gamodgeba municipalitetebis ar-amiznobrivi xarjebisa da `soflis daxmarebis pro-gramis~ urTierTSedareba. rogorc aRiniSna, centris`TxovniT~ municipalitetebi saxelmwifo institutebissaqmianobas yovelwliurad 100-150 mln. lariT afinan-seben. amave dros, xdeba TviTmmarTvelobisTvis `warT-meuli~ resursebis (gaweuli xarjebis) nawilobriv `ukandabrunebac~ (magaliTad, `soflis daxmarebis~ saxelm-wifo programa: 2008 wels _ 19 mln, 2009 wels _ 21 mln,xolo 2010 wels _ 40 mln lariT ganisazRvra), oRond essaxelmwifos `saCuqars~ warmoadgens da ara TviTmmarT-velobaTa mier sakuTar teritoriebze ganxorcielebul - 44 -
  • 45. aqtivobebs. kidev erTi problema qveynis masStabiT xarjebisaraTanabari gadanawilebaa. Tbiliss, romelsac, sxvamunicipalitetebTan SedarebiT, erT sul mosaxlezeyvelaze maRali sabiujeto Semosavlebi gaaCnia, met-naklebad yvelaze kargad aqvs mowesrigebuli infra-struqtura da saxelmwifo biujetis umetesi nawilicdedaqalaqSi ixarjeba. dedaqalaqis biujeti daaxloebiT2-jer aRemateba qveynis yvela sxva danarCeni TviTmmarT-velobebis biujetebis jams (avtonomiuri respublikebisgamoklebiT). regionebSi xorcieldeba centraluri biujetidan dasaerTaSoriso organizaciebis grantebidan da kredite-bidan dafinansebuli mniSvnelovani infrastruqturu-li proeqtebi, romlebic xSirad, subsidiarobis prin-cipis Tanaxmad, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis ufle-bamosilebas warmoadgens. adgilobrivi specifikis gauT-valiswinebloba da TviTmmarTvelobebisgan damoukide-blad Catarebuli saqmianoba xSirad araefeqturi daZviradRirebulia. amasTan, Sesrulebuli samuSaos aras-wori menejmenti (magaliTad, axladdagebuli asfaltisamoTxra wylis sistemis reabilitaciis mizniT da a.S.)badebs Tanxebis, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi _ aramiznobrivi,xolo uares SemTxvevaSi _ ukanono xarjvis eWvs.2.3.5. qoneba saqarTveloSi jer kidev ar aris dasrulebuli ad-gilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebisTvis qonebis gadacemis2005 wels dawyebuli procesi. adgilobrivi TviTmmarT-velobebis ekonomikuri mdgradobis Camoyalibebas xelsuSlis qonebis gadacemis procesis gaWianureba, qonebisgankargvasTan dakavSirebiT realuri damoukideblobisararseboba da adgilobrivi finansebis ganawilebis - 45 -
  • 46. sakiTxebSi centraluri xelisuflebis Carevis maRalixarisxi. rogorc wesi, Seferxebis mizezad saxeldeboda sain-formacio bazebis ararseboba da arasrulyofileba, pro-cesis susti menejmenti. amasTan, am procesis SeCerebisrealuri mizezi iyo centralur doneze Zalauflebisada resursebis koncentraciis survili. 2007 wlis gan-mavlobaSi ganxorcielebulma sakanonmdeblo cvlile-bebma aCvena, rom zemoaRniSnuli mizezis garda, arsebobspolitikuri gadawyvetileba, Sekvecos TviTmmarTvelo-baTa ufleba qonebis gasxvisebasTan dakavSirebiT da esprocesi centraluri xelisuflebis kontrols dauqvem-debaros. saxelmwifo TandaTan amcirebs mis sakuTrebaSi ar-sebuli qonebis im kategoriebis nusxas, romelic TviT-mmarTvelobebs unda gadaeces: saZovrebi, adgilobrivimniSvnelobis wylis resursebi da a.S. sakmaod mZime suraTia adgilobrivi qonebis gankargv-asTan dakavSirebiT _ municipalitetebs Tavisi Sexed-ulebisamebr sakuTari qonebis mxolod sargeblobaSigacema SeuZliaT; rac Seexeba gankargvas, 2007 wlidanes ufleba centraluri xelisuflebis, kerZod, prezi-dentis prerogativas warmoadgens (pirdapiri miyidvisformiT gasxvisebis eqskluziuri ufleba). aRniSnulimovlena winaaRmdegobaSi modis saqarTvelos konstitu-ciasTan, organul kanonTan, `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTv-elobis Sesaxeb~ evropul qartiasTan da, zogadad, sa-kuTrebis uflebis fundamentur principebTanac. seriozul problemas qmnis qonebis aRricxvis sakiTx-ic. xSirad ar aris dadgenili realuri sabalanso Rireb-uleba da aseT informacias arc ekonomikisa da mdgradiganviTarebis saministro flobs. yovelive zemoTqmuli gviCvenebs, Tu ra mdgomareo-baa sajaro qonebis gadanawilebis sferoSi. amis dasturia - 46 -
  • 47. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis arafinansuri aqtivebis klebi-dan (privatizaciidan) miRebuli Semosulobebis maCveneb-lis Sedareba saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebisrealizaciidan miRebul SemosavlebTan: 2009-2010 wlebSiarafinansuri aqtivebis klebiT mobilizebulma Tanxamyvela TviTmmarTvelobis biujetSi 100 mln lari Sead-gina, maSin, roca amave periodSi, am saxiT, saxelmwifobiujetma 307,1 mln lari miiRo.2.3.6. saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba 2007 wels miRebulma kanonma `adgilobrivi TviT-mmarTvelobis organoebis saqmianobis saxelmwifozedamxedvelobis Sesaxeb~ gansazRvra centralur xe-lisuflebasa da adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs SorisurTierTobis formebi da zedamxedvelobis organoebi. kanoniT, arsebobs zedamxedvelobis ori forma:samarTlebrivi zedamxedveloba (rogorc eqskluziuri,ise delegirebuli uflebamosilebis Sesrulebisas) dazedamxedveloba mizanSewonilobis motiviT (delegire-buli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas). dakanonda adre mxolod de facto arsebuli „guberna-toris“ Tanamdeboba. miuxedavad amisa, dRemde ar arismkafiod gansazRvruli, sad gadis, erTi mxriv, guber-natorisa (regionuli done) da, meore mxriv, adgilo-brivi TviTmmarTvelobebis uflebamosilebaTa sazRvari.dReisaTvis, gubernatori, faqtobrivad, ara mxolodzedamxedvelobis funqcias axorcielebs, aramed de factomarTavs TviTmmarTvelobaTa yoveldRiur saqmianobasda formalurad Tu araformalurad ereva adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis mier gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis pro-cesSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom centralizaciisa da gadaWarbe-buli kontrolis zrdis tendencia, romelmac refor- - 47 -
  • 48. mis dasawyisSive iCina Tavi, Semdgom wlebSic grZeldeba.Zlierdeba municipalitetebze kontrolis meqanizmebi,rac, sakmaod xSirad, politikuri mizniT gamoiyeneba da,amasTan, sruli araTanamimdevrobiT gamoirCeva. `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ organulikanonis Sesworebebi zrdis makontrolebeli organoe-bis ricxvs; amasTan, am ukanasknelT evalebaT, Semowmebiskoordinacia moaxdinon regionSi saxelmwifos rwmuneb-ulTan/gubernatorTan. ar konkretdeba, Tu ra igulisx-meba zogadi terminis _ `koordinaciis~ qveS (es aris kon-sultacia, nebarTvis gacema Tu fors-maJorul situa-ciebSi sagangebo Carevis uflebamosileba). imave kanonSi SesworebebiT gafarTovda safinansoSemowmebis ganmaxorcielebeli saxelmwifo institutebisricxvi, Tumca, kanoni arc am organizaciebis CamonaT-vals iZleva da arc Sesabamisi procedurebis aRweras.aseve, araa miTiTebuli is normatiuli aqtebi, romleb-mac unda gansazRvros aRniSnuli uflebebi da maTi ganx-orcielebis procedurebi. marTalia, TviTmmarTvelo-bis organosTvis aramarTlzomieri kontrolis ganxor-cielebisas miyenebuli zaralis SemTxvevaSi aRniSnuliazaralis anazRaurebis aucilebloba, magram kanoni ariZleva procedurebis zust ganmartebebs. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT arsebul praqtikas, savarau-doa, rom 2010 wels ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebiT gu-bernatoric da sxva saxelmwifo institutebic iRebenmunicipalitetebze politikuri Tu sxva saxis zemoq-medebis damatebiT meqanizmebs rogorc iuridiuli, isearapirdapiri zemoqmedebis gansaxorcieleblad. rogorcwesi, aseTi qmedeba municipalitetTa mxridan loialobisSenarCunebisTvis gamoiyeneba da prevenciis saSualebaswarmoadgens. amasTan, igi araa yovlismomcveli _ `san-do~ TviTmmarTvelobebis mimarT araTu zemoqmedebismeqanizmebi ar gamoiyeneba, aramed maT zedmeti privil- - 48 -
  • 49. egiebic eniWebaT. dReisaTvis gvaqvs rigi negatiuri Sedegebisa: kanonebis elementaruli normebis darRveva central- uri xelisuflebis moxeleTa mxridan, roca moxele, Tavisi Sexedulebidan gamomdinare, upiratesobas an- iWebs im sakanonmdeblo aqts, romelic xels aZlevs mas da ara im aqts, romelic ierarqiulad ufro maR- la dgas; qveyanaSi masobrivi korufciis mkveTrad Semcirebis fonze, sakmaod Zlierdeba klanizmi sajaro samsax- urSi, korufciisTvis gamoiyeneba ufro faruli formebi (araformaluri zemoqmedeba tenderis Sede- gebze da sxva); tradiciulad, kvlav SenarCunebulia centraluri xe- lisuflebis zedmetad maRali gavlena adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis aRmasrulebel Stoze. gamgeo- bebi/meriebi centraluri xelisuflebis bevri in- stitutisa da xSirad TviT gamgeobebisa da meriebis mxridan moiazreba, rogorc adgilze centraluri xe- lisuflebis interesebis gamtarebeli struqtura; calkeul pirTa pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxis dayene- ba, romelsac xSirad kampaniuri xasiaTi aqvs, Zalze xSirad sazogadoebis mier aRiqmeba, rogorc politi- kuri an pirovnuli xasiaTis angariSsworeba; damoukidebeli sasamarTlos ararsebobis fonze, sax- elmwifo zedamxedvelobis organoTa gadawyvetile- bebi miukerZoebeli instituciis mxridan ar kontr- oldeba. amasTan, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi, rogorc wesi, sasamarTlos sakuTari uflebebis dasacavad iSviaTad mimarTaven, rac, dRe- vandeli erTpartiuli politikuri koniunqturis pi- robebSi, bunebriv movlenad unda CaiTvalos. - 49 -
  • 50. 3. mmarTvelobis sistemis reformis koncefcia3.1. zogadi nawili3.1.1. SemoTavazebuli modelis arsi saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebis normaluri, stabi-luri ganviTarebisTvis aucilebelia, Seiqmnas qveynismarTvis iseTi modeli, romelic, wina wlebis gamocdile-bidan gamomdinare, minimumamde daiyvans im problemebs,romlebic saqarTveloSi damoukideblobis miRwevis Sem-deg warmoiSva. amasTan, axalma mmarTvelobiTma sistemamunda uzrunvelyos: moqalaqis Tavisufleba; moqalaqis saqmeebSi saxelmwifo institutebis Carevis SesaZlebloba mxolod aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi; saxelmwifos mxridan mosaxleobisTvis momsaxurebis gawevis maqsimalurad maRali xarisxi; mmarTvelobis sistemis yvela donis gamarTuli da efeqtiani saqmianoba. zemoTqmulidan da am dokumentis I nawilSi (`xelisu-flebis decentralizaciisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarT-velobis arsi~) Camoyalibebuli ZiriTadi principebidangamomdinare, gTavazobT ordoniani TviTmmarTvelobismodels:TviTmmarTvelobis pirveli done _ qalaqi, sofeli/Temi, romlis funqciacaa, uzrunvelyos mosaxleobis maqsi- maluri CarTuloba Tavisi uSualo sacxovrebeli garemos marTvisa da formirebis procesSi, uSualod Tavis dasaxlebul punqtSi miawodos moqalaqes mom- saxurebis (servisebis) maqsimaluri raodenoba. - 50 -
  • 51. TviTmmarTvelobis meore done _ regioni (olqi, mxare) ad- ministraciul-geografiuli da erTiani istoriul- eTnografiuli erTeuli, romelic ganaxorcilebs im uflebamosilebebs, kulturul da socialur-eko- nomikur funqciebs, risi resursebic ar gaaCnia TviT- mmarTvelobis pirvel dones. SemoTavazebuli modelis sqema (saqarTvelos im teri- toriisTvis, romelzec 2012 wlis 1 ianvrisaTvis vr- celdeba saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia): saqarTvelo 11 mxare (regioni) Tbilisi aWara kaxeTi samegrelo guria mTianeTi svaneTi imereTi samcxe-javaxeTi qv.qarTli Tbilisis ubnebi raWa-leCxumi da qv.svaneTi Sida qarTli (daaxloebiT 25) qalaqi; Temi dasaxlebebi: qalaqi (54), daba (43), sofeli (3 523)3.1.2. uflebamosileba da misi ganxorcilebis ZiriTadi principebiuflebamosilebaTa saxeebi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisufle­bis organoebs miniWebuli aqvT eqskluziuri da dele-girebuli uflebamosilebebi. - 51 -
  • 52.  eqskluziuri uflebamosileba _ adgilobrivi TviTm- marTveli erTeulis an mxaris xelisuflebis organ- oTa uflebamosileba, romelsac igi damoukideblad da sakuTari pasuxismgeblobiT axorcielebs kanon- mdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT. adgilobrivi TviTm- marTveli erTeulis an mxaris xelisuflebis organ- oTa saqmianoba eqskluziur uflebamosilebaTa ganx- orcielebisas regulirdeba sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT, romlebiTac ganisazRvreba saerTo-saxelmwifoebrivi standartebi da wesebi. eqskluziur uflebamosile- basTan dakavSirebuli dava wydeba mxolod sasamarT- lo wesiT, amasTan, mtkicebis tvirTi ekisreba mo- sarCele mxares. delegirebuli uflebamosileba _ adgilobrivi TviT­ mmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris xelisuflebis organo­ ebisTvis xelisuflebis sxva organoTa uflebamo­ silebis gadacema kanoniT dadgenili wesiT. ufle- bamosilebis gadacema xorcieldeba an kanoniT an xelisuflebis organoTa Soris dadebuli xelSek- rulebis safuZvelze. dauSvebelia uflebamosilebis gadacema Sesabamisi finansuri uzrunvelyofis gar- eSe.uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis ZiriTadi principebi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisuflebis organoebiekonomikuri saqmianobis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSire-bul uflebamosilebas axorcieleben sazogadoebrivimomsaxurebis gawevis mizniT mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuanalogiur sferoSi saqmianobas ar axorcieleben same-warmeo subieqtebi. samewarmeo subieqtis mier aseTi saxis momsaxurebisgawevis SemTxvevaSi, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeu-lis xelisuflebis organoebi movaleni arian, Sewyviton - 52 -
  • 53. aRniSnul sferoSi saqmianoba am saqmianobasTan dakav-Sirebuli qonebis likvidaciis, gayidvis an transforma-ciis gziT.zogadi uflebamosileba, romliTac xorcieldebaadgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis eqskluziuri dadelegirebuli uflebamosilebebi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis/mxaree-bis organoebs eskluziuri da delegirebuli ufle-bamosilebis gansaxorcieleblad gaaCniaT:a) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT da vadebSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mx- aris biujetis proeqtis Sedgenis, ganxilvis, damt- kicebis, masSi cvlilebebisa da damatebebis Setanis, aRsrulebis, kontrolis, angariSgebisa da Sefasebis uflebamosileba;b) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT adgi- lobrivi da ziari gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis SemoRebisa da maTze SeRavaTebis dawesebis ufle- bamosileba;g) kanoniT dadgenili wesiT sxva biujetebisgan, fizi- kuri da iuridiuli pirebisgan sesxis aRebis, adgi- lobrivi fasiani qaRaldebis, latariebis gamoSvebis uflebamosileba;d) adgilobrivi TviTmarTveli erTeulis socialur- ekonomikuri programebis Sedgenis da ganxorcielebis uflebamosileba;e) TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris uflebamosilebis farglebSi gasawevi momsaxureobisTvis tarifebis dadgenis uflebamosileba;v) TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaSi arse- buli qonebis saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadge- - 53 -
  • 54. nili wesiT flobis, gankargvisa da gasxvisebis ufle- bamosileba;z) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT sawar- moebis, dawesebulebebis, organizaciebis Seqmnis, re- organizaciisa da likvidaciis uflebamosileba;T) saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturu- li proeqtebis ganxorcielebisa da maTSi monawile- obis uflebamosileba;i) sxva TviTmmarTvel erTeulebTan/mxareebTan saku­ Tari uflebamosilebis farglebSi erToblivad gansa­ xorcielebel saqmianobaze xelSekrulebis dadebis uflebamosileba;k) adgilobriv, erovnul, regionul da saerTaSoriso asociaciebSi monawileobis uflebamosileba;l) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT sax- elmwifo Sesyidvebis ganxorcielebis uflebamosile- ba.3.1.3. TviTmmarTvelobis/mxaris qoneba fiskaluri decentralizaciis umTavresi daniSnule-baa TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa uzrunvelyofa Tavian-Ti uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelifinansuri resursebiT. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobamaSinaa efeqturi, roca igi, uflebebsa da pasuxismge-blobasTan erTad, sakmaris resursebsac flobs. yvela TviTmmarTvel erTeuls/mxares gaaCnia saku-Tari qoneba da damoukidebeli biujeti. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTreba da misi Seqmnis safuZvlebi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris qonebis saxeebia: - 54 -
  • 55. 1. uZravi qoneba;2. moZravi qoneba;3. aramaterialuri aqtivebi. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaa is qone-ba, romelic saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgeniliwesiT Sedis TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris mflob-elobis, sargeblobisa da gankargvis sferoSi. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaSi Sema-vali obieqtebis kategoriaTa nusxa ganisazRvreba saqa-rTvelos kanonmdeblobiT. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTreba iqmneba:a) saqarTvelos prezidentis mier dadgenili wesiT TviT- mmarTveli erTeulisTvis/mxarisTvis saxelmwifo sa- kuTrebaSi myofi obieqtebis gadacemiT;b) TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris mier Tavisi ufleba­ mosilebis farglebSi, kanonmdeblobiT gaTvalis­ i­ w nebuli wesiT, axali obieqtebis SeZeniT an SeqmniT;g) im xdomilebaTa Sedegad, romelTac saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba ukavSirebs samoqalaqo-samarTlebri- vi Sedegebis warmoSobas;d) kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva safuZvlebiT. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris sakuTrebaSi Sema-vali qoneba iyofa ZiriTad (ganusxvisebel) da damatebiTqonebad. ZiriTadi (ganusxvisebeli) qoneba warmoadgens TviTm-marTveli erTeulis/mxaris saqmianobis ganxorcielebissafuZvels da igi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis or-ganos mier SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes mxolod misisajaro funqciebisa da uflebamosilebis ganxorcie­lebis mizniT. ZiriTadi (gausxvisebeli)qonebis nusx-as ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros - 55 -
  • 56. wardginebiT amtkicebs saqarTvelos mTavroba. ZiriTad (ganusxvisebel) adgilobriv qonebas uSualodfloben da am qonebiT sargebloben TviTmmarTveli er-Teulis/mxaris xelisuflebis organoebi. am qonebis gasx-viseba daiSveba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu axali qonebisSeqmnis an SeZenis gamo arsebulma qonebam dakarga Tavisifunqciuri daniSnuleba da TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mx-aris warmomadgenlobiTma organom miiRo Sesabamisi gad-wyvetileba.3.1.4. xelisuflebis sxvadasxva donis saqmianobis finansuri safuZvlebi fiskaluri Semosavlebis gamijvna xelisuflebis do-neTa Soris SesabamisobaSi unda iyos maT Soris ufle-bamosilebis gamijvnasTan. municipalitetebs Soris maqsimalurad unda iqnesdaZleuli fiskalur SesaZleblobaTa uTanasworoba, racunda ganxorcieldes TviTmmarTvelobis doneTa SorisSemosavlebis ganawilebisa da gamoTanabrebiTi politi-kis saSualebiT. sxvadasxva donis biujetebisTvis unda arsebobdesbiujetis SemosavliT da xarjviT nawilebs Soris urT-ierTkavSiri. fiskaluri decentralizaciis prioritet-ulobis gaTvaliswinebiT, es principi dafuZnebulia:a) xelisuflebis Sesabamisi donis uflebamosilebasa da am uflebamosilebis zegavlenaze instituciur da fizikur infrastruqturaze, socialur-ekonomikur garemoze, gadasaxadis gadamxdelze;b) konkretuli gadasaxadis fiskalur-ekonomikur Tavise- burebebsa da mis maregulirebel funqciaze; amasTan, rogorc qonebaze, aseve Semosavlebze dawesebul ga- nakveTTan dakavSirebiT, municipalitetsa da mxares unda hqondeT maTi regulirebis uflebamosileba - 56 -
  • 57. erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil CarCoSi, raTa TviTmmarTvelobis erTeulebs gaaCndeT SesaZle- bloba, kanoniT dadgenil farglebSi areguliron maT uflebamosilebaSi arsebuli gadasaxadis ganakveTebi.qonebis gadasaxadi municipaluri donis xelisuflebis umTavresi ufle-bamosileba adgilobriv infrastruqturas ukavSirdeba.am uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis xarisxi uSualogavlenas axdens aqtivebis infrastruqturul uzrunve-lyofasa da mis Rirebulebaze. aqedan gamomdinare, aq-tivebze dawesebuli gadasaxadebi (magaliTad, qonebis damiwis gadasaxadebi) srulad miekuTvneba municipaluridonis biujets. municipalitetis teritoriaze arsebulinebismieri qoneba (maT Soris, saxelmwifo qoneba) kanoniTdadgenil farglebSi ibegreba qonebis gadasaxadiT.saSemosavlo da mogebis gadasaxadebi samxareo xelisuflebas mniSvnelovani funqciebigaaCnia mxaris ekonomikuri garemos formirebaSi, maT So-ris, agraruli seqtoris, mcire da saSualo biznesis daSesabamisi infrastruqturis ganviTarebaSi. TviTmmarTvelobisa da mxaris uflebamosilebebigavlenas axdens piradi da korporatiuli Semosavlebiszrdaze; amasTan, saxelmwifo mniSvnelovanwilad uzrun-velyofs fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis saqmianobisT-vis Sesabamis samarTlebriv da infrastruturul bazas.Sesabamisad, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi unda ganawildesmxaresa da TviTmmarTvelobis doneebs Soris, xolo mo-gebis gadasaxadebidan Semosuli Semosavlebi unda gadan-awildes centrsa da mxares Soris. saSemosavlo gadasaxadi: municipalur da regionuldoneTa Soris uflebamosilebis gamijvnidan gamomdin-are, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi regionsa da municipalitets - 57 -
  • 58. Soris ziari tipis gadasaxadia. Sesabamisad, Cven mierSemoTavazebuli modeliT, saSemosavlo gadasaxadis saga-dasaxado ganakveTis 2/3 unda miimarTos municipalurbiujetSi, 1/3 ki _ samxareo biujetSi (20%-iani ganakve-Tis SemTxvevaSi, 15-5%). amasTan, municipalitetebsa damxareebs unda hqondeT sagadasaxado ganakveTebis regu-lirebis SesaZlebloba, romlis diapazoni unda ganisaz-Rvros Semdegnairad: municipalitetisTvis mikuTvnebuliganakveTis maqsimumi (15%), rogorc gadasaxadis zeda zR-vari da ganakveTis naxevari (7,5 %), rogorc gadasaxadisqveda zRvari; mxarisTvis, Sesabamisad, 5% da 2,5%. saSemosavlo gadasaxadis mTliani ganakveTis Semci-rebis SemTxvevaSi, municipalitetsa da mxares Soris ga-nakveTebis ziarad ganawilebis principi da misi reguli-rebis diapazonebi analogiuri proporciiT Seicvleba anganicdis garkveul koreqtirebas im droisTvis arsebulimdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT. saSemosavlo gadasaxadismiznebisTvis gadasaxadis gadamxdeli piris registraciaxdeba Sesabamis municipalitetSi, misi sacxovrebeli reg-istraciis adgilis mixedviT. saSemosavlo gadasaxadebisgamijvna ki xdeba am municipalitetsa da im mxaris samx-areo biujets Soris, romlis SemadgenlobaSic SedisaRniSnuli municipaliteti. mogebis gadasaxadi: mogebis gadasaxadis sagadasaxa-do baza formirdeba sawarmoTa ekonomikuri saqmiano-bis Sedegad. amasTan, sawarmos materialuri aqtivebiSesaZlebelia fragmentirebuli iyos sxvadasxva mxareSi.Sesabamisad, aucilebelia principi, romliTac moxdebakonkretuli mxarisTvis mogebis gadasaxadis gadamxdelismikuTvneba. am TvalsazrisiT, SesaZlebelia gamoviyenoTprincipi, rom, Tu sawarmos materialuri aqtivebis 50%-ze meti faqtobrivad ganlagebulia mocemuli mxaristeritoriaze, an mniSvnelovani fragmentaciis SemTxveva-Si, am aqtivebis udidesi wili ganlagebulia am mxaris - 58 -
  • 59. teritriaze, maSin es sawarmo mogebis gadasaxadis gadamx-delad registrirebulia am mxareSi. mis mier gadaxdilimogebis gadasaxadis 50% miemarTeba Sesabamis samxareobiujetSi. es xels Seuwyobs, rom mxareebma izrunon maTteritoriaze xelsayreli biznes-garemos SeqmnisaTvis daufro meti mwarmoebluri aqtivebis mosazidad.arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi centraluri xelisuflebis funqciidan gamomdinare,mizanSewonilia, rom mas, ZiriTadad, mivakuTvnoT ara-pirdapiri gadasaxadebi, importis gadasaxadi, damatebi-Ti Rirebulebis gadasaxadi (dRg) da aqcizi.mosakreblebi, jarimebi da sxva Semosavlebi xelisuflebis doneTa Soris calkeuli mosakreblebilogikur safuZvelze unda gaimijnos. bunebrivi resursebis mosakrebeli _ imisda mixedviT unda iyos diferencirebuli, Tu rogor aris xelisu- flebis doneTa Soris gamijnuli bunebrivi resurse- biT operirebis funqciebi. sanebarTvo tipis mosakreblebi _ xelisuflebis sx- vadasxva doneTa Soris unda gaimijnos sanebarTvo uflebebis gamijvnis Sesabamisad. sajaro sakuTrebaSi arsebuli sawarmoebidan miRebuli Semosavlebi da dividendebi _ im xelisuflebis dones miekuTvneba, vinc am sawarmoSi flobs Sesabamis wils. jarimebidan, sauravebidan da momsaxurebis mosakre- blebidan miRebuli Semosavlebi _ Tu municipaluri an samxareo done axorcielebs delegirebul ufle- bamosilebas, romelic iTvaliswinebs Sesabamisi mo- sakreblebis miRebas, aRniSnuli mosakrebeli (ja- rima, sauravi, safasuri) miemarTeba Sesabamisi mu- - 59 -
  • 60. nicipalitetis an mxaris biujetSi. SemdgomSi es Semosavlebi gaiTvaliswineba aRniSnuli delegire- buli uflebamosilebisTvis gankuTvnili miznobrivi transferis daangariSebisas.Semosulobebi privatizaciidan saxelmwifo, samxareo an municipalur sakuTrebaSi ar-sebuli qonebis realizaciidan Semosuli Tanxebi sruladCairicxeba biujetSi imis Sesabamisad, Tu vis sakuTrebaswarmoadgens aRniSnuli qoneba. amasTan, Tu delegirebu-li uflebamosilebis farglebSi municipalitetma/mxaremqoneba Seqmna saxelmwifo transferis gamoyenebiT, misimesakuTre xdeba Sesabamisi municipaliteti/mxare.saxelisuflebaTaSoriso grantebi saxelisuflebaTaSoriso transferebi moicavs 4 sax-eobas: gaTanabrebiTi grantebi; miznobrivi transferi delegirebuli uflebamo­ i­ s lebis dafinansebisTvis; kapitaluri transferebi arafinansuri aqtivebis zrdis­ vis; T specialuri/sagangebo transferebi. yvela transferis saxeoba gansxvavebuli Sinaarsi-saa da maT Soris mkafio gamijvna unda moxdes. amasTan,gaTanabrebiTi granti danarCeni sami saxeobisgan imijneba2 ZiriTadi maxasiaTebliT: 1. am grantis gadacema xdebamxolod saxelmwifo biujetidan pirdapir municipalurbiujetebSi; 2. municipaliteti gaTanabrebiTi grantiTmiRebul Semosavlebs damoukideblad, sakuTari Sexed-ulebisamebr iyenebs eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis - 60 -
  • 61. ganxorcielebisaTvis. dauSvebelia misi gamoyeneba dele-girebuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisaTvis. gaTanabrebiTi granti gaTanabrebiTi granti, Sesabamisi municipalitetebisekonomikuri potencialis gaTvaliswinebiT, gamoiyenebamunicipalitetebs Soris gansxvavebuli finansuri SesaZle-blobebis gamosaTanabreblad. kanoniT dgindeba, rom yovel-wliurad gaTanabrebiTi grantisTvis saxelmwifo biujetSigaTvaliswinebulia saxelmwifo biujetis ara umcires 10%-isa. gaTanabrebiTi grantis ganawileba municipalitetebsSoris xorcieldeba kanoniT dadgenili formuliT. for-mulaSi gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba Semdegi koeficientebi:sabiujeto Semosavlebi, mosaxleoba, infrastruqtura,sasargeblo miwis farTobebi, mTagorianoba, centralurimagistralidan daSoreba, klimaturi pirobebi da ekonomi-kuri potencialis sxva maxasiaTeblebi. miznobrivi transferebi delegirebuli uflebamosilebis dafinansebisTvis xelisuflebis konkretuli donisTvis delegire-buli uflebamosilebis finansuri uzrunvelyofisTvisgamoiyeneba miznobrivi transferi. Sesabamisad, ufle-bamosilebis delegireba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes Semde-gi mimarTulebebiT:1. Tu saxelmwifo xelisufleba uflebamosilebis dele- girebas axdens municipalitetze, am uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi saxelm- wifo biujetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba municipalite- tis biujetSi;2. Tu saxelmwifo xelisufleba uflebamosilebis dele- girebas axdens mxareze, am uflebamosilebis ganxor- - 61 -
  • 62. cielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi saxelmwifo biu- jetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba samxareo biujetSi;3. Tu mxaris xelisufleba uflebamosilebis delegire- bas axdens municipalitetze, am uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi mxaris biujetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba municipalitetis biujetSi;4. Tu municipalitetis xelisufleba uflebamosilebis delegirebas axdens mxareze, am uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebi munici- palitetis biujetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba mxaris biujetSi;5. Tu municipalitetis xelisufleba uflebamosilebis delegirebas axdens sxva municipalitetze, am ufle- bamosilebis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli sax- srebi municipalitetis biujetidan gadaecema da aisaxeba Sesabamisad sxva municipalitetis biujetSi. kapitaluri transferi kapitaluri transferi xorcieldeba, rodesac ara-finansuri aqtivebis gazrdis mizniT xelisuflebis erTiorgano sxva organos gadascems finansur saxsrebs, ro-melic aisaxeba mis biujetSi. aseTi kapitaluri trans-feri SeiZleba ganxorcieldes:a) saxelmwifo xelisuflebidan municipalitetebze an mxareebze;b) mxaridan municipalitetebze;g) erTi municipalitetidan meore municipalitetze;d) municipalitetidan mxareze. kapitaluri transferi SeiZleba iTvaliswinebdes - 62 -
  • 63. rogorc eqskluziur, ise delegirebul uflebamosile-basTan dakavSirebuli xarjebis dafarvas. saxelmwifo biujetSi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyosgarkveuli fondi kapitaluri transferebisTvis, rom-lebic mxareebsa da municipalitetebs Soris ganawil-deba sakonkurso principiT, maT mier warmodgenili pro-eqtebis Sesabamisad. specialuri/sagangebo transferi specialuri/sagangebo transferi gamoiyeneba xelisu-flebis erTi donis mier meore organosTvis stiqiurian sxva saxis katastrofebis, saomari moqmedebebis, epid-emiebisa da sxva sagangebo situaciebis likvidaciisTvis,Tu Sesabamisi organos biujetSi Sesabamisi xarjebi ariyo asaxuli da sarezervo fondic arasakmarisia. finansuri TvalsazrisiT, aWaris avtonomiuri re-spublika funqcionirebs im CarCoebSi, romelic gaTval-iswinebulia mxareebisTvis, avtonomiur respublikaSiSemavali municipalitetebi ki funqcionireben saqarT-velos sxva municipalitetebisTvis gaTvaliswinebulifinansuri sistemis CarCoebSi. q. Tbilisi finansuri TvalsazrisiT Tavis TavSi aer-Tianebs rogorc mxaris, aseve municipalitetis finansurCarCoebs; Sesabamisad, mas miekuTvneba rogorc mxaris,ise municipalitetebisTvis gaTvaliswinebuli finansurisaxsrebi, amasTan, kanonmdeblobiT damatebiT regulird-eba Tbilisis saubno municipalitetebsa da TbilisisTviTmmarTvelobas Soris fiskalur uflebamosilebaTagamijvna.3.1.5. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris biujeti TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris biujeti damoukide-belia rogorc sxva TviTmmarTvelobis erTeulTa/mxare-Ta, ise saqarTvelos saxelmwifo, afxazeTisa da aWaris - 63 -
  • 64. avtonomiuri respublikebis biujetebisagan. TviTmmarTvelobis/mxaris organoTa damoukideblobasabiujeto saqmianobaSi garantirebulia:a) eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba mas uzrunvelyofili aqvs kanoniT gansazRvruli saku- Tari SemosulobebiTa da xarjebis damoukideblad gansazRvris uflebiT;b) delegirebuli uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba mas uzrunvelyofili aqvs damoukidebeli gadawyve­ i­ t lebis miRebis uflebiT kanonmdeblobiT gansazRv­ rul farglebSi. eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis gansaxorcilebladyovelwliurad gamoyofili Tanxebi unda Seadgendes TviT-mmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris biujetis mTliani xarjisaranakleb 50%-s. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris biujetSi SeiZleba gaTvaliswinebul iqnes sarezervo fondi sagangebo xarjebisTvis. sarezervo fondis odenoba ar unda aRematebodes saerTo xarjis 2%-s. sarezervo fon- dis gamoyenebis wesi ganisazRvreba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT. mxaris/TviTmmarTveli erTeulis organo uflebamo- silia, finansTa saministrosTan SeTanxmebiT, sazoga- doebrivi miznebisTvis aiRos sesxi fizikuri da iu- ridiuli pirebisagan saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiTa da odenobiT. mxaris/TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisuflebis or- ganoebis administraciuli xarjebi ar unda aRemate- bodes biujetis gadasaxdelebis 20%-s. saxelmwifo biujetSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda daeTmos maRalmTian regionebs, rac ganisaz- Rvreba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT. - 64 -
  • 65. 3.2. TviTmmarTvelobis pirveli done - municipaliteti3.2.1. saqarTvelos adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeuli saqarTvelos adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeu-li aris sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri, romelicmoicavs erT an met dasaxlebas da romelsac gaaCniasaerTo arCeviTi warmomadgenlobiTi da aRmasrulebeliorganoebi, sakuTari eqskluziuri uflebamosilebebi,teritoria, sakuTari qoneba, sakuTari Semosulobebi,damoukidebeli biujeti, saxelwodeba, TviTmmarTve-li erTeulis administraciuli centri (im SemTxvevaSi,rodesac TviTmmarTveli erTeuli ramdenime dasaxlebasmoicavs) da hyavs am TviTmmarTvel erTeulSi registri-rebuli mosaxleoba.dasaxleba. dasaxlebis tipebi dasaxleba _ mosaxleobis gansaxlebis teritoriulierTeuli, romelsac gaaCnia sakuTari saxelwodeba, teri-toriuli sazRvrebi, am teritoriuli erTeulis mixed-viT identificirebuli da registrirebuli mosaxleoba. dasaxlebis tipebs miekuTvneba:a) soflis tipis dasaxleba _ istoriulad Camoyalibeb- uli sasoflo dasaxleba, romelSic infrastruqtu- ra, ZiriTadad, orientirebulia sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobis ganxorcielebaze;b) qalaqis tipis dasaxleba _ istoriulad Camoyalibe- buli saqalaqo (urbanistuli) dasaxleba, romelsac gaaCnia qalaqisTvis damaxasiaTebeli infrastruq- tura da masSi naklebadaa warmodgenili sasoflo dasaxlebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi. qalaqis ti- pis dasaxlebebi moicavs dRevandeli mdgomareobiT arsebul qalaqebsa da dabebs. - 65 -
  • 66. dasaxlebis teritoria _ dasaxlebis teritorias mie-kuTveneba istoriulad Camoyalibebuli dasaxlebis mi-webi da mimdebare saerTo sargeblobis miwebi, Sesabamisimosaxleobis tradiciuli bunebaTsargeblobis terito-riebi, rekreaciuli miwebi da dasaxlebis ganviTarebi-sTvis saWiro miwebi. dasaxlebis teritoriis sazRvrebSiSedis miwis farTobebi, miuxedavad maTi sakuTrebisa damiznobriobisa.TviTmmarTvelobis erTeulebi qalaqi _ adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli qalaqi war-moadgens qalaqis tipis dasaxlebas, romlis teritoriisSemadgenlobaSi SesaZlebelia Sevides masTan bunebrivaddakavSirebuli sxva mosazRvre teritoriebi, romlebicmniSvnelovania misi socialuri, satransporto da sxvasaxis infrastuqturis ganviTarebisTvis (mimdebare saso-flo dasaxlebebis teritoriis CaTvliT, romlebic arwarmoadgenen TviTmmarTvel erTeuls). sofeli/Temi _ Temi aris erTi an ramdenime sasof-lo tipis dasaxlebis erToblioba. TemSi gaerTianebulidasaxlebis mTeli teritoria Sedis Temis teritoriulsazRvrebSi. Temis teritoria Sedgeba masSi gaerTianebuldasaxlebaTa teritoriebisagan da sakuTriv Temis teri-toriisagan. dasaxlebaTa erTobliobis safuZvelze Temebis for­mirebisas gaTvaliswinebul unda iqnes Semdegi aspeqtebi: dRes arsebul municipalitetebSi (yofil raioneb- Si) bunebrivad aris warmodgenili garkveuli zone- bi, romlebsac aerTianebs saerTo infrasturqtura an saerTo geografiuli garemo, rac warmoadgens garkveul safuZvels Temebis formirebisTvis. mu- nicipalitetebis mixedviT aseTi zonebis raodenoba SeiZleba meryeobdes 1-dan 10-ze metamde (maRalm- Tiani municipalitetebisaTvis), rac geografiul-in- - 66 -
  • 67. frastruqturuli faqtorebiTaa ganpirobebuli; TemSi dasaxlebaTa gaerTianebisas gasaTvaliswinebe- lia maT Soris arsebuli geografiuli, satranspor- to, infrastruqturuli da sxva specifikuri gare- moebebi. TviTmmarTvelobis pirveli donis (munici- palitetebis) formebi unda ganisazRvros sxvadasxva simWidrovis zonebSi teritoriiT, erTiani istori- uli, geografiuli, socialuri, kulturuli da in- frastruqturuli maxasiaTeblebiT, mosaxleobis ra- odenobiTa da materialur/finansuri resursebiT; Temis formirebisas gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom masSi gaerTianebul dasaxlebaTa mosaxleobis interesebi maqsimalurad erTgvarovani iyos. rac ufro msxvilia Temi, miT ufro iklebs demokratiisa da moqalaqeTa marTvaSi monawileobis, Sesabamisad, TviTmmarTvelo- bis adekvaturobis xarisxi. meore mxriv, ufro msx- vili Temi resursuli da ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT ufro efeqtiania. Temebis formirebisas gasaTval- iswinebelia orive faqtori, amasTan, unda davicvaT subsidiarobis principis SedarebiTi prioritetu- loba ekonomikuri efeqtianobis principTan; Tu TemSi erTze meti sasoflo tipis dasaxleba erTi- andeba, gamonaklisi SemTxvevebis garda, Temis admin- istraciuli centridan TemSi Semaval dasaxlebebamde maqsimaluri manZili 20 km-s ar unda aRematebodes; soflis/Temis mosaxleobis maqsimalurma raodenobam ar unda gadaaWarbos 25 aTas kacs; sazRvrispira maRalmTian dasaxlebebSi, aseve gan- sakuTrebuli kulturuli, saxelmwifoebrivi da urbanuli interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT, iarsebebs dasaxlebebi, romelTa statusis formirebis sakiTxi gamonaklisis wesiT unda gadawydes; - 67 -
  • 68.  TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis (qalaqis, soflis/Temis) mosaxleobis minimaluri da maqsimaluri raodeno- bisa da sazRvrebis dadgena unda moxdes regionebis mixedviT mosaxleobis simWidrovis doneTa dadgenis Semdeg, risTvisac aucilebelia damatebiTi samuSaos Catareba.3.2.2. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis warmomadgenlobiTi organo _ sakrebulo adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis warmomadgen-lobiTi organoa sakrebulo, romelic Sedgeba Sesabamisteritoriaze registrirebul saqarTvelos moqalaqeTamier saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiTpirdapiri, sayovelTao, Tanaswori da faruli kenWisy-riT, proporciuli erTaderTi gadasacemi xmis sistemiT,3 wlis vadiT arCeuli wevrebisagan. sakrebulos wevrTa raodenoba ganisazRvreba TviTm-marTveli erTeulis mosaxleobis Sesabamisad: a) 10 000-mde mosaxleoba _ sakrebulos 15 wevri; b) 50 000-mde mosaxleoba _ sakrebulos 21 wevri; g) 100 000-mde mosaxleoba _ sakrebulos 25 wevri; d) 300 000-mde mosaxleoba _ sakrebulos 35 wevri. sakrebulos wevrebi da Tanamdebobis pirebi, gardaTavmjdomarisa da mdivnisa, TavianT uflebamosilebasaxorcieleben usasyidlod. Tanamdebobis pirTa mier Ses-rulebuli konkretul samuSaosTan dakavSirebuli xar-jebi anazRaurdeba TviTmmarTvelobis biujetidan.sakrebulos uflebamosileba da saqmianobis wesi sakrebulos uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba:a) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiTa da - 68 -
  • 69. vadebSi adgilobrivi biujetis proeqtis ganxilva, biujetis proeqtis damtkiceba, masSi cvlilebebis Setana, biujetis Sesrulebis angariSis damtkiceba, kontroli biujetis Sesrulebaze da misi Sefaseba;b) socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis perspeqtiuli gegmebisa da programebis damtkiceba da kontroli maT Sesrulebaze;g) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, adgilo- brivi gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis SemoReba da gauqmeba, maTze SeRavaTebis daweseba;d) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, ziari ga- dasaxadebis misTvis kuTvnili ganakveTis dadgena;e) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasrule- beli organoebisa da Tanamdebobis pirebis saqmiano- bis Sesaxeb maTi yovelwliuri angariSebis mosmena da Sefaseba;v) sakrebulos Tavmjdomarisa da mdivnis arCeva da ga- darCeva;z) sakrebulos komisiebis Seqmna, komisiaTa Tavmjdoma- reebis arCeva da gadarCeva, komisiaTa personaluri Semadgenlobis damtkiceba da masSi cvlilebebis Se- tana;T) gadawyvetilebis miReba sakrebulos wevrTa ufle- bamosilebis cnobisa da uflebamosilebis vadamde Sewyvetis Sesaxeb;i) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis organoTa de- bulebebis miReba, maTSi cvlilebebis Setana da maTi Sesrulebis kontroli;k) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT adgi- lobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis qonebis flobis, sarge- blobisa da gankargvis wesebis dadgena; - 69 -
  • 70. l) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT ad- gilobrivi samsaxurebisa da sawarmoebis Seqmna, maTi reorganizacia da likvidacia;m) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebuli programebis damtkiceba;n) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebuli maregulirebeli gadawyvetilebebis miReba;o) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulisTvis dele- girebuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi gansaxorcie- lebeli programebisa da proeqtebis damtkiceba;p) TviTmmarTveli erTeulis saxeliT dadebuli SeTanx- mebebisa da xelSekrulebebis damtkiceba.sakrebulos saqmianobis wesi sakrebulos axali Semadgenlobis pirvel sxdomasiwvevs Sesabamisi saarCevno komisiis Tavmjdomare adgi-lobrivi arCevnebis Sedegebis oficialuri gamocxadebisdRidan ori kviris vadaSi, Tu sakrebulos Semadgenlo-baSi arCeulia wevrTa 2/3 mainc. sakrebulos sxdomebsTavmjdomaris arCevamde uZRveba sakrebulos uxucesiwevri. sakrebulos morig sxdomebs, TveSi erTxel mainc,iwvevs sakrebulos Tavmjdomare. sakrebulos riggareSe sxdoma moiwveva:a) gamgeblis (meris) winadadebiT;b) sakrebulos wevrTa siiTi Semadgenlobis aranakleb 1/3-is werilobiTi moTxovniT;g) amomrCevelTa saerTo raodenobis aranakleb 1/5-is moTxovniT; - 70 -
  • 71. d) sakrebulos Tavmjdomaris iniciativiT. sakrebulo uflebamosilia, miiRos gadawyvetile-ba, Tu sakrebulos sxdomas eswreba mis wevrTa naxevarimainc. sakrebulos sxdomebi tardeba Riad da sajarod.sakrebulos sxdoma, an misi nawili `saqarTvelos zoga-di administraciuli kodeqsiT~ miTiTebul SemTxvevebSisakrebulos gadawyvetilebiT SeiZleba gamocxaddes dax-urulad, Tu sxdomaze gansaxilvel sakiTxTan dakavSire-buli monacemebis gaxmaureba akrZalulia, an SezRudu-lia kanoniT. sakrebulos sxdomaze mis uflebamosilebas mikuT-vnebuli sakiTxebi wydeba, rogorc wesi, Ria kenWisyriT.faruli kenWisyra tardeba personaluri da undoblobisgamocxadebis sakiTxebze gadawyvetilebis miRebisas.sakrebulos dadgenilebiT faruli kenWisyra SeiZlebaCatardes sxva sakiTxebzec. sakrebulos gadawyvetilebebi miiReba damswreTaxmebis umravlesobiT. sakrebulos wevris uflebamosileba iwyeba misiuflebamosilebis cnobis dRidan da wydeba axalar-Ceuli sakrebulos pirveli SekrebisTanave, an sakrebu-los wevris uflebamosilebis vadamde Sewyvetis Sesaxebgadawyvetilebis miRebis momentidan.TviTmmarTveli erTeuliswarmomadgenlobiTi organos komisiebi sakrebulo uflebamosilia, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi,Seqmnas mudmivmoqmedi an droebiTi komisia. sakrebuloskomisiebis Tavmjdomareebi airCevian sakrebulos wevr-Tagan. komisiebis wevrebs, Sesabamisi komisiis Tavmjdo-maris wardginebiT, amtkicebs sakrebulo. komisiis wevriSeiZleba ar iyos sakrebulos wevri. - 71 -
  • 72. sakrebulos Tanamdebobis pirebi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sakrebulosTanamdebobis pirebi arian: a) sakrebulos Tavmjdomare; b) sakrebulos mdivani; g) sakrebulos komisiis Tavmjdomare; d) sakrebulos fraqciis Tavmjdomare. sakrebulos wevrebi Tavisive Semadgenlobidan irCev-en Tavmjdomares sakrebulos uflebamosilebis vadiT.sakrebulos Tavmjdomaris arCeva da gadarCeva xdebasakrebulos wevrTa siiTi Semadgenlobis umravlesobiT,faruli kenWisyriT.3.2.3. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasrulebeli organoebi _ gamgeoba/meria adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasruleb-el organos warmoadgens gamgeoba _ sofelSi/TemSi dameria _ qalaqSi. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasrule-beli organos xelmZRvanelia gamgebeli _ sofelSi/TemSida meri _ qalaqSi. soflis/Temis gamgebeli da qalaqis meri airCeva saqa-rTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT, pirdapiri,sayovelTao, Tanaswori da faruli kenWisyriT, sakrebu-los uflebamosilebis vadiT. gamgeobis/meriis struqturasa da debulebas gamgeb-lis/meris wardginebiT amtkicebs sakrebulo. gamgeobis/meriis saqmianobas organizaciulad uz-runvelyofs TviTmmarTveli erTeulis gamgeobis/meriisaparati. yvela TviTmmarTvel erTeulSi Seiqmneba momsax- - 72 -
  • 73. urebis centri, romelic dakavSirebuli iqneba regionisada centraluri xelisuflebis organoebTan Sesabamisisakomunikacio saSualebebiT. am centrebSi moqalaqes sa-Sualeba eqneba, isargeblos TviTmmarTvelobis rogorceqskluziuri, aseve delegirebuli (mag., iusticiisa daSss-s sistemebi) uflebamosilebebiT da miiRos Sesabamisimomsaxureba.gamgeobis (meriis) uflebamosileba da saqmianobis wesi gamgeobis (meriis) uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba:a) sakrebulos gadawyvetilebaTa aRsruleba;b) socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis programebis proeqtebis momzadeba, winaswari ganxilva da damt- kicebul programaTa ganxorcieleba;g) biujetis proeqtis SemuSaveba, winaswari ganxilva da damtkicebuli biujetis xarjviTi nawilis Sesrule- ba; saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, damtkicebul biujetSi cvlilebebis Setanis Taobaze winadadebebis momzade- ba, biujetis Sesrulebis Sesaxeb angariSgebis Sedgena da sajaroobis uzrunvelyofa;d) adgilobrivi da ziari gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis SemoRebis, gauqmebisa da maTi odenobis gansazRvris, saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, sakrebu- losaTvis warsadgenad adgilobrivi mosakreblebis amoRebis organizebis Sesaxeb winadadebebis momza- deba;e) sakrebulos mier dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad, adgi- lobriv organoebs daqvemdebarebuli qonebiT sarge- bloba da misi gankargva;v) adgilobrivi samsaxurebis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT wi- nadadebebis momzadeba, sakrebulos mier dadgenili wesiT, saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, sa- - 73 -
  • 74. jaro samarTlis iuridiuli pirebis, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis wilobrivi monawileobiT same- warmeo iuridiuli pirebis Seqmna, reorganizacia da likvidacia; gamgeblis/meris wardginebiT maT xelmZ- RvanelTa daniSvna-gaTavisufleba da maTi saqmiano- bis kontroli;z) TviTmmarTveli erTeulis eqskluziuri ufle- bamosilebis ganxorcieleba sakrebulos mier dadge- nili regulaciebis farglebSi;T) TviTmmarTveli erTeulisTvis delegirebul ufle- bamosilebebTan dakavSirebuli saqmianobis ganxor- cieleba; gamgeobis/meriis sxdoma uflebamosilia, miiRosgadawyvetileba, Tu sxdomas eswreba gamgeobis/meriiswevrTa naxevari mainc. gadawyvetileba miiReba damswreTaxmebis umravlesobiT, Tu kanoniT an debulebiT sxva wesiar aris dadgenili. gamgebeli/meri arCevidan ori kviris vadaSi sakrebu-los dasamtkiceblad warudgens gamgeobis/meriis Semad-genlobas. Tu sakrebulom ar daamtkica gamgeobis/meriisSemadgenloba, gamgebeli/meri uflebamosilia, sakrebu-los xelaxla warudginos dasamtkiceblad gamgeobis/me-riis igive an axali Semadgenloba. Tu sakrebulom oriTvis vadaSi ar daamtkica gamgeobis/meriis Semadgenloba,maSin saqarTvelos prezidentis mier erTi Tvis vadaSiaRniSnul TviTmmarTvelobis erTeulSi iniSneba sakre-bulos da gamgeblis/meris riggareSe arCevnebi TviTm-marTvelobis organoTa sruli uflebamosilebis vadiT. sakrebulos ufleba aqvs, siiTi Semadgenlobis nax-evarze metiT undobloba gamoucxados gamgeobis/meriisSemadgenlobas. undoblobis gamocxadebidan ori kvirisvadaSi gamgebeli/meri sakrebulos dasamtkiceblad wa-rudgens gamgeobis/meriis axal Semadgenlobas. - 74 -
  • 75. gamgeobis/meriis Semadgenlobis mesamedis SecvlisSemTxvevaSi, gamgebeli/meri valdebulia gamgeobis/meri-is axali Semadgenloba sakrebulos warudginos dasamt-kiceblad.TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasrulebeliorganos Tanamdebobis pirebi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasrulebeli organosTanamdebobis pirebi arian: a) gamgebeli/meri; b) gamgeblis/meris moadgile; d) samsaxuris ufrosi; e) aparatis ufrosi; aRmasrulebeli organos xelmZRvaneli _ gamgebeli/meri gamgebeli/meri warmoadgens TviTmmarTveli erTeu-lis aRmasrulebeli organos meTaurs. gamgebeli/meri:a) uZRveba gamgeobis/meriis saqmianobas, anawilebs fun- qciebs gamgeobis/meriis wevrTa Soris, iwvevs da Tavmjdomareobs gamgeobis/meriis sxdomebs, eqvs TveSi erTxel mainc warudgens sakrebulos angariSs gaweuli muSaobis Sesaxeb;b) organizebas uwevs adgilobrivi biujetis proeqtis Sedgenas, warudgens sakrebulos dasamtkiceblad saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT Sed- genil adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis biu- jetis proeqts da saangariSo wlis biujetis Ses- rulebis angariSs, uzrunvelyofs damtkicebuli biu- jetis Sesrulebas; - 75 -
  • 76. g) sakrebulos dasamtkiceblad warudgens TviTmmarTve- li erTeulis eqskluziur da misTvis delegirebul uflebamosilebebTan dakavSirebiT misaReb gadaw- yvetilebaTa proeqtebs;d) gamgeobis/meriis saqmianobidan gamomdinare, Sei- muSavebs da sakrebulos warudgens Sesabamisi samar- Tlebrivi aqtebis proeqtebs; uzrunvelyofs sakre- bulos mier miRebul gadawyvetilebaTa Sesrulebas;e) uflebamosilia, sakrebulos mier gadawyvetilebis miRe- bidan erTi kviris vadaSi Sesabamisi SeniSvnebiT daabru- nos sakiTxi sakrebuloSi xelaxla gansaxilvelad;v) xels awers Sesabamisi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sax- eliT dadebul xelSekrulebasa da SeTanxmebas, war- moadgens da moqmedebs am TviTmmarTveli erTeulis saxeliT mesame pirebTan urTierTobebisas, asrulebs sxva warmomadgenlobiT funqciebs;z) xels awers gamgeobis/meriis dadgenilebebs, Tavisi uflebamosilebis farglebSi gamoscems brZanebebsa da gankargulebebs;T) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili da sakre- bulos mier gansazRvruli wesiT, organizebas uwevs da uzrunvelyofs adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelo- bis qonebis flobis, sargeblobisa da gankargvis sakiTxebis gadawyvetas;i) warudgens sakrebulos winadadebebs adgilobrivi samsaxurebisa da sawarmoebis Seqmnis, reorganiza- ciisa da likvidaciis Sesaxeb;k) SeimuSavebs da sakrebulos dasamtkiceblad warud- gens gamgeobis/meriis struqturas da personalur Semadgenlobas, amtkicebs gamgeobis/meriis struq- turuli erTeulebisa da adgilobrivi samsaxurebis debulebebs; - 76 -
  • 77. l) `sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT dadgenili wesiT, aparatis ufrosis wardginebiT, Tanamdebobaze niSnavs da Tanamdebobidan aTavisuf- lebs aparatis TanamSromlebs, aformebs xelSekrule- bebs mowveul specialistebTan da eqspertebTan;m) Tanamdebobidan aTavisuflebs gamgeobis/meriis wev­ rebs; iRebs gamgeobis/meriis calkeul wevrTa gan­ cxadebas gadadgomis Sesaxeb; gamgeobis/meriis wevrebs akisrebs Tanamdebobrivi movaleobebis Sesrulebas gamgeobis/meriis axali wevris damtkicebamde;n) sakrebulos gadawyvetilebis miRebidan erTi kviris vadaSi Sesabamisi SeniSvnebiT xelaxla gansaxilvelad abrunebs sakiTxs sakrebuloSi;o) aCerebs an auqmebs adgilobrivi samsaxurebis xelmZR- vanelTa individualur-samarTlebriv aqtebs;p) uzrunvelyofs sakrebulosa da gamgeobis/meriis mier miRebuli samarTlebrivi aqtebis Sesrulebas;J) mis uflebamosilebas mikuTvnebuli calkeuli sakiT­ xebis Sesaswavlad, Sesabamisi daskvnebisa da rekomen- daciebis mosamzadeblad qmnis komisiebsa da sakon- sultacio organoebs; amtkicebs maT samoqmedo deb- ulebebs;r) sakrebulos warudgens gamgeobis/meriis SemuSavebul Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi aqtebis proeqtebs;s) xels awers gamgeobis/meriis finansur dokumentebs;t) mimarTavs sakrebulos Tavmjdomares sakrebulos riggareSe sxdomis mowvevis winadadebiT, sakrebu- los morig sxdomaze Seaqvs damatebiT gansaxilveli sakiTxi, eswreba sakrebulos, sakrebulos komisiebis sxdomebs. igi uflebamosilia, hyavdes mudmivi warmo- madgeneli sakrebuloSi; - 77 -
  • 78. u) pasuxismgebelia gamgeobis/meriis saqmianobaze, peri- odulad ismens gamgeobis/meriis wevrebisa da samsax- urebis xelmZRvanelTa angariSebs gaweuli muSaobis Sesaxeb; gamgebels/mers aqvs Tanamdebobidan gadadgomis uf­leba. gamgeblis/meris uflebamosilebis Sewyveta iwvevsSesabamisi gamgeobis/meriis gadadgomas. gamgeobis/meriiswevrebi TavianT movaleobebs asruleben gamgeobis/meri-is axali Semadgenlobis damtkicebamde. gamgeblis/merisriggareSe arCevnebs niSnavs saqarTvelos prezidentigamgeblis/meris gadadgomidan erTi Tvis vadaSi.3.2.4. TviTmmarTvelobis organoebSi sazogadoebis monawileobis uzrunvelyofis institutebi TemSi Semaval yvela dasaxlebaSi mosaxleoba sazoga-doebriv sawyisebze TviTmmarTvelobis erTeulis ufle-bamosilebis vadiT irCevs mamasaxlissa da sazogadoebrivsabWos. mamasaxlisi dasaxlebis mamasaxlisi airCeva Temis yvela dasaxle-baSi, sazogadoebrivi sabWo ki Temis iseT dasaxlebebSi,sadac mosaxleobis raodenoba 100 kacze metia. dasaxle-baSi, romelSic registrirebulia 100 kacze naklebi mo-saxle, sazogadoebrivi sabWos arCeva nebayoflobiTia anmis uflebamosilebas asrulebs dasaxlebis saerTo kreba. im dasaxlebebSi, sadac registrirebuli mosaxleo-ba 100 kacze naklebia, mamasaxliss irCevs Sesabamisidasaxlebis saerTo kreba. Tu dasaxlebaSi registrire-bulia 100 kacze meti mosaxleoba, mamasaxlisi airCevapirdapiri, Tanaswori da faruli kenWisyriT maJorita-ruli wesiT. - 78 -
  • 79.  sazogadoebrivi sabWo im dasaxlebebSi, sadac gaTvaliswinebulia sazoga-doebrivi sabWoebis arCeva, sazogadoebrivi sabWo airCevapirdapiri, sayovelTao, Tanaswori da faruli kenWisyriTmaJoritaruli wesiT. sazogadoebrivi sabWos wevrebisraodenobas gansazRvravs Sesabamisi Temis warmomadgen-lobiTi organo; wevrTa raodenoba ganisazRvreba aranak-leb 3 da araumetes 11 wevriT. mamasaxlisi da sazogadoebrivi sabWos wevrebi ariReben Sromis anazRaurebas, maT Sesabamisi Temis biu-jetidan aunazRaurdebaT ganxorcielbul saqmianobas-Tan dakavSirebuli xarjebi. mamasaxlisisa da sazogadoebrivi sabWos uflebamosilebebi mamasaxlisi da sazogadoebrivi sabWo:a) warmoadgenen dasaxlebaSi mcxovrebi mosaxleobis in- teresebs, maT Soris, im Temis adgilobrivi TviTm- marTveli erTeulis xelisuflebis organoebSi, rom- lis SemadgenlobaSic Sedis aRniSnuli dasaxleba;b) uzrunvelyofen dasaxlebis saerTo krebaze miRebu- li gadawyvetilebebis aRsrulebas;g) Sesabamisi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xe- lisuflebis mier dadgenili wesiT uzrunvelyofen adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis calkeul uflebamosilebaTa dasaxlebis teritoriaze ganxor- cielebas;d) uzrunvelyofen dasaxlebis mosaxleobis gamokiTx- vis Catarebas Sesabamisi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisuflebis organoTa mier dadgenili wesiT. monitorings uweven dasaxlebis teritoriaze adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis eqskluziuri - 79 -
  • 80. uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebas;e) axorcieleben Sesabamisi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisuflebis organoTa mier delegirebul ufle- bamosilebas am xelisuflebis organoebis mier dad- genili wesiT da gadacemuli Sesabamisi materialuri da finansuri saxsrebis farglebSi;v) uflebamosilni arian, dasaxlebis saxeliT, Sesabam- isi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisu- flebis organoebSi Seitanon dasaxlebasTan dakav- Sirebuli winadadebebi. dasaxlebis mamasaxlisi axorcielebs dasaxlebis xe-lisuflebis organoebisTvis mikuTvnebul uflebamosile-basTan dakavSirebul administraciul funqciebs, xolosazogadoebrivi sabWo iRebs am uflebamosilebasTandakavSirebul strategiul gadawyvetilebebs, ismens daafasebs mamasaxlisis angariSebs, amtkicebs dasaxlebisxelisuflebis organoebis funqcionirebis wess, gansaz-Rvravs dasaxlebis yovelwliur prioritetebsa da xar-jTaRricxvas, romelsac biujetis dagegmvis procesSiwinadadebis saxiT warudgens Temis xelisuflebas Semd-gomSi biujetSi gasaTvaliswineblad. dasaxlebis saerTo kreba adgilobriv TviTmmarTvel TemSi Semaval dasaxle-bebSi weliwadSi erTxel mainc tardeba saerTo kreba,romlis mowvevisa da Catarebis wess gansazRvravs TviTm-marTvelobis sakrebulo. dasaxlebis saerTo kreba ganix-ilavs dasaxlebis winaSe arsebul problemebs, dasaxlebissaxeliT mimarTavs TviTmmarTvelobis xelisuflebis or-ganoebs sarekomendacio winadadebiT. saerTo krebaze gadawyvetileba miRebulad iTvleba,Tu mas mxars dauWers damswreTa umravlesoba; - 80 -
  • 81. dasaxlebis riggareSe saerTo kreba moiwveva:a) dasaxlebis mamasaxlisis an sazogadoebrivi sabWos iniciativiT;b) Sesabamisi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xe- lisuflebis organoebis iniciativiT;g) dasaxlebis mosaxleobis 1/10-is iniciativiT; saerTo krebis Catarebas uzrunvelyofs Sesabamisidasaxlebis mamasaxlisi. qalaqis marTvaSi sazogadoebis monawileobis uzrun- velyofis institutebi im SemTxvevaSi, Tu qalaqSi, garda ZiriTadi qalaqistipis dasaxlebisa, gaerTianebulia erTze meti dasaxle-ba, am dasaxlebebSi Temis analogiurad irCeva da funq-cionirebs mamasaxlisisa da sazogadoebrivi sabWos in-stitutebi. qalaqis ubnebis xelisuflebis organoebi qalaqSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xe-lisuflebis organoebi uflebamosilni arian, qalaqidayon ubnebad. qalaqis saubno organoebi iqmneba da funqcionirebsTemSi Semavali dasaxlebebis organoebis analogiurad.3.2.5. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosileba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis xelisuflebis organoTa eqskluziuri uflebamosileba TviTmmarTveli erTeulis eqskluziur uflebamo­silebas miekuTvneba: - 81 -
  • 82. a) skolamdeli aRzrda;b) ambulatoriebi, pirveladi samedicino daxmareba;g) adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis saavadmyofoebi da sao- jaxo medicina;d) adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis kulturis ZeglTa dacva, biblioTekebi, TviTmmarTveli erTeulis arqivebi, adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis muzeumebi;e) saklubo dawesebulebebi, adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis Teatrebi da kinoTeatrebi, gamofenebi, sportuli dawesebulebebi, specializebuli (saxelovnebo, spor- tuli) skolebi;v) TviTmmarTveli erTeulisTvis mikuTvnebuli wylis da niadagis dacva, adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis tyiT sargebloba, miwaTsargebloba, sanitariuli dacva, TviTmmarTveli erTeulisTvis mikuTvnebuli wylis resursebiT sargebloba;z) adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis bunebrivi wiaRiseulis gankargva;T) umweoTa daxmarebis damatebiTi adgilobrivi progr- amebi, socialurad daucveli fenebisa da SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone pirTa daxmarebis damatebiTi adgilobrivi programebi, umuSevarTa daxmarebis dam- atebiTi adgilobrivi programebi;i) usaxlkaroTa binebiT uzrunvelyofa;k) adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis sazogadoebrivi trans- porti;l) adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis saavtomobilo gzebi, qa- laqdagegmareba da mSeneblobaze kontroli;m) mosaxleobisgan da sajaro adgilebidan myari narCenebis gatana, sisufTavis dacvis prevenciuli RonisZiebebi, - 82 -
  • 83. quCebis dasufTaveba-garecxva, saniaRvre meurneobebi, sasmeli da teqnikuri wyliT momarageba, melioracia TviTmmarTveli erTeulis teritoriis farglebSi, kanalizacia, gamwvaneba, parkebi da baRebi, keTilmowy- oba da gareganaTeba, sasaflaoebi;n) saxanZro usafrTxoeba. saxelmwifo xelisuflebis mier TviTmmarTveli erTeulisaTvis delegirebuli uflebamosilebebi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebisTvis uflebamosileba-Ta delegirebas, pirvel rigSi, eqvemdebareba is ufle-bamosilebebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia moqalaqeebisT-vis sxvadasxva saxis individualuri momsaxurebis miwo-debasTan. mezobeli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis xelisuflebis organoTa mier uflebamosilebis erToblivi ganxorcieleba mezobeli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebisxelisuflebis organoebis mier uflebamosilebis er-Toblivi ganxorcieleba dasaSvebia kanonmdeblobiTgaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi, urTierTSeTanxmebiT daxelSekrulebis safuZvelze.3.2.6. koncefciiT gansazRvruli TviTmmarTveli erTeulis biujetis SemosulobebiTviTmmarTveli erTeulis sagadasaxado Semosavlebi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sagadasaxado Semosavle-bia: a) adgilobrivi gadasaxadebi: qonebis gadasaxadi _ srulad; - 83 -
  • 84. b) ziari gadasaxadebi: saSemosavlo gadasaxadi _ ara umetes 15% sagadasaxa-do ganakveTisa (dRes kanonmdeblobiT moqmedi 20% saga-dasaxado ganakveTis pirobebSi).transferebia) gaTanabrebiTi (aramiznobrivi) granti;b) miznobrivi transferi TviTmmarTveli erTeulisTvis delegirebuli uflebamosilebis dasafinanseblad;g) kapitaluri transferi kapitaluri proeqtis gansax- orcieleblad;d) specialuri transferi.TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sxva Semosulobebia) procentebi (sargebeli) calkeuli xasiaTis finans- uri aqtivebidan, kerZod, depozitebidan (fasiani qaRaldebidan, aqciebis garda), sesxebidan, debitor- uli davalianebidan da sxva Semosavali procentebi- dan, TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebis ijaridan miRebuli Semosavali;b) Semosavali adgilobrivi xelisuflebis wilobrivi monawileobiT moqmedi sawarmoebis da kerZo sawar- moebis mogebidan;g) bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobisTvis mosakrebe- li, gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebisTvis kuTvnili mopovebuli bunebrivi resursebisTvis;d) Semosavali TviTmmarTvelobis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebisa da miwis ijaridan; - 84 -
  • 85. e) Semosavali adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli miwis marTvaSi (uzufruqti, qiravnoba, ijara da sxv.) gadacemidan;v) adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier gadaxdevinebuli renta;z) salicenzio mosakrebeli, gadaxdevinebuli adgilo- brivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsax- urebis mier;T) saxelmwifo baJi, gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviT­ mmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mi­ r; ei) sajaro informaciis aslis gadaRebis mosakrebeli, gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;k) adgilobrivi satendero mosakrebeli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis biujetebis saxsrebiT Catarebul tenderebze;l) Semosuloba gare reklamis ganTavsebis nebarTvis ga- cemidan;m) saTamaSo biznesis mosakrebeli;n) mosakrebeli dasaxlebuli teritoriis dasufTavebi- saTvis;o) kulturuli memkvidreobis sareabilitacio arealis infrastruqturis mosakrebeli;p) mosakrebeli specialuri (zonaluri) SeTanxmebis ga- cemisaTvis;J) mosakrebeli mSeneblobis nebarTvisTvis;r) Semosavali adgilobrivi saqalaqo regularuli samg- zavro gadayvanis nebarTvis gacemidan;s) sxva mosakrebeli, gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviT­ - 85 -
  • 86. mmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;t) Semosavali momsaxurebidan, romelic gaweulia adgi- lobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi sam- saxurebis mier;u) Semosavlis wili saxelmwifo qonebis (garda miwisa) ijariT an marTvaSi (uzufruqti, qiravnoba da sxv.) gadacemidan, romelic ganlagebulia adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis teritoriaze da saxelm- wifo sargeblobaSia;f) Semosavali adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sargeblobaSi myofi qonebis ijariT an marTvaSi (uzufruqti, qiravnoba da sxv.) gadacemidan;q) Semosavlis wili sxva saxelmwifo qonebis (garda mi- wisa) ijariT an marTvaSi (uzufruqti, qiravnoba da sxv.) gadacemidan, gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;R) Semosavali sanqciebidan (jarimebidan, sauravebidan), gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;y) Semosavali gacemuli sesxis dafarvis vadis dar- RvevisTvis gadaxdili sauravidan, gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;S) Semosavlis wili sagzao moZraobis wesebis dar- RvevisTvis gadaxdili jarimebidan;C) Semosuloba arawarmoebuli aramaterialuri aqtive- bidan (patentebi, salizingo xelSekrulebebi da sxva analogiuri kontraqtebi, agreTve, SeZenili gudvi- li), gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelo- bis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier; - 86 -
  • 87. c) Semosavali arqiteqturul-samSeneblo saqmianobaSi gamovlenili darRvevebisTvis gadaxdili jarimebi- dan, gadaxdevinebuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelo- bis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;Z) Semosuloba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli ZiriTadi aqtivebis gayidvidan;w) wilobrivi Semosavlebi ZiriTadi saxelmwifo aq- tivebis gayidvidan, romlebic ganlagebulia adgi- lobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis teritoriaze da Semosavlebi ZiriTadi saxelmwifo aqtivebis gayidvi- dan, romlebic adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeu- lis sargeblobaSia;W) Semosuloba sxva materialuri maragis (nedleuli da masalebi, daumTavrebeli warmoeba, mza produqcia da Semdgomi realizaciisTvis SeZenili saqoneli) gayid- vidan, ganxorcielebuli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTv- elobis organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;x) Semosuloba faseulobebis gayidvidan, ganxorciele- buli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa Ses- abamisi samsaxurebis mier;j) wili Semosulobidan saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arse- buli arasasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis gay- idvidan, romelic ganlagebulia adgilobrivi TviT- mmarTveli erTeulis teritoriaze da Semosuloba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli arasasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis gayidvidan;h) wili Semosulobidan saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arse- buli sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis gayid- vidan, romelic ganlagebulia adgilobrivi TviTm- marTveli erTeulis teritoriaze da Semosuloba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sakuTrebaSi - 87 -
  • 88. arsebuli sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis gayidvidan;h1) Semosuloba finansuri aqtivebidan da valdebule- bebidan, gankuTvnili adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelo- bebisTvis.3.3. saqarTvelos mxareebi (regionebi)3.3.1. samxareo mowyobis principebi mxare unda gaxdes qveynis socialur-ekonomikuriganviTarebis umniSvnelovanesi erTeuli. arsebul munic-ipalitetTan SedarebiT, mas gacilebiT ufro didi eko-nomikuri SesaZleblobebi da finansuri damoukideblobaeqneba. Sesabamisad, warmomadgenlobiT da aRmasrulebelorganoebs realuri saSualebebi eqnebaT adgilobriviproblemebis mosagvareblad da seriozuli proeqtebisgansaxorcieleblad. yovelive zemoTqmuli adgilobriviTviTmmarTvelobis realuri damoukideblobis garan-tiebs Seqmnis. regionuli principiT administraciul-teritoriu-li mowyoba iTvaliswinebs: mxareTa socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis piro- bebis erTmaneTTan daaxloebas; centrs, mxaresa da adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobas Soris qonebis gadanawilebas; mxareTa Soris konkurenciis principis danergvas; erTiani minimaluri socialuri standartebisa da Tanaswori socialuri dacvis uzrunvelyofas, kon- stituciiT dadgenili moqalaqeTa socialuri ufle- bebis dacvis garantirebas; gansakuTrebuli strategiuli mniSvnelobis re- - 88 -
  • 89. gionebis prioritetuli ganviTarebis uzrunvelyo- fas; mxareTa bunebriv-klimaturi Taviseburebebis maqsim- alurad gamoyenebas; mxareTa kompleqsur ekologiur dacvas. saxelmwifos administraciul-teritoriuli refor-ma mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli qveynis axal sabiujetomowyobasTan, roca sabiujeto saxsrebis ganawileba arauwyebrivi, aramed programuli principiT moxdeba. amSemTxvevaSi samxareo xelisuflebis erT-erTi funqciamxaris ganviTarebis seriozuli programebis Camoyalibe-ba da maT gansaxorcieleblad centraluri biujetidanan saerTaSoriso wyaroebidan Tanadafinansebis mopovebaiqneba. amJamad arsebuli municipaliteti, Tavisi mwiriresursebidan gamomdinare, aseT urTierTobebSi part-niorad veranairad gamodgeba. mxaris keTildReoba, ZiriTadad, damokidebulixde­ adgilze akrefil gadasaxadebze da ara central- auri xelisuflebis keTilganwyobaze am mxaris pirvelipiris mimarT. aseTi sistema xels Seuwyobs mxareTa So-ris mniSvnelovani konkurenciis gaRvivebas normalurisagadasaxado da sainvesticio garemos Sesaqmnelad, racmTeli qveynis masStabiT stimuls miscems ekonomikuriaqtiurobis zrdas.mxareebi koncefciis Sesabamisad saqarTvelos teritoriaze(im teritoriisTvis, romelzedac 2012 wlis 1 ianvrisT-vis vrceldeba saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia) arsebobs 12mxare (regioni) da saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi _ q. Tbilisi. saqarTvelos mxareebia:a) aWara(aWaris avtonomiuri respublika) _ masSi erTi- andeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT arsebuli - 89 -
  • 90. qobuleTis, xelvaCauris, Suaxevis, qedis, xulos mu- nicipalitetebisa da q. baTumis teritoriebi. dedaqa- laqi _ q. baTumi;b) guria _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris mdgo- mareobiT arsebuli ozurgeTis, Coxatauris, lanCx- uTis municipalitetebis teritoriebi. mxaris admin- istraciuli centria q. ozurgeTi;g) samegrelo _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT arsebuli abaSis, senakis, martvilis, xobis, zugdidis, walenjixis, Cxorowyus munici- palitetebisa da q. foTis teritoriebi. mxaris ad- ministraciuli centria q. zugdidi;d) svaneTi _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris mdgo- mareobiT mestiis municipaliteti (Tuki saxelmwifom uzrunvelyo mestiisa da lentexis municipalitetebis gziT dakavSireba, maSin zemo da qvemo svaneTi gaer- Tiandeba erT mxareSi). mxaris administraciuli cen- tria mestia;e) raWa-leCxumi-qvemo svaneTi _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT arsebuli cageris, am- brolauris, onis da lentexis municipalitetis ter- itoriebi (Tuki saxelmwifom uzrunvelyo mestiisa da lentexis municipalitetebis gziT dakavSireba, maSin am mxares gamoakldeba qvemo svaneTi _ lentexis municipaliteti). mxaris administraciuli centria ambrolauri;.v) imereTi _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris md- gomareobiT arsebuli xaragaulis, zestafonis, Ter- jolis, baRdaTis, vanis, saCxeris, xonis, samtrediis, tyibulis, WiaTuris, wyaltubos municipalitetebisa da q. quTaisis teritoriebi. mxaris administraciuli centria q. quTaisi; - 90 -
  • 91. z) samcxe-javaxeTi _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvr- is mdgomareobiT arsebuli axalcixis, axalqalaqis, ninowmindis, aspinZis, adigenisa da borjomis munici- palitetebis teritoriebi. mxaris administraciuli centria q. axalcixe;T) Sida qarTli _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT arsebuli xaSuris, kaspis, qarelis, goris, mcxeTis municipalitetebis teritoriebi. mx- aris administraciuli centria q. gori;i) mTianeTi _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris md- gomareobiT arsebuli yazbegis, duSeTis, TianeTis municipalitetebis teritoriebi; mxaris adminis- traciuli centria duSeTi an Jinvali;k) qvemo qarTli _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ian- vris mdgomareobiT arsebuli gardabnis, marneulis, TeTriwyaros, bolnisis, walkis, dmanisis munici- palitetebisa da q. rusTavis teritoriebi. mxaris administraciuli centria q. rusTavi an q. bolnisi;l) kaxeTi _ masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris md- gomareobiT arsebuli sagarejos, axmetis, Telavis, lagodexis, dedofliswyaros, siRnaRis, gurjaanis, yvarlis municipalitetebis teritoriebi. mxaris ad- ministraciuli centria q. Telavi;m) Tbilisi _ saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi. masSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT dazustebuli q. Tbilisis teritoria. q. Tbilisis statusi ganisaz- Rvreba saqarTvelos kanoniT „saqarTvelos dedaqa- laqis _ Tbilisis Sesaxeb“. okupirebul teritoriebze TviTmmarTveli er-Teulebis sakiTxi ganisazRvreba konfliqtebis politi-kuri daregulirebis procesSi. - 91 -
  • 92. 3.3.2. mxaris warmomadgenlobiTi organo _ mxaris sabWo mxaris sabWo Sedgeba mxaris teritoriaze regis-trirebul saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa mier saqarTveloskanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT pirdapiri, sayovel-Tao, Tanaswori da faruli kenWisyriT, proporciulierTaderTi gadasacemi xmis sistemiT, 4 wlis vadiT ar-Ceuli wevrebisgan. sabWos wevrTa raodenoba ganisazRvreba mxaris mo-saxleobis raodenobis Sesabamisad:a) 200 000-mde mosaxleoba _ sabWos 25 wevri;b) 200 000 _ 1 000 000-mde mosaxleoba _ sabWos 35 wevri; mxaris sabWos wevrebi iReben Sromis anazRaurebas.mxaris sabWos uflebamosileba da saqmianobis wesi mxaris sabWos uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba:a) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli wesiTa da vadebSi mxaris biujetis proeqtis ganxil- va, masSi cvlilebebisa da damatebebis Setana, biuje- tis proeqtis damtkiceba, masSi cvlilebebis Setana, biujetis Sesrulebis angariSis damtkiceba, kontro- li biujetis Sesrulebaze da misi Sefaseba;b) mxaris socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis perspeq- tiuli gegmebisa da programebis damtkiceba da kon- troli maT Sesrulebaze;g) saqarTvelos kanonis Sesabamisad, ziar gadasaxadebSi misTvis kuTvnili ganakveTis dadgena;d) mxaris aRmasrulebeli organoebisa da Tanamdebobis pirebis saqmianobis yovelwliuri angariSebis mosmena da Sefaseba;e) sabWos Tavmjdomarisa da mdivnis arCeva da gadarCeva; - 92 -
  • 93. v) sabWos komisiebis Seqmna, komisiaTa Tavmjdomareebis arCeva da gadarCeva, komisiaTa personaluri Semad- genlobis damtkiceba da masSi cvlilebebis Setana;z) gadawyvetilebis miReba sabWos wevrTa ufle- bamosilebis cnobisa da uflebamosilebis vadamde Sewyvetis Sesaxeb;T) mxaris organoTa debulebebis miReba, maTSi cvlile- bebis Setana da debulebebis Sesrulebis kontroli;i) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT mx- aris qonebis flobis, sargeblobisa da gankargvis we- sebis dadgena;k) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT, samx- areo samsaxurebisa da sawarmoebis Seqmna, maTi reor- ganizacia da likvidacia;l) mxaris eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis ganxorciele- basTan dakavSirebuli programebis damtkiceba;m) mxaris eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis ganxorciele- basTan dakavSirebuli maregulirebeli gadawyvetile- bebis miReba;n) mxarisTvis delegirebuli uflebamosilebis farg- lebSi programebis damtkiceba;o) mxaris saxeliT dadebuli SeTanxmebebisa da xelSek- rulebebis damtkiceba. sabWos axali Semadgenlobis pirvel sxdomas iwvevsSesabamisi saarCevno komisiis Tavmjdomare arCevnebisSedegebis oficialurad gamocxadebis dRidan ori kvirisvadaSi. sakrebulos sxdomebs Tavmjdomaris arCevamdeuZRveba sabWos uxucesi wevri. sabWos morigi da riggareSe sxdomebis mowveva da misisaqmianobis wesi ganisazRvreba sabWos reglamentiT. - 93 -
  • 94. mxaris sabWos Tanamdebobis pirebi mxaris sabWos Tanamdebobis pirebi arian:a) mxaris sabWos Tavmjdomare;b) mxaris sabWos Tavmjdomaris moadgile (moadgileebi);g) mxaris sabWos komisiebis Tavmjdomareebi;d) mxaris sabWos fraqciebis Tavmjdomareebi; mxaris sabWos wevrebi Tavisi Semadgenlobidan irCev-en Tavmjdomares sabWos uflebamosilebis vadiT. sabWosTavmjdomaris arCeva da gadarCeva xdeba sabWos wevrTasiiTi Semadgenlobis umravlesobiT. mxaris sabWos Tavmjdomaris kandidaturis wardgenisda sabWos Tavmjdomaris gadarCevis inicirebis sakiTxebiganisazRvreba Sesabamisi kanoniT.mxaris sabWos komisiebi sabWo Tavisi uflebamosilebis vadiT qmnis mudmivmo-qmed an droebiT komisiebs. sabWos komisiebis saqmianobis wesi ganisazRvreba sab-Wos debulebiT, kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad.3.3.3. mxaris aRmasrulebeli organo _ administracia mxaris aRmasrulebeli organoa mxaris administra-cia. mxaris aRmasrulebeli organos xelmZRvanelia mxarisadministraciis mmarTveli. mxaris administraciis struqturas, debulebas daadministraciis Semadgenlobas mmarTvelis wardginebiTamtkicebs mxaris sabWo. mxaris administraciis Semad-genlobaSi Sedian mxaris mmarTveli, administraciismmarTvelis pirveli moadgile, mmarTvelis moadgile(moadgileebi), samxareo samsaxurebis xelmZRvanelebi. - 94 -
  • 95. mxaris aRmasrulebeli organos Tanamdebobis pirebi mxaris Tanamdebobis pirebi arian:a) mxaris administraciis mmarTveli;b) mxaris administraciis mmarTvelis pirveli moadgile;g) mxaris administraciis mmarTvelis moadgile (moadg- ileebi);d) samxareo samsaxuris ufrosi.mxaris aRmasrulebeli organos xelmZRvanelis _ mxarisadministraciis mmarTvelis arCeva mxaris sabWos Tavmjdomare misi arCevidan erTikviris vadaSi acxadebs konkurss mxaris administraciismmarTvelis Tanamdebobaze da qmnis Sesabamis sakonkursokomisias, romlis Semadgenlobis naxevars waradgens saqa-rTvelos mTavroba (an prezidenti). sakonkurso komisia siiTi Semadgenlobis naxevarzemetis gadawyvetilebiT mxaris administraciis mmarTve-lis Tanamdebobaze SerCeul kandidats (kandidatebs)dasamtkiceblad warudgens mxaris sabWos, romelicgadawyvetilebas iRebs mxaris sabWos siiTi Semadgenlo-bis naxevarze metiT. Tu kenWisyraSi monawile verc erT-ma kandidatma ver miiRo sabWos wevrTa xmebis naxevarzemeti, tardeba meore turi, sadac monawileobas iRebssaukeTeso Sedegis mqone ori kandidati. meore turSi mx-aris mmarTveli airCeva sabWos wevrTa xmaTa fardobiTiumravlesobiT, aranakleb sabWos wevrTa siiTi Semadgen-lobis 40%-isa.mxaris administraciis dakompleqtebisa da daTxovnis wesi mxaris mmarTveli arCevidan ori kviris vadaSi ndobisgamosacxadeblad administraciis Semadgenlobas warud- - 95 -
  • 96. gens sabWos. Tu sabWom ar gamoucxada ndoba administra-ciis Semadgenlobas, mmarTveli uflebamosilia, xelaxlawaradginos administraciis igive an axali Semadgenloba.administraciisTvis orjer zedized ndobis gamoucxade-blobis SemTxvevaSi, sabWo aTavisuflebs mxaris adminis-traciis mmarTvels da acxadebs axal konkurss adminis-traciis mmarTvelis Tanamdebobaze. mxaris sabWo uflebamosilia, siiTi Semadgenlobisnaxevarze metiT gadaayenos samxareo samsaxuris xelmZ-Rvaneli. Tu administraciis Semadgenlobis 1/3 iqna ganaxle-buli mmarTvelis mier, administracia saWiroebs sabWosmxridan ndobis xelaxla gamocxadebas. sabWo uflebamosilia, dasvas mxaris administraciismmarTvelisTvis/administraciisTvis undoblobis ga-mocxadebis sakiTxi. undoblobis gamocxadebis sakiTxisdasmis ufleba aqvs mxaris sabWos wevrTa sul cota 1/4-s. mxaris sabWo, mxaris administraciis mmarTvelisTvis/administraciisTvis undoblobis gamocxadebis gadaw-yvetilebas iRebs siiTi Semadgenlobis umravlesobiT.Tu sabWom mxaris administraciis mmarTvels/administra-cias undobloba ver gamoucxada, dauSvebelia undob-lobis sakiTxis dasma aRniSnul sakiTxze kenWisyridan 6Tvis ganmavlobaSi.administraciis uflebamosileba da saqmianobis wesi administraciis uflebamosilebas ganekuTvneba:a) sabWos gadawyvetilebaTa aRsruleba;b) socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis programebis, proeqtebis momzadeba, winaswari ganxilva da damt- kicebul programaTa ganxorcieleba;g) biujetis proeqtis SemuSaveba, winaswari ganxilva da damtkicebuli biujetis xarjviTi nawilis Sesrule- - 96 -
  • 97. ba; saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, damtkicebul biujetSi cvlilebebis Setanis Taobaze winadadebebis momzade- ba, biujetis Sesrulebis Sesaxeb mxaris sabWos winaSe angariSgeba da sajaroobis uzrunvelyofa;d) saqarTvelos kanonis Sesabamisad, ziar gadasaxadebSi sabWosTvis mxaris kuTvnili ganakveTis dadgenasTan dakavSirebuli winadadebebis momzadeba da wardgena;e) sabWos mier dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad, samxareo qonebis floba, sargebloba da gankargva;v) samxareo samsaxurebis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT wina- dadebebis momzadeba. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad da sabWos mier dadgenili wesiT sawar- moTa Seqmna, reorganizacia da likvidacia; mxaris mmarTvelis wardginebiT maT xelmZRvanelTa daniSv- na-gaTavisufleba da maTi saqmianobis kontroli;z) mxaris sabWos mier dadgenili regulaciebis farg- lebSi mxaris eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis ganxor- cileba;T) xarisTvis delegirebuli uflebamosilebis ganxor- m cieleba.mxaris administraciis mmarTveli mxaris administraciis mmarTveli:a) uZRveba mxaris administraciis saqmianobas, anawi- lebs funqciebs administraciis wevrTa Soris, iwvevs da Tavmjdomareobs administraciis sxdomebs TveSi erTxel mainc. eqvs TveSi erTxel mainc warudgens sabWos angariSs gaweuli muSaobis Sesaxeb;b) organizacias uwevs samxareo biujetis proeqtis Sedgenas, warudgens sabWos dasamtkiceblad saqarT- velos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT Sedgenil - 97 -
  • 98. mxaris biujetis proeqts da saangariSo wlis biuje- tis Sesrulebis angariSs, uzrunvelyofs damtkice- buli biujetis Sesrulebas;g) sabWos dasamtkiceblad warudgens mxaris eqskluz- iur da misTvis delegirebul uflebamosilebebTan dakavSirebiT misaReb gadawyvetilebaTa proeqtebs;d) administraciis saqmianobidan gamomdinare, Sei- muSavebs da sabWos warudgens Sesabamisi samarT- lebrivi aqtebis proeqtebs; uzrunvelyofs sabWos mier miRebul gadawyvetilebaTa Sesrulebas;e) uflebamosilia, sabWos gadawyvetilebis miRebidan erTi kviris vadaSi, Sesabamisi SeniSvnebiT daabrunos sakiTxi sabWoSi xelaxla gansaxilvelad;v) xels awers mxaris saxeliT dadebul xelSekrulebeb- sa da SeTanxmebebs, warmoadgens da moqmedebs mxaris saxeliT oficialuri urTierTobisas; saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT, an mxaris sabWos mier gansazRvruli wesis Sesabamisad, asrulebs sxva warmomadgenlobiT funqciebs;z) xels awers administraciis dadgenilebebs, Tavisi uflebamosilebis farglebSi gamoscems brZanebebsa da gankargulebebs;T) saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili da sabWos mier gansazRvruli wesiT organizacias uwevs da uz- runvelyofs mxaris qonebis flobis, sargeblobisa da gankargvis sakiTxebis gadawyvetas;i) warudgens sabWos winadadebebs samxareo samsaxurebis, sawarmoebis Seqmnisa da likvidaciis Sesaxeb, uzrun- velyofs likvidirebul sawarmoTa dacvasa da Senax- vas;k) SeimuSavebs da sabWos dasamtkiceblad warudgens ad- - 98 -
  • 99. ministraciis struqturas, amtkicebs samxareo sam- saxurebis debulebebs;l) „sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb“ saqarTvelos kanoniT dadgenili wesiT, aparatis ufrosis wardginebiT, Ta­ namdebobaze niSnavs da Tanamdebobidan aTavisuflebs aparatis TanamSromlebs, aformebs xelSekrulebebs mowveul specialistebTan da eqspertebTan;m) Tanamdebobidan aTavisuflebs administraciis wevrebs; iRebs administraciis calkeul wevrTa gancxadebas gadadgomis Sesaxeb. administraciis wevrebs akisrebs Tanamdebobriv movaleobaTa Sesrulebas;n) sabWos gadawyvetilebis miRebidan erTi kviris vadaSi Sesabamisi SeniSvnebiT xelaxla gansaxilvelad ab­ runebs sakiTxs sabWoSi;o) aCerebs an auqmebs samxareo samsaxurebis xelmZRva­ nelTa individualur-samarTlebriv aqtebs;p) uzrunvelyofs sakrebulosa da administraciis mier miRebuli samarTlebrivi aqtebis Sesrulebas;J) mis uflebamosilebas mikuTvnebuli calkeuli sakiT­ xebis Sesaswavlad, Sesabamisi daskvnebisa da rekomen- daciebis mosamzadeblad, qmnis komisiebsa da sakon- sultacio organoebs; amtkicebs maT samoqmedo deb- ulebebs;r) administraciis saqmianobidan gamomdinare, Seimu­ a­ S vebs da sabWos warudgens Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi aqtebis proeqtebs;s) xels awers administraciis dadgenilebebsa da finan­ sur dokumentebs;t) Tavisi uflebamosilebis farglebSi, gamoscems brZa­ nebebsa da gankargulebebs; - 99 -
  • 100. u) mimarTavs sabWos Tavmjdomares sabWos riggareSe sxdo- mis mowvevis winadadebiT, sabWos morig sxdomaze Seaqvs damatebiT gansaxilveli sakiTxi, eswreba sabWos, sabWos komisiebis Ria da daxurul sxdomebs. igi uflebamo- silia, hyavdes mudmivi warmomadgeneli sabWoSi;f) pasuxismgebelia administraciis saqmianobaze; period- ulad ismens administraciis wevrTa da samsaxurebis xelmZRvanelTa angariSebs gaweuli muSaobis Sesaxeb;q) axorcielebs sabWosa da administraciis Sesabamisi aqtebiT gansazRvrul sxva uflebamosilebebs;R) angariSvaldebulia sabWos winaSe sabWos ufle- bamosilebis farglebSi. mmarTvels aqvs Tanamdebobidan gadadgomis ufleba.mmarTvelis Tanamdebobidan gadadgoma an gaTavisuflebaiwvevs Sesabamisi administraciis gadadgomas. adminis-traciis wevrebi TavianT movaleobebs asruleben admin-istraciis axali Semadgenlobis damtkicebamde.3.3.4. mxaris xelisuflebis organoTa uflebamosileba mxaris xelisuflebis organoTa eqskluziuri uflebamosileba mxaris xelisuflebis organoTa eqskluziur ufle-bamosilebas miekuTvneba:a) skola-internatebi;b) samxareo mniSvnelobis saavadmyofoebi;g) samedicino statistikis warmoeba;d) samxareo mniSvnelobis biblioTekebi, arqivebi, muze­ umebi;b) samxareo mniSvnelobis Teatrebi, gamofenebi, spor- tuli dawesebulebebi; - 100 -
  • 101. d) mxarisTvis mikuTvnebuli wylisa da niadagis dacva, samxareo mniSvnelobis tyiT sargebloba, myari nar- Cenebis deponireba, gadamuSaveba da utilizacia, sakanalizacio narCenebis gasufTaveba da uti- lizacia, samxareo mniSvnelobis wiaRiseuli da wylis resursebi;e) samxareo mniSvnelobis melioracia;d) saavtomobilo gzebi TviTmmarTvel erTeulebs Soris;v) adgilobriv TviTmmarTvel erTeulebs Soris sazoga- doebrivi saavtomobilo transporti;z) regionuli dagegmareba. saxelmwifo xelisuflebis mier mxaris TviTmmarTveli erTeulisaTvis delegirebuli uflebamosileba mxarisTvis uflebamosilebis delegirebas, pirvelrigSi, eqvemdebareba is uflebamosilebebi, romlebic,Tavisi bunebis gamo, miekuTvneba TviTmmarTvelobisuflebamosilebas da romelTa ganxorcielebis resurse-bi ar gaaCnia qalaqs, sofels/Tems. mezobel mxareTa xelisuflebis organoTa mier uflebamosilebis erToblivi ganxorcieleba mxareTa xelisuflebis organoTa mier ufle-bamosilebis erToblivi ganxorcieleba dasaSvebia mxare-Ta urTierTSeTanxmebiT da xelSekrulebis safuZvelze.3.3.5. mxaris biujetis Semosulobebimxaris sagadasaxado Semosavlebi mxaris sagadasaxado Semosavlebia: ziari gadasaxadebi: - 101 -
  • 102. a) saSemosavlo gadasaxadi _ ara umetes sagadasaxado ga- nakveTis 5%-isa (dRes sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobiT moqmedi 20%-iani sagadasaxado ganakveTis pirobebSi);b) mogebis gadasaxadi _ mxaris teritoriaze amoRebuli mogebis gadasaxadis 50%.transferebia) miznobrivi transferebi mxarisTvis delegirebul uflebamosilebaTa dasafinanseblad;b) kapitaluri transferebi kapitaluri proeqtebis gansaxorcieleblad;g) specialuri transferi.mxaris sxva Semosulobebia) procentebi (sargebeli) calkeuli xasiaTis finansuri aqtivebidan, kerZod, depozitebidan (fasiani qaRal- debidan, aqciebis garda), sesxebidan, debitoruli davalianebidan da sxva Semosavali procentebidan, mxaris sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebis ijaridan miRe- buli Semosavali;b) Semosavali mxaris xelisuflebis wilobrivi monaw- ileobiT moqmedi sawarmoebisa da kerZo sawarmoebis mogebidan;g) bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobisTvis mosakrebe- li, gadaxdevinebuli mxarisTvis kuTvnili bunebrivi resursebisTvis;d) Semosavali mxaris sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebisa da miwis ijaridan;e) salicenzio mosakrebeli, gadaxdevinebuli mxaris - 102 -
  • 103. organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;v) saxelmwifo baJi, gadaxdevinebuli mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;z) sajaro informaciis aslis gadaRebis mosakrebeli, gadaxdevinebuli mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi samsax- urebis mier;T) adgilobrivi satendero mosakrebeli mxaris organo- Ta biujetebis saxsrebiT Catarebul tenderebze;i) Semosuloba adgilobriv municipalitetebs Soris regularuli samgzavro gadayvanis nebarTvis gacemi- dan;k) sxva mosakrebeli, gadaxdevinebuli mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;l) Semosavali momsaxurebidan, romelic gaweulia mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;m) Semosavali mxaris sargeblobaSi arsebuli qonebis ijariT an marTvaSi (uzufruqti, qiravnoba da sxv.) gadacemidan;n) Semosavali sanqciebidan (jarimebidan, sauravebidan), gadaxdevinebuli mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi samsax- urebis mier;o) Semosavali, gacemuli sesxis dafarvis vadis dar- RvevisTvis gadaxdili sauravidan, gadaxdevinebuli mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;p) Semosuloba finansuri aqtivebidan da valdebulebe- bidan, gankuTvnili mxarisTvis;J) Semosuloba mxaris sakuTrebaSi arsebuli ZiriTadi aqtivebis gayidvidan;r) Semosuloba sxva materialuri maragis (nedleuli da masalebi, daumTavrebeli warmoeba, mza produqcia da - 103 -
  • 104. Semdgomi realizaciisTvis SeZenili saqoneli) gayid- vidan, ganxorcielebuli mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;s) Semosuloba faseulobebis gayidvidan, ganxorciele- buli mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi samsaxurebis mier;t) Semosuloba arawarmoebuli aramaterialuri aqtive- bidan (patentebi, salizingo xelSekrulebebi da sxva analogiuri kontraqtebi, agreTve, SeZenili gudvi- li), gadaxdevinebuli mxaris organoTa Sesabamisi sam- saxurebis mier.3.4. TviTmmarTveloba TbilisSi3.4.1. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobisa da marTvis principebi saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi _ Tbilisi erTsa da imavedros aris nebismier municipalitetsa Tu regionze bev-rad didi erTeulic da TviTmmarTvelobac. is prob-lemebi, romlebic mTlianad saqarTvelosTvisaa damaxas-iaTebeli, met-naklebad gansxvavebuli xarisxiT gvxvdebaTbilisSic. politikuri Tu ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT aq bev-rad ukeTesi situaciaa. Tbilisis TviTmmarTveloba,garkveulwilad, privilegiur mdgomareobaSia, Tundacim faqtoris gamo, rom misi umaRlesi xelisufalni qvey-nis umTavres gadawyvetilebaTa mimRebTa rigebSi Sedian.amave dros, regionebTan SedarebiT, cxovrebis ganuzom-lad maRali standarti da Zlieri ekonomikuri poten-ciali anivelirebs mTel rig gamowvevebs, rac susti mu-nicipalitetebisTvis gadaulaxav winaaRmdegobas qmnis. amave dros, dedaqalaqis aseTi siZliere misive sisus- - 104 -
  • 105. tis mizezicaa. umTavres problemas aq moqalaqeTa TviT-mmarTvelobisgan kidev ufro didi distancireba qmnis,vidre es sxva municipalitetebSi SeiniSneba. amis mizezia, zogadad, urbanuli kulturisTvis dam-axasiaTebeli gazrdili socialuri distanciebi da ada-mianTa qalaquri garemosgan gaucxoeba. am tendenciebsemateba dabali politikuri kultura, qalaquri TviT-Segnebis dabali done, xelisufalTa piradi da jgufuriinteresebi, mosaxleobis izolireba gadawyvetilebismiRebis procesisgan da qalaqis araefeqturi, moZvele-buli administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis sistema. erT-erT umTavres problemas Tbilisis arsebuli ad-ministraciuli mowyoba qmnis. 2007 wels axali terito-riebisa da Zveli raionebis sazRvrebis gadasinjvis Sede-gad Camoyalibda 6 raioni (Zveli Tbilisis, didgoris,isani-samgoris, vake-saburTalos, didube-CuRureTisa dagldani-naZaladevis). am cvlilebebs aranairi gamokveTili motivacia, das-abuTeba Tu koncefcia ar edo safuZvlad. am procesSiar yofila gaTvaliswinebuli: korelacia administraciul-teritoriuli erTeulis zomasa da mis marTvaSi mosaxleobis monawileobas Soris; sazogadoebrivi azri; reorganizaciis mizani (urban-menejmentis, TviTm- marTvelobis optimizaciis, politikuri interesebi); qarTveli Tu ucxoeli eqspertebis mosazrebebi da saerTaSoriso gamocdileba. Tbilisis raionebs ar gaaCniaT arc TavianTi saku-Tari uflebamosilebani, arc biujeti da arc arCeviTiwarmomadgenlobiTi organoebi. saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis mcire, TviTmmarTvel er- - 105 -
  • 106. Teulebad dayofa da qalaqisa da misi ubnebis ufle-bamosilebaTa gansazRvra dReisaTvis dedaqalaqis mTa-var gamowvevas warmoadgens. Tbilisi, administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobisada marTvis koncefciiT, warmoadgens gansakuTrebulistatusis mqone erTeuls, romelsac kanonmdeblobiTaqvs:a) dedaqalaqis statusi;b) mxarisa da TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosilebebi, xolo mis teritoriul erTeulebs (ubnebs) aqvTTviTmmarTvelobis funqcia.3.4.2. Tbilisis xelisuflebis organoebi Tbilisis xelisuflebis organoebia:a) warmomadgenlobiTi organo _ qalaqis sabWo;b) aRmasrulebeli organo _ Tbilisis meria. warmodgenili koncefciis mixedviT, Tbilisis TviTm-marTvelobaSi erTiandeba 2012 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomare-obiT dazustebuli Tbilisis teritoria. dedaqalaqi iyofa municipalitetebad (savaraudod, 25-30 erTeuli), romlebic moicavs rogorc urbanul kvartalebs, ise dedaqalaqis garSemo arsebul da masTan infrastruqturulad dakavSirebul soflebs; municipalitetebs aqvT sakuTari warmomadgenlobiTi da aRmasrulebeli organoebi, sakuTari biujeti da uflebamosileba; sxva TviTmmarTveli erTeulebisgan gansxvavebiT,dedaqalaqSi Semaval municipalitetTa uflebamosilebaufro SezRudulia da, ZiriTadad, dedaqalaqis xelisu-flebisgan delegirebul uflebamosilebebs moicavs, racganpirobebulia qalaqis, rogorc erTiani urbanuli or- - 106 -
  • 107. ganizmis, Seuferxebeli funqcionirebis saWiroebiT. perspeqtivaSi, aRniSnuli dayofa, SesaZloa, Seic­ a­ vlos mosaxleobis demografiuli moZraobis, Semdgomiurbanizaciis, axali zonebis dasaxlebis da sxva faq-torebis mizeziT. ama Tu im teritoriis sazRvrebisSecvla, erTeulTa erTmaneTTan Serwyma-gayofa da axalierTeulebis Camoyalibeba Seva Tbilisis xelisuflebisuflebamosilebaSi.Tbilisis xelisuflebis warmomadgenlobiTi organoebi Tbilisis sabWo. qalaq Tbilisis sabWo aris qalaqTbilisis TviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTi orga-no, romelic Sedgeba pirdapiri, sayovelTao, Tanasworida faruli kenWisyriT, partiuli proporciuli siste-miT arCeuli 50 wevrisgan. sabWos uflebamosilebis vadaa3 weli. Tbilisis ubnis sakrebulo. qalaq Tbilisis ubnis(municipalitetis) sakrebulo aris qalaq Tbilisis ub-nis TviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTi organo, ro-melic Sedgeba Sesabamis ubanSi mcxovreb saqarTvelosmoqalaqeTa mier pirdapiri, sayovelTao, Tanaswori dafaruli kenWisyriT, proporciuli erTaderTi gadasa-cemi xmis sistemiT, 3 wlis vadiT arCeuli wevrebisgan.Tbilisis ubnebis sakrebuloTa wevrTa raodenoba gan-isazRvreba ubnis amamorCevelTa raodenobis proporci-ulad: 50000 amomrCevlamde ubani airCevs sakrebulos 10wevrs; 50 000-100 000 amomrCevlamde ubani _ 15 wevrs,100 000-ze met amomrCevliani ubani airCevs 21 wevrs. ar-Cevnebi tardeba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgeni-li wesiT, pirdapiri, sayovelTao, Tanaswori da farulikenWisyriT, proporciuli erTaderTi gadasacemi xmissistemiT. - 107 -
  • 108.  dedaqalaqis sabWos da ubnis sakrebulos funqciebi Tbilisis sabWos/ubnis sakrebulos struqturis, saqmianobis wesis, reglamentis, sabWos/sakrebulos organoebis debulebebis damtkiceba da aRsrulebis kontroli; gadawyvetilebis miReba sabWos/sakrebulos wevrTa uflebamosilebis cnobisa da uflebamosilebis vad- amde Sewyvetis Sesaxeb; sabWos/sakrebulos Tavmjdomarisa da mdivnis arCeva da gadarCeva; sabWos/sakrebulos komisiebis Seqmna, komisiaTa Tavm- jdomareebis arCeva da gadarCeva, komisiaTa person- aluri Semadgenlobis damtkiceba; kontroli adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis aRmasrulebeli organoebisa da Tanamdebobis pirebis saqmianobaze, maTi yovelwliuri angariSebis mosmena da Sefaseba; adgilobrivi biujetis proeqtis ganxilva, masSi cv- lilebebisa da damatebebis Setana da damtkiceba, kontroli biujetis Sesrulebaze da misi Sefaseba, biujetis Sesrulebis angariSis damtkiceba; TviTmmarTveli erTeulis eqskluziuri ufle- bamosilebis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebuli pro- gramebis damtkiceba; saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT mu- nicipaluri samsaxurebis Seqmna, maTi reorganizacia da likvidacia; TviTmmarTveli erTeulisTvis delegirebul ufle- bamosilebaTa farglebSi programebisa da proeqtebis damtkiceba; - 108 -
  • 109.  TviTmmarTveli erTeulis saxeliT dadebuli SeTanx- mebebisa da xelSekrulebebis damtkiceba.garda zemoaRniSnulisa, Tbilisis sabWos funqciebSi Sedis: saqarTvelos kanonis Sesabamisad, adgilobrivi ga- dasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis SemoReba da gauqmeba, maTze SeRavaTebis daweseba; saqarTvelos kanonis Sesabamisad, ziari gadasaxadebis dedaqalaqisTvis gankuTvnili ganakveTis dadgena; kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili normativebis fargleb- Si adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis mosamsaxureTa Tanamdebobrivi sargos ganakveTis damtkiceba; meris wardginebiT qalaqis raionisTvis an ubnisTvis gansakuTrebuli statusisa da saxelwodebebis mini- Weba, maTi sazRvrebis dadgena da Secvla; saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT adgi- lobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis qonebis flobis, sarge- blobisa da gankargvis wesebis dadgena; socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis perspeqtiuli gegmebisa da programebis damtkiceba da kontroli maT Sesrulebaze; saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT adgi- lobrivi samsaxurebisa da Sesabamisi organizaciul- samarTlebrivi formis sawarmoebis Seqmna, maTi re- organizacia da likvidacia; Tbilisis mTavrobisTvis sabanko kreditis aRebaze Tanxmobis micema. dedaqalaqis sabWos/ubnis sakrebulos Tanamdebobis pirebi dedaqalaqis sabWos Tanamdebobis pirebi arian: - 109 -
  • 110.  sabWos Tavmjdomare; sabWos Tavmjdomaris moadgile (moadgileebi); sabWos komisiis Tavmjdomare; sabWos fraqciis Tavmjdomare. dedaqalaqis sabWos wevrebi iReben Sromis anazRau-rebas. municipalitetis sakrebulos Tanamdebobis pirebiarian: sakrebulos Tavmjdomare; sakrebulos Tavmjdomaris moadgile (moadgileebi); sakrebulos komisiis Tavmjdomare; sakrebulos fraqciis Tavmjdomare. municipalitetis sakrebulos Tanamdebobis pirebiiReben Sromis anazRaurebas. municipalietetis sakrebulos wevrebi TavianTuflebamosilebas axorcieleben usasyidlod. dedaqalaqis sabWosa da municipalitetis sakrebu-los wevris statusi ganisazRvreba kanonmdeblobiT.Tbilisis xelisuflebis aRmasrulebeli organoebi dedaqalaqis meria. dedaqalaqis aRmasrulebeli or-ganoa meria, xelmZRvanelia meri. qalaqis meri airCeva saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiTdadgenili wesiT, pirdapiri, sayovelTao, Tanaswori dafaruli kenWisyriT, sakrebulos uflebamosilebis vadiT. ubnis gamgeoba. ubnis aRmasrulebeli organoa gam-geoba, xelmZRvanelia gamgebeli. ubnis gamgebels, meris wardginebiT, amtkicebs ubnissakrebulo, Tanamdebobidan aTavisuflebs qalaqis meri.sakrebulos ufleba aqvs, meris winaSe dasvas gamgeblisTanamdebobidan gaTavisuflebis sakiTxi. meriis aRmas- - 110 -
  • 111. rulebel organoebSi gamgeblis saqmianobis formebsa dawess gansazRvravs qalaq Tbilisis meriis debuleba. qalaq Tbilisis ubnis gamgeoba Sedgeba gamgeblis,misi moadgileebisa da calkeuli samsaxurebis xelmZR-vanelebisagan. dedaqalaqis mTavrobis/ubnis gamgeobis uflebamosileba mTavrobis/gamgeobis uflebamosileba: sabWos/sakrebulos gadawyvetilebaTa aRsruleba; socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis programebis proeqtebis momzadeba, winaswari ganxilva da damt- kicebul programaTa ganxorcieleba; biujetis proeqtis SemuSaveba, winaswari ganxilva, cvlilebebis Setanis Taobaze winadadebebis momza- deba, damtkicebuli biujetis xarjviTi nawilis Ses- ruleba, Sesrulebis Sesaxeb angariSgebis Sedgena da sajaroobis uzrunvelyofa; sabWos mier TviTmmarTveli erTeulisTvis delegire- bul uflebamosilebaTa ganxorcieleba; adgilobrivi samsaxurebis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT wi- nadadebebis momzadeba, sabWos/sakrebulos mier dad- genili wesiT reorganizacia da likvidacia; meris/ gamgeblis wardginebiT maT xelmZRvanelTa daniSvna- gaTavisufleba da maTi saqmianobis kontroli. garda zemoaRniSnulisa, Tbilisis mTavrobis fun-qciebSi Sedis: adgilobrivi gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis Se- moRebis, gauqmebisa da maTi odenobis gansazRvrasTan dakavSirebiT sabWosTvis warsadgeni proeqtis momza- deba; - 111 -
  • 112.  adgilobrivi mosakreblebis amoRebis organizebis Sesaxeb winadadebebis momzadeba dedaqalaqis sab- WosTvis warsadgenad; sabWos mier dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad, adgilobriv organoebs daqvemdebarebuli qonebiT sargebloba da gankargva; kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, organizaciul-samarT- lebrivi formis sawarmoTa Seqmna. meri/gamgebeli meri/gamgebeli warmoadgens Tbilisis/dedaqalaqisubnis aRmasrulebeli organos meTaurs. meri/gamgebeli: uZRveba mTavrobis/gamgeobis saqmianobas, anawilebs funqciebs meriis/gamgeobis wevrTa Soris, iwvevs da Tavmjdomareobs meriis/gamgeobis sxdomebs, eqvs Tve- Si erTxel mainc warudgens sabWos/sakrebulos anga- riSs gaweuli muSaobis Sesaxeb; SeimuSavebs da sabWos/sakrebulos dasamtkiceblad warudgens meriis/gamgeobis struqturasa da per- sonalur Semadgenlobas, amtkicebs meriis/gamgeobis struqturuli erTeulebisa da adgilobrivi samsax- urebis debulebebs; Tanamdebobaze niSnavs da Tanamdebobidan aTavisuf- lebs mTavrobis/gamgeobis wevrebs; periodulad ismens mTavrobis/gamgeobis wevrebisa da samsaxurebis xelmZRvanelTa angariSebs gaweuli muS- aobis Sesaxeb; aCerebs an auqmebs adgilobrivi samsaxurebis xelmZR- vanelTa individualur-samarTlebriv aqtebs; xels awers meriis/gamgeobis dadgenilebebs, Tavisi - 112 -
  • 113. uflebamosilebis farglebSi gamoscems brZanebebsa da gankargulebebs; meriis/gamgeobis saqmianobidan gamomdinare, Sei- muSavebs da sabWos/sakrebulos warudgens Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi aqtebis proeqtebs; sabWos/sakrebulos dasamtkiceblad warudgens TviT- mmarTveli erTeulis eqskluziur da misTvis dele- girebul uflebamosilebebTan dakavSirebiT misaRebi gadawyvetilebebis proeqtebs; sabWos/sakrebulos gadawyvetilebis miRebidan erTi kviris vadaSi, Sesabamisi SeniSvnebiT, xelaxla gansax- ilvelad abrunebs sakiTxs sabWoSi/sakrebuloSi; uzrunvelyofs sabWos/sakrebulosa da meriis/gamge- obis mier miRebuli samarTlebrivi aqtebis Sesrule- bas; xels awers Sesabamisi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sax- eliT dadebul xelSekrulebasa da SeTanxmebas; warmoadgens da moqmedebs am erTeulis saxeliT ofi- cialuri urTierTobisas; axorcielebs sabWos/sakrebulosa da mTavrobis Ses- abamisi aqtebiT gansazRvrul sxva uflebamosilebebs. mers/gamgebels aqvs Tanamdebobidan gadadgomis uf­leba. meris/gamgeblis Tanamdebobidan gadadgoma an gaT-avisufleba iwvevs Sesabamisi mTavrobis/gamgeobis gadad-gomas.3.4.3. uflebamosilebebi uflebamosilebaTa gamijvna centralur xe-lisuflebas, dedaqalaqisa da adgilobriv (ubnis)TviTmmarTvelobebs Soris saqarTvelos dedaqalaqSi, - 113 -
  • 114. garkveulwilad, gansxvavdeba saqarTvelos danarCen mx-areTa da TviTmmarTvelobaTa uflebamosilebaTa gami-jvnisagan ori ZiriTadi garemoebis gamo:1. saqarTvelos dedaqalaqs aqvs gansakuTrebuli sta- tusi. Tbilisis TviTmmarTveloba axorcielebs saqa- rTvelos centraluri xelisuflebis institutebis momsaxurebas mTel rig sferoebSi. uflebamosile- baTa mTeli rigis ganxorcielebisas TviTmmarTvelo- bis organoebi, saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis dac- vis aucileblobis gamo, axdenen saqmianobis koor- dinirebas centraluri xelisuflebis organoebTan. aRniSnuli garemoebis garda, gansxvaveba gamoixateba imaSic, rom Tbilisis xelisufleba erTsa da imave dros asrulebs samxareo donisa da TviTmmarTvelo- bis funqciebs.2. Tbilisis ubnebis uflebamosilebaTa CamonaTvalSi, eqskluziur uflebamosilebebTan SedarebiT, ufro gazrdilia delegirebul uflebamosilebaTa da ad- ministraciul da momsaxurebiT uflebamosilebaTa wili (saqarTvelos sxva TviTmmarTvelobis organoe- bSi eqskluziuri uflebamosilebis wili gacilebiT metia) im mosazrebis gamo, rom qalaqi, rogorc er- Tiani organizmi, ver CaSlis calkeul momsaxurebas ubnebis doneze (magaliTisTvis: Tu TemebSi adgil- obrivi sazogadoebrivi transporti SeiZleba iyos pirveli donis (qalaqi, Temi, sofeli) TviTmmarTv- elobis eqskluziuri uflebamosileba, TbilisSi, rogorc did qalaqSi, es Tbilisis sabWosa da meriis uflebamosilebaSi unda Sediodes, vinaidan misi (sa- marSuto miniavtobusebi, metropoliteni da sxv.) marTva ubnis doneze da mxolod am ubnis farglebSi ararealuria). - 114 -
  • 115. 3.4.4. finansebi1. vinaidan qalaq Tbiliss miniWebuli aqvs rogorc mx- aris, ise TviTmmarTvelobis uflebamosilebebi, misi finansuri Semosavlebis formireba xdeba mxarisa da TviTmmarTvelobebis Semosulobebis saxeebis jamisa- gan.2. saxelmwifo, kanonmdeblobiT, q. Tbilisis biujets gadascems damatebiT finansur resursebs Tbilisis mier dedaqalaqis funqciebis Sesrulebis uzrunve- lyofis mizniT.3. q. Tbilisis ubnebis (municipalitetebis) biujetebis Semosavlebis formireba xdeba q. Tbilisis biujeti- dan gadacemuli transferebiT, romlis odenobasa da saxeebs gansazRvravs q. Tbilisis xelisufleba.3.5. saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris xelisuflebis organoebis saqmianobaze3.5.1. saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobis ZiriTadi principebi saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobis amocanebia: adgilobrivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis ufle- bebis dacva da maTi uflebamosilebis SesrulebisT- vis xelSewyoba kanonisa da sxva normatiuli aqtebis farglebSi; delegirebuli uflebamosilebis sferoSi adgilo- brivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis organoTa saqmianobis uzrunvelyofa saxelmwifo interesebis, miznebisa da politikis Sesabamisad; - 115 -
  • 116.  adgilobrivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis organ- oTa mier saxelmwifo biujetis saxsrebis sajaro in- teresebis Sesabamisad administrirebis uzrunvelyo- fa. kanonis dasacavad saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobismra­ ali SesaZlo RonisZiebidan unda gatardes is, ro- vmelic yvelaze naklebad daazianebs adgilobriv da samx-areo TviTmmarTvelobas. saxelmwifo zedamxedvelobisRonisZiebiT mosalodnelma zianma ar unda gadaaWarbosRonisZiebis gziT misaRwev Sedegs. SesaZlo CareviT RonisZiebebTan SedarebiT upi-ratesoba unda mieniWos prevenciul (profilaqtikur)RonisZiebebs, anu zedamxedvelobis ufro rbil saSuale-bebs, saimisod, rom maqsimalurad iqnes Tavidan acile-buli CareviTi RonisZiebebi. zedamxedvelobis aramarTlzomieri zomis gamoy-enebis Sedegad adgilobrivi da samxareo TviTmmarTv-elobis organosTvis miyenebuli ziani anazRaurdeba ka-noniT dadgenili wesiT. saxelmwifo zedamxedveloba warmodgenelia oriformiT: samarTlebrivi da dargobrivi zedamxedveloba. samarTlebrivi zedamxedveloba _ saxelmwifo zedam­xedveloba TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris xelisu-flebis organoebis eqskluziur da saxelmwifos mierdelegirebul uflebamosilebebTan dakavSirebiT Semois-azRvreba mxolod am amocanebis Sesrulebis kanonTan Se-sabamisobis SemowmebiT; dargobrivi zedamxedveloba _ saxelmwifo zedamxed-veloba delegirebul amocanebTan mimarTebaSi moicavszedmxedvelobas delegirebuli uflebamosilebis ganx-orcielebasTan dakavSirebuli amocanebis SesrulebisSinaarssa da xarisxze kanonmdeblobis, Sesabamisi nor-matiuli aqtebis da delegirebis xelSekrulebis farg-lebSi. - 116 -
  • 117. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis saqmianobis samarT-lebrivi zedamxedvelobis organoa saqarTvelos iusti-ciis saministro. saxelmwifos/mxaris mier delegirebuli ufleba­ o­ msilebis Sesrulebaze dargobrivi zedamxedvelobis or-ganoa is uwyeba (ZiriTadad, Sesabamisi dargobrivi samin-istro), romelmac ganaxorciela uflebamosilebis dele-gireba. samarTlebrivi da dargobrivi zedamxedvelobis or-ganoebi, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxarismoTxovnis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, valdebulni arian,samarTlebrivi konsultaciebi gauwion maT. is RonisZiebebi, romelTa gamoyenebis uflebac sax-elmwifo zedamxedvelobis ganmaxorcielebel organoebsaqvT, dgindeba kanoniT.3.5.2. samarTlebrivi zedamxedveloba samarTlebriv zedamxedvelobas eqvemdebareba eqs­klu­ iur da delegirebul uflebamosilebaTa sferoebSi zadgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebisa da Tanam-debobis pirebis mier miRebuli/gamocemuli normatiuliaqtebi. TviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris xelisuflebis or­ganos mier miRebuli/gamocemuli normatiuli aqti wa­redgineba iusticiis saministros eqspertizisTvis. da­debiTi daskvnis miRebis SemTxvevaSi normatiuli aqtiSedis ZalaSi da qveyndeba „sakanonmdeblo macneSi“.uaryofiTi daskvnis SemTxvevaSi TviTmmarTveli erTeu-lis/mxaris xelisuflebis organos ufleba aqvs, amavesakiTxze miiRos/gamosces axali normatiuli aqti. ius-ticiis saministros ufleba aqvs, mimarTos sasamarTlosnormatiuli aqtis SeCerebis, baTilad cnobis an Zalada-kargulad gamocxadebis moTxovniT. - 117 -
  • 118. adgilobrivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis orga-nos/Tanamdebobis pirs ufleba aqvs, sasamarTlos gadaw-yvetileba normatiuli aqtis baTilad cnobis an Zala-dakargulad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb gaasaCivros zemdgomsasamarTlo instanciaSi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveli er-Teulis/mxaris xelisuflebis organo samarTlebrivizedamxedvelobis am gankargulebas gansazRvrul vadeb-Si ar Seasrulebs, maSin samarTlebrivi zedamxedvelo-bis organos SeuZlia sasamarTlos mimarTos sarCeliTqmedebis ganxorcielebis moTxovniT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mosaxleobis sicocxles an janmr-Telobas, savaraudod, daemuqreba an ukve daemuqrasafrTxe, maSin samarTlebrivi zedamxedvelobis organos,sasamarTlosadmi winaswari mimarTvis gareSe, SeuZliaTviTon gaataros saWiro RonisZiebebi. samarTlebrivizedamxedvelobis organos ufleba aqvs, moiTxovos amdros warmoSobili xarjebis anazRaureba adgilobriviTviTmmarTveli erTeulis/mxaris xelisuflebis orga-noebisgan. samarTlebrivi zedamxedvelobis organos yvela Care-viTi RonisZieba unda arsebobdes werilobiTi formiTada saTanado dasabuTebiT.3.5.3. saxelmwifo organoebis uflebamosileba dargobriv zedamxedvelobaze delegirebuli uflebamosilebis sferoSi adgilo-brivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis organos/Tanamde-bobis piris mier ganxorcielebuli saqmianobis mizan-Sewonilobis ganxilvis mizniT, zedamxedvelobis or-ganos SeuZlia gamoiTxovos Sesabamisi adgilobrivi dasamxareo TviTmmarTvelobis organosagan (Tanamdebobispirisagan) nebismieri oficialuri dokumenti, maT Soris, - 118 -
  • 119. adgilobrivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis organos/Tanamdebobis piris samarTlebrivi aqtebi, Sexvedrebisada sxdomebis oqmebi, administraciuli saqmiswarmoebismasalebi, safinanso dokumentacia da a.S. zedamxedvelobis organo uflebamosilia, adgilo-brivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis organoebisa daTanamdebobis pirebisagan gamoiTxovos maT mier miRebu-li/gamocemuli is individualuri samarTlebrivi aqtebi,romlebic ukavSirdeba delegirebuli uflebamosilebisganxorcielebisas materialuri da finansuri resursebisgamoyenebas. zedamxedvelobis ganmaxorcielebeli Tanam-debobis piri uflebamosilia, mizanSeuwonlobis mo-tiviT, gaauqmos individualuri samarTlebrivi aqti.zedamxedvelobis ganmaxorcielebeli Tanamdebobis pirisgadawyvetileba mizanSeuwonlobis motiviT individual-uri samarTlebrivi aqtis gauqmebis Sesaxeb SeiZleba gas-aCivrdes sasamarTloSi. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis/mxaris organos miermiRebuli/gamocemuli kanonsawinaaRmdego samarTlebri-vi aqtis SemTxvevaSi samarTlebrivi zedamxedvelobisorgano adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobas/mxares aZlevsmiTiTebas imis Sesaxeb, rom man dauyovnebliv moiwviossakrebulos/sabWos sxdoma am dadgenilebis gadamowmebismizniT. Tuki sakrebulo/sabWo ar Secvlis Tavis samar-Tlebriv aqts, maSin organos, romelic axorcielebssamarTlebriv zedamxedvelobas, SeuZlia sasamarTloSimisi gasaCivreba. dargobrivi zedamxedvelobis organos SeuZlia, adgi-lobrivi TviTmarTvelobis/mxaris organos werilobiTimiTiTebebi miawodos saxelmwifos mier delegirebuliamocanebis Sesrulebis saxeobisa da Sinaarsis Sesaxeb. esmiTiTebebi SeiZleba gaegzavnos rogorc calkeul, iseyvela adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis/mxaris organoebserTad. - 119 -
  • 120. Tu adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organo/Tanamde-bobis piri delegirebuli uflebamosilebebis sferoSiar miiRebs samarTlebriv aqts, romlis miRebac mas ka-noniT evaleba, zedamxedvelobis organo valdebulia,mosTxovos mas aRniSnuli valdebulebis Sesruleba. adg-ilobrivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis organo/Tanam-debobis piri valdebulia, Seasrulos zedamxedvelobisorganos moTxovna. Tu adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisorganoTanamdebobis piri ar Seasrulebs zedamxedvelo-bis organos moTxovnas, zedamxedvelobis organo mimar-Tavs saqarTvelos mTavrobas Sesabamisi normatiuliaqtis miRebis/gamocemis TxovniT.sazedamxedvelo RonisZiebaTa gasaCivreba adgilobrivi da samxareo TviTmmarTvelobis xelisu-flebis organoebs SeuZliaT, sasamarTloSi gaasaCivronsamarTlebrivi zedamxedvelobis organoTa dadgenile-bebi, qmedebebi an qmedebebisagan Tavis Sekaveba saqarT-velos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT.3.5.4. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTveloba pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis ganxorcieleba pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTveloba xorcieldebaSemdeg SemTxvevebSi:a) sabWos/sakrebulos saqmianobis SeCerebis an daTxovni- sas;b) sabWos/sakrebulos uflebamosilebis vadamde Sewyve- tisas;g) kanoniT dadgenili wesiT sabWos/sakrebulos aurCev- lobisas. - 120 -
  • 121.  pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTveloba TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sabWos/sakrebulos daTxovnis an misi saqmianobis SeCerebis SemTxvevaSi sabWos/sakrebulos daTxovna an misi saqmianobis Se-Cereba xdeba saqarTvelos konstituciis 73-e muxlispirveli punqtis „i“ qvepunqtiT gaTavliswinebul Sem-TxvevebSi, Tu warmomadgenlobiTi organos moqmedebiTsafrTxe Seeqmna qveynis suverenitets, teritoriulmTlianobas, saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoTa kon-stituciur uflebamosilebaTa ganxorcielebas. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTveloba sabWos/sakrebu- los uflebamosilebis vadamde Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSi sabWos/sakrebulos uflebamosilebis vadamde Sew-yvetis safuZvlebia sakrebulos/sabWos qmeduunaroba,ganaxorcielos am kanoniT da sxva normatiuli aqtebiTgansazRvruli uflebamosilebebi. sabWos/sakrebulos uflebamosileba SeiZleba vad-amde Sewydes, Tu:a) sabWos/sakrebulos wevrTa raodenoba Semcirda nax- evarze metiT;b) axlad arCeuli sabWo/sakrebulo ver Seikriba 3 Tvis ganmavlobaSi;g) sabiujeto wlis dawyebidan or TveSi sabWom/sakrebu- lom ar daamtkica saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT gaT- valiswinebuli wesiT Sedgenili biujeti;d) mxaris sabWom or TveSi ver airCia mmarTveli/admin- istracia. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis SemoRebis wesi adgilobriv TviTmmarTvel erTeulSi pirdapiri sax- - 121 -
  • 122. elmwifo mmarTvelobis SemoReba xdeba saqarTvelos pre-zidentis brZanebulebiT, romelic 24 saaTis ganmavloba-Si aRniSnul gadawyvetilebas dasamtkiceblad warudgenssaqarTvelos parlaments. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis ganxorcieleba pirdapir saxelmwifo mmarTvelobas adgilobrivTviTmmarTvel erTeulSi/mxareSi axorcielebs prezi-dentis mier daniSnuli gamgebeli/meri/administraciismmarTveli; pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis ganmaxorcie-lebeli Tanamdebobis piri asrulebs am kanoniT gaTval-iswinebul uflebamosilebas. am piris damatebiT ufle-bamosilebas gansazRvravs saTanado debuleba, romelsacamtkicebs saqarTvelos prezidenti. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis ganxorcielebaszedamxedvelobas uwevs saqarTvelos prezidenti. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis ganxorcielebis vada pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTveloba sabWos/sakre-bulos daTxovnis, saqmianobis SeCerebis, an misi ufle-bamosilebis vadamde Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSi xorcieldebaara ugvianes riggareSe arCevnebis Sedegad arCeuli sab-Wos/sakrebulos uflebamosilebis cnobamde. pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis Sewvetaa) pirdapiri saxelmwifo mmarTveloba wydeba riggar- eSe arCevnebiT arCeuli sabWos/sakrebulos ufle- bamosilebis cnobis momentidan.b) sabWos/sakrebulos riggareSe arCevnebis daniSvnisa da Catarebis wesi ganisazRvreba saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsiT. - 122 -
  • 123. 3.6. administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis reformis SemoTavazebuli modelis Zlieri da susti mxareebi3.6.1. Zlieri mxareebi1. marTvis demokratiuli principebis damkvidreba _ xelisuflebis organoTa saqmianobaze mosaxleobis informirebulobis gazrda; adgilobrivi organoe- bis saqmianobis gamWvirvalobis gazrda; mosaxleobis monawileobis gazrda adgilobrivi sakiTxebis gadaw- yvetis procesSi; adgilebze samoqalaqo sazogadoe- bis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba; adgilobrivi elitebis formirebis procesis xelSewyoba.2. umciresobaTa socialur-ekonomikuri problemebis mogvareba maTi uSualo monawileobiT, rac Seamci- rebs mmarTvelobis zeda doneebze am sakiTxebis politizebis safrTxis warmoSobis albaTobas.3. sofelSi/TemSi mosaxleobisTvis momsaxurebis xaris­ xisa da sayofacxovrebo pirobebis gaumjobeseba, momsaxurebis gawevis daaxloeba; sofelSi/TemSi sa­ soflo-sameurneo infrastruqturis upiratesi gan- viTareba; adgilobrivi ganviTarebis programebis efeqturobis gazrda da maTze sazogadoebrivi kon- trolis daweseba; adgilobriv doneze kvalifikaciis gazrda, mosaxleobisTvis momsaxurebis gawevis pro- cesSi adgilobrivi kadrebis dasaqmeba da maTi kvali- fikaciis zrda.4. Temebis masStabebi da misi formirebis principebi xels Seuwyobs TemSi Semaval dasaxlebaTa mosaxleo- bis saWiroebaTa adekvatur dakmayofilebas.5. TviTmmarTvelobis organoebSi mosaxleobis monawil- eobis garkveuli institucionalizacia, maT Soris, - 123 -
  • 124. dasaxlebis sazogadoebrivi sabWo, arCeviTi mamasax- lisi, dasaxlebis kreba da analogiuri formebi qa- laqebSi saubno doneze gazrdis moqalaqeTa sajaro marTvaSi Tanamonawileobis xarisxs.6. saSualo, didi qalaqebisa da samxareo centrebis gan- viTarebis xelSewyoba.7. saxelmwifo politikaSi maRalmTiani soflebis in- teresebis ukeT gaTvaliswineba.8. dRes, roca adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis pirveli done gauqmebulia, xolo raionis uflebamosileba mkveTradaa Semcirebuli, TviTmmarTvelobis qveda doneze Catanasa da qalaqebis/soflebis/TemebisTvis uflebamosilebisa da finansebis gadacemas mosaxle- obis mxardaWera eqneba.9. avtonomiur respublikebTan urTierTobisas eko- nomikuri da politikuri balansis SesanarCuneblad mizanSewonilia regionebis (mxareebis) arseboba; samx- areo TviTmmarTvelobis Camoyalibebam perspeqtivaSi unda daabalansos separatistuli regionebi da, amas- Tan, gadaWras eTnikuri umciresobebiT dasaxlebuli teritoriebis integraciis sakiTxic.10. saqarTveloSi arsebobs bunebrivad Camoyalibebuli istoriuli kuTxeebi, romelTac, istoriuli faq- torebis garda, socialur-ekonomikuri erTianobac axasiaTebT. qarTuli sazogadoebis udidesi nawili pirovnebis identifikaciis erT-erT kriteriumad am ukanasknelis kuTxobriv kuTvnilebas miiCnevs. samx- areo donis Seqmna gazrdis urierTSejibrebiTo- bis faqtors regionebs Soris urTierTobaSi, rac SesaZlebelia dadebiTad aisaxos am regionebis so- cialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis Sedegebze.11. realuri decentralizaciis gansaxorcieleblad au­ - 124 -
  • 125. ci­ ebelia, centrma Tavisi uflebamosilebis mniS- l vnelovani nawili TviTmmarTvelobebs gadasces. amave dros, arsebobs funqciebi, romelTa ganxorcieleba- sac SedarebiT ufro msxvili teritoriuli erTeuli sWirdeba, sadac SesaZlebelia resursebis adekvatu- ri koncentracia.12. mxares, raionTan SedarebiT, bevrad meti finansur- ekonomikuri resursi gaaCnia, rac mas saSualebas mis- cems, regionaluri ganviTarebis bevrad seriozuli da efeqturi programebi ganaxorcielos da, amasTa- nave, mis mier ganxorcielebuli proeqtebi gacile- biT met SesabamisobaSi iqneba regionis interesebTan, vidre centralizebulad dagegmil-ganxorcielebu- li proeqtebi.13. regionebis arseboba gazrdis regionuli centrebis ganviTarebis dones, rac, dedaqalaqTan erTad, eko- nomikurad da socialurad ganviTarebul qalaqTa jgufis Camoyalibebas Seuwyobs xels.14. saqarTveloSi, Tu igi marTla iswrafis evrostruq- turebSi integraciisken, aucileblad dadgeba re- gionul mowyobaze gadasvlis aucileblobis sakiTxi.3.6.2. susti mxareebi1. savaraudod, garTuldeba sxvadasxva municipaluri erTeulis formirebis sakiTxi. problemuri iqneba axali municipaluri erTeulebis sazRvrebis, admin- istraciuli centris adgilmdebareobis, saxelwo- debisa da sxva msgavsi sakiTxebi.2. mosalodnelia reformirebis procesis droSi gawel- va, vinaidan dReisaTvis saxelmwifos ar gaaCnia arc saTanado statistikuri informacia da arc saTanado - 125 -
  • 126. sakanonmdeblo baza am problemaTa droulad mo- sagvareblad.3. municipaluri xelisuflebis organoebSi Sesabamisi kvalifikaciis moxeleTa arasakmarisoba, ramac re- formebis pirvel etapze SeiZleba xeli SeuSalos ad- gilobrivi xelisuflebis organoTa normalur funq- cionirebas.4. reformis ganxorcielebis pirvel wlebSi SesaZlebe- lia, warmoiSvas problemebi xelisuflebis doneTa Soris uflebamosilebaTa gamijvna-ganxorcielebas- Tan mimarTebaSi da Sesabamisi instituciuri kon- fliqtebi.5. bunebrivi resursebisa da qonebis xelisuflebis do- neTa Soris gamijvnis procesis teqnikur-samarT- lebrivi problemebi. - 126 -
  • 127. danarTi 1 subnacionaluri doneebis raodenobis gansazRvris principebi miuxedavad imisa, Tu rogoria qveynis mowyoba, feder-aluri Tu unitaruli, SesaZlebelia qveynebis dajgufebaTviTmmarTvelobis doneTa raodenobis mixedviT. teritoriis sididisa da mosaxleobis raodenobidangamomdinare, qveynebi, pirobiTad, ramdenime jgufad Sei-Zleba gavaerTianoT:a) samdoniani mmarTveloba _ evropis did qveynebsa da aSS-Si mmarTvelobis sami done arsebobs _ Stati/mx- are, sagrafo/raioni da municipaliteti;b) ordoniani mmarTveloba _ evropis SedarebiT patara qveynebi (3-15 mln mcxovrebi) ori doniT kmayofil- debian _ mxare/regioni da municipaliteti;g) erTdoniani mmarTveloba _ mcire (maT Soris, e.w. juja saxelmwifoebi) qveynebSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTv- elobis mxolod erTi _ municipaluri done arsebobs. mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, garkveuli kanonzo-mierebaa daculi subnacionaluri erTeulebis sididismxrivac (igulisxmeba rogorc mosaxleobis raodenoba,ise teritoria):a) regionuli done _ es done did qveynebSi yvelaze msxvil warmonaqmns qmnis. misi mosaxleoba meryeobs 1-dan (didi britaneTi, saberZneTi, CexeTi) 5-6 mln da met (aSS-is Statebi, germaniis landebi) mcxovre- bamde. saSualod, aq 2-3 mln mcxovrebia (safrangeTi, italia, kanada, espaneTi, poloneTi);b) e.w. Sualeduri done (sagrafo, mxare) _ mosaxleobis raodenoba 100 aTasidan (aSS, poloneTi, estoneTi) - 127 -
  • 128. 1 mln-mde (espaneTi, niderlandebi) meryeobs. saSu- alod, aq ori jgufis gamoyofaa SesaZlebeli: 200- 400 aTasi (germania, didi britaneTi, SvedeTi, dania, litva, saberZneTi, Sveicaria, irlandia, fineTi) da 500-600 aTasi (safrangeTi, italia, ungreTi, rumi- neTi) mcxovrebi. SedarebisTvis, saqarTvelos mxaree- bSi (imereTi, samegrelo, kaxeTi da a.S.) mosaxleobis saSualo ricxvi 350 aTasia;g) qveda, municipaluri done _ es donec didi varirebiT xasiaTdeba. mosaxleobis raodenobis standarti sx- vadasxva qveynebisTvis sxvadasxvagvaria da meryeobs 2 aTasi da naklebi mosaxlidan (safrangeTi, por- tugalia, CexeTi, slovakeTi, Sveicaria) 20 aTas an met mosaxlemde (irlandia, niderlandebi, SvedeTi, litva, bulgareTi). saerTod ki, saSualod, munici- palitetebis mcxovrebTa raodenoba 7-18 aTasia (aSS, germania, italia, skandinaviisa da baltiis TiTqmis yvela qveyana, poloneTi, balkaneTis qveynebis umrav- lesoba, ruseTi da sxva). - 128 -
  • 129. danarTi 2 evrosabWos wevri qveynebis, aSS-sa da israelismunicipaluri erTeulebis mosaxleobis saSualo odenobacxrili 2. mosaxleobis raodenoba evropis qveynebismunicipalitetebSi: qveyana mosax. qveyana mosax. 1 didi britaneTi 125957 27 norvegia 10000 2 saqarTvelo-2010 68305 28 albaneTi 8043 3 litva 66283 29 xorvatia 7901 4 serbeTi 41817 30 rumineTi 7586 5 niderlandebi 36997 31 italia 7105 6 portugalia 34856 32 saerToevropuli 6343 7 saberZneTi 33735 33 estoneTi 5714 8 bulgareTi 33049 34 germania 5575 9 irlandia 31808 35 malta 511110 SvedeTi 30686 36 espaneTi 499711 israeli 28679 37 ukraina 470112 bosnia-hercogovina 27605 38 saqarTvelo-2002 438013 Cernogoria 26963 39 somxeTi 350814 azerbaijani 26050 40 moldova 344515 makedonia 24705 41 luqsemburgi 344116 TurqeTi 23866 42 avstria 342217 latvia 22364 43 san-marino 337418 kviprosi 20000 44 lixtenSteini 327419 dania 19094 45 monako 327120 belgia 18404 46 ungreTi 323621 aSS 15875 47 Sveicaria 309722 poloneTi 15575 48 slovakeTi 178923 slovenia 13534 49 CexeTi 164424 andora 12145 50 islandia 162325 fineTi 11206 51 safrangeTi 157826 ruseTis federacia 10873 - 129 -
  • 130. iq, sadac TviTmmarTvelobis pirvel doneze mo-saxleobis raodenobis mixedviT ufro mcire erTeule-bia, saqmianobis koordinaciis mizniT, iqmneba sxvadasxvaformis municipaluri gaerTianebebi (safrangeTi, CexeTi,slovakeTi, portugalia). mTel rig qveynebSi (dania, ni-derlandi, latvia, SvedeTi) SedarebiT didi mosaxleo-bis ricxvi gamowveulia didi qalaqebis arsebobiT, raczemoT wevs saSualo maCvenebels. qveynebSi, sadac ufromsxvili municipalitetebi arsebobs (didi britaneTi,aSS), qveda doneze arsebobs arCeviTi municipaluri or-ganoebi (mag., Temebi da samrevloebi did britaneTSi _saSualod 3700 mcx.), raTa gaadvildes mosaxleobis mar-TvaSi monawileobis procesi. - 130 -
  • 131. danarTi 3 evrosabWos wevri qveynebis, aSS-sa da israelis munici-paluri erTeulebis teritoriaTa saSualo zomebi (kv.km.) qveyana terit. qveyana terit.1 SvedeTi 1563 27 xorvatia 1042 ruseTis federacia 1298 28 niderlandebi 973 litva 1161 29 rumineTi 804 saqarTvelo-2010 891 30 albaneTi 785 norvegia 890 31 andora 716 fineTi 741 32 espaneTi 627 islandia 624 33 saqarTvelo-2002 578 irlandia 614 34 ukraina 559 Cernogoria 601 35 israeli 5310 latvia 582 36 belgia 5111 didi britaneTi 522 37 italia 3712 serbeTi 508 38 avstria 3613 aSS 475 39 moldova 3514 bulgareTi 435 40 somxeTi 3315 saberZneTi 406 41 ungreTi 3016 kviprosi 400 42 germania 2417 bosnia-hercogovina 361 43 luqsemburgi 2218 makedonia 306 44 lixtenSteini 1819 portugalia 299 45 slovakeTi 1620 TurqeTi 275 46 Sveicaria 1621 azerbaijani 260 47 safrangeTi 1522 saerToevropuli 189 48 CexeTi 1323 estoneTi 178 49 san-marino 724 dania 160 50 malta 425 slovenia 138 51 monako 026 poloneTi 126 - 131 -
  • 132. danarTi 4 evropis qveynebis dedaqalaqebis ubnebis mosaxleobis saSualo raodenoba, qalaqis sabWoebis Semadgenloba da formirebis wesi evropis mcire qveynebis dedaqalaqTa umetesobaSiadministraciuli erTeulis mosaxleoba meryeobs 30-dan60 aTas mcxovrebamde (bratislava, oslo, vena, vilniusi,stokholmi, amsterdami, briuseli, sofia, talini, zagre-bi, skopie da a.S.). evropis didi qveynebis dedaqalaqebSi, romlebicTa­ isTavad warmoadgenen megapolisebs, teritoriul ver­ eulebSi mcxovrebTa ricxvi varirebs 90-dan 140 TaTasamde (londoni, varSava, parizi, madridi, romi). evropis dedaqalaqebis sabWos wevrTa ricxvi sakmaodgansxvavdeba erTimeorisagan. cxrili 3. wevrTa ricxvi evropis saxelmwifoTadedaqalaqebis sabWoebSi qalaqis sabWos qalaqebi wevrTa raodenobaamsterdami, aTeni, kopenhageni,dublini, lisaboni, madridi,oslo, praRa, riga, romi, vilniusi, 40-dan 80 wevramdebratislava, briuseli, budapeSti,talini da sxvastokholmi, vena, berlini, parizi 100-ze metilondoni 25 sabWos wevrTa SedarebiT didi ricxvi uzrunvelyofsgansxvavebul interesTa jgufebis farTo warmomadgen-lobas dedaqalaqis TviTmmarTvelobaSi. - 132 -
  • 133. evropis qveynebis absolutur umravlesobaSi sabWoe-bi airCeva 4 wlis vadiT. gamonakliss warmoadgens, erTimxriv, zogierTi kaTolikuri da frangulenovani qveyana(5-6 weli), xolo, meore mxriv, zogierTi juja saxelm-wifo (3 weli). qalaqis sabWos TiTo wevri warmoadgens 5-dan 10-mde(kopenhageni, dublini, helsinki, niqozia, oslo, stok-holmi, talini), 10-dan 20-mde (amsterdami, aTeni, briuse-li, lisaboni, parizi, riga, vilniusi) da 20-dan 30-mde(berlini, budapeSti, praRa) aTas mcxovrebs. gamonaklisswarmoadgens londoni (115 aT.mcx.) da vena (155 aT.mcx.). dRes arsebuli da SemoTavazebuli modelis mixedvi-Tac, Tbilisis sakrebulos TiTo wevri warmoadgens 19-20 aTas mcxovrebs. - 133 -
  • 134. konstantine kandelaki _ fsiqologi. samoqalaqo kulturis saerTaSor- iso centris gamgeobis Tavmjdomare 1989-2001 w.წ. _ saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis politolo-giis institutis mecnier-TanamSromeli; 1991-95 w.w. _ Jurnal `pan-oramas~ gamomcemeli; 1995-96 w.w. _ saerTaSoriso organizacia `samar-Tliani arCevnebis~ TanamSromeli.daviT losaberiZe _ istorikosi. eqsperti decentralizaciisa da samo- qalaqo sazogadoebis sakiTxebSi 2003-2011 w.w. _ evropis sabWos adgilobrivi da regionaluri xe-lisuflebis kongresis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis evropuliqartiis damoukidebel eqspertTa jgufis namdvili wevri saqarT-velodan (2011 w-dan _ Semcvleli wevri); 2004-2005 w.w. _ efeqturimmarTvelobiTi sistemisa da administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobisreformis saxelmwifo komisiis wevri.irakli melaSvili _ istorikosi, samarTalmcodne. eqsperti politi- kur da saarCevno sakiTxebSi 1992_1995 w.w. _ saqarTvelos parlamentis wevri; 1992 w. _ saqarT-velos saxelmwifo sabWos wevri; 1990-1992 w.w. _ saqarTvelos uzenae-si sabWos wevri; 2006-2010 w.w. _ p/g `erovnuli forumis~ politikurimdivani; 1999-2000 w.w. _ saqarTvelos parlamentis aparatis mowveulispecialisti; 1998 w. _ parlamentis mrCevelTa sabWos aRmasrulebelimdivani; 1995-1997 w.w. _ saqarTvelos atlantikuri TanamSromlobisasociaciis prezidenti.Tengiz SergelaSvili _ ekonomisti 2002 w-dan _ saqarTvelos sazogadoebriv saqmeTa instituti,saleqcio kursebi: ekonomika, sajaro finansebi, adgilobrivi ekonomi-kuri ganviTareba; 2010 w-dan _ „evropuli iniciativa-liberaluri ak-ademia-Tbilisis“ analitikosi; 2000-2006 w.w. _ saqarTvelos axalgaz-rda ekonomistTa asociaciis Tavmjdomare; 2005-2006 w.w. _ proeqtis„saqarTvelos decentralizaciis strategia“ direqtori; 2000-2002w.w. _ USAID-urbanuli institutis sakanonmdeblo bazaze momuSavesaeqsperto jgufis xelmZRvaneli; 2005 w. _ efeqturi mmarTvelobiTisistemisa da administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis reformis sax-elmwifo komisiis wevri. dasaqmebis, sagadasaxado da sabaJo, ekonomi-kuri zrdisa da siRaribis daZlevis, makroekonomikuri politikis,regionuli ganviTarebis reformebis jgufebis wevri. ISBN 978-9941-436-28-4
  • 135. saqarTvelos ganviTarebis kvleviTi instituti GEORGIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE konstantine kandelaki,daviT losaberiZe, irakli melaSvili, Tengiz SergelaSvilisaqarTvelos adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sistemis ganvrcobili koncefcia Tbilisi, 2012