Classes of Nutrients– Water H2O– Carbohydrates C H O– Fats CHO– Protein CHONS (16% N, <1% S, P if amino acid is phosphorylated)– Minerals • 7 Macrominerals (measured as % of ration) • Microminerals (trace, measured in ppm)– Vitamins (minute quantities, measured in I.U) • Fat Soluble (A,D,E,K • Water Soluble (B vitamins)
International unit (IU) is a unit of measurement forthe amount of a substance, based on measuredbiological activity (or effect)The mass equivalents of 1 IU for selected substances:1 IU Vitamin A: the biological equivalent of 0.3 μgretinol, or of 0.6 μg beta-carotene1 IU Vitamin C: 50 μg L-ascorbic acidµg = microgram (mcg) = 10–6 g
Nutrients are made up of:• C - Carbon • H - Hydrogen• O - Oxygen • N - Nitrogen• Na - Sodium • Cl - Chlorine• Ca - Calcium • P- Phosphorus• K- Potassium • Mg -Magnesium• S - Sulfur • Co -Cobalt• Cu - Copper • F- Fluorine• I - Iodine • Fe - Iron• Mn - Manganese • Mo -Molybdenum• Se - Selenium • Zn - Zinc
Water• Least expensive nutrient – but often times lacking• Most abundant nutrient in the animals body deficiency can cause death faster than other deficiencies.• Function – Transportation of nutrients and excretions – Chemical reactions – Body temperature regulation – Maintains shape of body cells – Lubricates and cushions joints and organs
Water• Sources – Drinking (40-76%) – Moisture in feed (4-40%) – Metabolic water derived from oxidation (20%)• Losses – Urine – Feces – Respiration – O2 in and CO2 and H2O out – Perspiration
Factors affecting water Consumption• Age and Size of animal• Performance of animals• Environmental temperature and humidity
Factors affecting water Consumption• Age and Size of animal• Performance of animals• Environmental temperature and humidity• Water content of feed• Dietary factors - salt in feed• Urinary system - mammals vs. birds - cows vs. camels• Water quality and availability
Water Deficiency Symptoms• Decrease performance• Decrease feed intake• Sunken eyes• Decrease elasticity of skin• Animals drinking urine or mud
Approximate water consumption (mature animal)1. Swine 1.5 to 3 gal/hd/d2. Sheep 1 to 3 gal/hd/d3. Cattle 10 to 14 gal/hd/d4. Horses 10 to 14 gal/hd/d5. Poultry 2 parts water for each part of dry feed
II. EnergyA. Carbohydrates – C (40%) H (7%) O (53%) Includes sugars, starches, cellulose and others (simple to complex) – C, H, and O make up 75% of the plant dry weight and represents largest part of animals food supply – Formed by photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light (673 calories) = C6H12O6 + 6O2
This sea slug, discovered off the coast ofNew England in 2009, produces its ownchlorophyll so can carry out photosynthesis,turning sunlight into energy.
• Very little carbohydrate present in an animal’s body – Plants use carbohydrates for structure (fiber) and store energy – Animals have bones for structure and store energy as fat
Classification of Carbohydrates• Monosaccharide (1 sugar molecule (simple sugar)) • Fructose (corn syrup – sweetest sugar known) • Glucose (blood sugar) • Galactose (fatty substances of the brain) • Mannose (obtained from polysaccharides, in cranberry juice) Two main sugars in honey are glucose and levulose. Five carbon sugars are part of DNA, RNA and viruses. Simple sugars are absorbed into the blood stream without further digestion in the digestive tract.
• Lignin – indigestible structural component of plants• Crude Fiber (Total fiber) – Cellulose – Hemicellulose – mixture of cellulose, pectins, starches – Xylans – polysaccharide found in corncobs and wood – Lignin• NDF = neutral detergent fiber (contains all 4 CF components)• ADF = acid detergent fiber (does not contain hemicellulose)
Carbohydrates• Sources – Grain (high starch, low fiber – seed coat) – Forages (high fiber, low starch) – Milk (lactose) – cow’s milk is 5% lactose which is 40% of the solids in milk• Function – General heat to maintain body temperature – Fuel metabolic reactions – Building blocks for other nutrients – Energy stored in animals in form of fat
Although the term lipid is sometimes used asa synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup oflipids called triglycerides.Lipids also encompass molecules such asfatty acids and their derivatives (including tri-,di-, monoglycerides, and phospholipids), aswell as other sterol-containing metabolitessuch as cholesterol, waxes, and fat-solublevitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K).
B. Fats – Chemical composition (% molecular weights) C (77%), H (12%), O(11%) 40 7 53 Carbo’s – Insoluble in water – Unit of fat has 2.25 more energy than unit of carbohydrate
Functions of Fats• Store energy• Protect organs• Insulate• Energy source in food• Essential fatty acids needed for prostaglandin production• Fat soluble vitamins found in fat – Cholesterol, a lipid, is a precursor for vitamin D and sex hormones
Digestion and Metabolism• Highly digestible• Short chain > long chain in some cases• Lipase breaks down triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids
Location in the Animal Body• Milk – Horse 1.5% – Cows 3-5% – Sheep 8%• Eggs – 10%• Internal Fat – KPH and fat between muscles• Where is external fat deposited?
III. Protein1. Chemical Composition (% molecular) – C (53%) H (7%) O (23%) N (16%) S and P <1%)1. Protein is the nutrient in highest concentration in muscle tissue of animals.1. Made of sequences of amino acids
4. Small to very large molecular weight – Lys – Met – His – Ile – Val – His - …. (muscle sarcomeres may have a total length of almost 27,000 amino acids)5. Short chains = peptides6. Contains nitrogen which distinguishes protein and amino acids from other nutrients Although some – % N x 6.25 = % crude protein vitamins contain nitrogen – % N / 16% = % crude protein
B. Functions of Protein1. Basic Structural Unit of Animal a. Collagen - mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendon, ligament and skin, and is also abundant in cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, the gut, and intervertebral disc. b. Elastin c. Blood proteins – hemoglobin is polypeptides (protein) plus heme C18H34O4N4Fe d. Keratin proteins – skin, hair, feathers e. Contractile proteins - muscle
B. Functions of Protein1. Basic Structural Unit of Animal a. Collagen b. Elastin - is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. c. Blood proteins – hemoglobin is polypeptides (protein) plus heme C18H34O4N4Fe d. Keratin proteins – skin, hair, feathers e. Contractile proteins - muscle
B. Functions of Protein1. Basic Structural Unit of Animal a. Collagen b. Elastin c. Blood proteins – hemoglobin is polypeptides (protein) plus heme C18H34O4N4Fe d. Keratin proteins – skin, hair, feathers e. Contractile proteins - muscle
Body Metabolism (continued)c. Immune Antibodies • IgA, IgG, IgMc. Hereditary transmission • Chromosomes are about 50% DNA and 50% protein
3. Protein used as energy• Protein consumed in excess of animal’s daily requirement is broken down by proteases (digestive enzymes) into amino acids• Amino acids are deaminated (NH3 removed), and the carbon skeletons are used as an energy source.
3. Source of Energy After Deamination
C. Digestion and Metabolism of Protein1. Dietary proteins broken down into amino acids and peptides.2. Protein quality more important for non-ruminants than ruminants. Protein quality here refers to balance of essential amino acids.3. Rumen micro-organisms can make amino acids from nitrogen (urea or ammonia).
C. Digestion and Metabolism of Protein (continued)4. Fate of amino acids after absorption a. Tissue protein synthesis – the amino acid sequence in a protein is controlled by genes b. Synthesis of enzymes, hormones and other metabolites c. Deamination and use of carbon skeleton for energy
D. Amino Acids1. Essential amino acids – these amino acids are essential to the animal and must be supplied in the diet because the animal body can’t synthesize them or do so at a fast enough rate to meet its requirement.2. Non-essential amino acids – those amino acids which are essential to the animal but are normally synthesized or present in sufficient quantities in the diet and need not be supplemented.
D. Amino Acids (continued)3.Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds, which couple the α- carboxyl group of one amino residue to the α-amino group of another residue.• Example:
IV. Minerals (inorganic)A. Macrominerals [3-3.5% in Dairy Ration] 1. Calcium (Ca) [.8%] a. Bone growth b. Blood - stimulates normal blood clotting c. Nerve and muscle function d. High in milk, egg shells
RicketsCalcium orVitamin Ddeficiency
2. Phosphorus (P) [.45%] a. Bone growth b. Metabolic energy (component of ATP) c. Component of nucleotides (DNA, RNA) deficiency – depraved appetitie, weakness, low fertility, rickets, weak bones
3. Sodium (Na) [.18%] Increased requirement if sweating a. Regulates pH and osmotic pressure b. Nerve function c. Enzyme stabilizer Slight deficiency causes decreased appetitie4.Chloride (Cl) [.28%] a. Regulates pH and osmotic pressure b. Nerve function c. Enzyme stabilizer d. Formation of HCl in the stomach
Salt (NaCl) deficiency signs• Salt craving – (drink urine, lick ground, etc.• Decrease production, rough hair coat, death if severe.
5. Magnesium (Mg) [.22%] a. Neuromuscular function b. Enzyme activator Inorganic forms of Mg, K, and S c. Normal bone growth supplemented in Deficiency – grass tetany, excitability ruminant diets only – non-6. Potassium (K) [1.0%] ruminants can not utilize Deficiency - feed intake , inorganic forms. muscle weakness a. Nerve function and muscle contraction b. Enzyme stabilizer c. Maintain osmotic pressure Requirements may increase because of losses from sweating or diarrhea.
7. Sulfur (S) [.2%] Deficiency - Slow growth, decrease milk productiona. Components of S-containing amino acids and some hormonesb. Acid – base balancec. In feathers and gizzard lining
B. Microminerals (Trace Minerals) 1. Chromium (Cr) – carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Increase rate of lean growth in young pigs. 2. Cobalt (Co) (Supplement ruminant and horse diets only) a. Component of vitamin B12 b. Enzyme activator deficiency – decreased appetite, anemia 3. Copper (Cu) (necessary for red blood cell formation, has antibiotic-like growth promoting ability in swine) a. Hemoglobin synthesis (anemia) b. Enzymes (diarrhea, poor hair/wool growth)
4. Fluorine (F) - bones and teeth4. Iron (I) a. Hemoglobin synthesis - anemia b. Enzymes4. Iodine (I) a. Thyroid hormone – goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland). Deficiency: pigs and lambs born hairless or wool-less4. Manganese (Mn) – lameness, fertility a. Enzyme activator
8. Molybdenum (Mo) (supplement ruminant diets only) Most feedstuff contain enough a. Enzymes8. Nickel (Ni) Rations have enough - assists in the absorption of iron and the formation red blood cells8. Selenium (Se) (Eastern Minnesota soils are deficient) Works with vitamin E – maintains muscle integrity
Selenium ToxicitySelenium deficient
January 2010News Flash: 25 U of MN Hampshire ewes die when student worker mistakenly put selenium mineral instead of “sheep mineral” into the mineral feeder.
11. Silicon (Si) (most feeds have plenty)supports the development and maintenanceof the connective tissues and skeletalsystem.
12. Tin (Sn) – deficiency: decreased growth in rats13. Vanadium (V) - proper growth and bone development and also for normal reproduction.14. Zinc (Zn) – immune system and healthy skin, feathers and hooves a. Enzyme activator b. Protein synthesis All microminerals can be toxic in surplus amounts!
C. Mineral – Vitamin Interrelationships, e.g. 1. Ca, P, Vitamin D 2. Co, Vitamin B12 3. Vitamin E, Selenium
V. VitaminsA. Fat Soluble 1. Vitamin A a. Vision – especially night vision – fetal eye developement b. Bone formation c. Immune function - Antioxidant and anti- carcinogenic properties d. Membranes – skin, lungs, reproductive and digestive tracts Cheap to supplement, Beta-carotene is the precursor found in plants
2. Vitamin D - cheap to supplement a. Bone formation – works with Ca and P3. Vitamin E a. Antioxidant b. Immune system supplementation extends shelf life of meat and milk4. Vitamin K a. Blood clotting
B. Water Soluble –cofactors or activators of enzymes 1. Thiamine (B1) – harvesting energy via the Kreb’s cycle, deficiency causes Beriberi in humans. 2. Riboflavin (B2) – involved with Kreb’s cycle 3.Niacin (B3, nicotinic acid)– helps convert fat to glucose in the liver – prevents and treats ketosis – involved with Kreb’s cycle 4. Pyridoxine (B6) - protein metabolism and red blood cell formation 5.Pantothenic Acid (B5) deficiency: dermatitis and loss of hair
B1 B2 B3B6 B5Most B vitamins made up of C,H,O, and N.
6. Folic Acid (B9) – helps make proteins from amino acids. 7. Biotin (B7) deficiency: dermatitis and loss of hair (same as pantothenic acid)8. Vitamin B12 (cyanacobalamin is most common synthetic form) Found in animal products and manufactured by bacteria. Associated with appetite, anemia, and hatching problems in birds9. Choline – “smart bill”, associated with brain activity. Also, helps the liver convert fat into glucose (like niacin) to prevent ketosis.10. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) – only required for humans, guinea pigs and fish. May help prevent scours and enhance immune system in young
B7 B12 C63H88CoN14O14P B9 choline
A. Classification of Feedstuffs 1. Dry roughages and forages alfalfa hay, grass hay 2. Range, pasture, green forages (green chop) 3. Silages corn silage, haylage 4. Energy Feedstuffs corn grain 5. Protein supplements SBM, distillers grains 6. Mineral supplements salt, ground limestone, dical 7. Vitamin supplements 8. Non-nutritional additives antibiotics, hormones,ervatives
A. Classification of Feedstuffs1. Dry roughages and forages2. Range, pasture, green forages3. Silages Feeds with >18% crude fiber are considered roughages.4. Energy Feedstuffs contain less than 18% crude fiber and < 20% crude protein.5. Protein supplements contain <18% crude fiber and > 20% crude protein.6. Mineral supplements7. Vitamin supplements8. Non-nutritional additives
B. Evaluation of Feedstuffs for Energy Content 1. TDN system a. TDN: Total Digestible Nutrients a. TDN = digestible crude protein + digestible crude fiber + digestible nitrogen – free extract + 2.25 x digestible fat
c. Example 100 gm feed (Swine or Poultry diet) Amount % Digestible TDN Protein 20 gm 75 = 15 gm NFE 60 gm 85 = 51 gm Fiber 10 gm 20 = 2 gm Fat 5 gm 85 x 2.25 = 9.56 gm
c. Example 100 gm feed (Swine or Poultry diet) Amount % Digestible TDN Protein 20 gm 75 = 15 gm NFE 60 gm 85 = 51 gm Fiber 10 gm 20 = 2 gm Fat 5 gm 85 x 2.25 = 9.56 gm 77.56%
2. Metabolizable Energy and Net Energy System a. Definition: A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree C from 15.5 degrees C to 16.5 degrees C1 kcal = 1000 calories : (kcal used for poultry & swine diets)1 kcal = 1 Calorie with a capital C for human nutrition1 Mcal = 1000 kcal : (Mcal used for dairy & beef diets) Calories are measured by a laboratory method called bomb calorimetry
• Example CHO produces 4000 calories/g Fat produces 9450 calories/g Protein produces 4100 calories/g 4 grams CHO x 4000 = 16,000 calories 20 grams protein x 4100 = 82,000 calories 2 grams fat x 9450 = 18,900 calories Total 116,900 calories = 116.9 kcal
Bile from liver: – Emulsify fats – Neutralizes acids in stomach – Contains minerals that help with digestion
B. Ruminants (polygastric) 1. Anatomy
Advantages of ruminants:
• Advantages – Digest cellulose – Utilize NPN – Synthesize B vitamins• Disadvantages – Less efficient for low fiber feeds – Digestive upsets – Large fermentation vat to carry around
2. Energy Digestion Feeds s A’ e VF an h et M + Glucose O 2Body Cstores Glucose Production s VFA’s pas VFA’ in blood b y- s stream e m SoMilkfat Acetic acid
3. Protein Digestion (CO(NH2)2) NH + NPN 3 Urea energy 60% of a.a High protein quality broken down inS.I. rumen By-pass protein
C. Avian – Poultry Holds feed – some breakdownNo teeth – breaks feed with beak and scratching Little digestionHCL + pepsin – Vitamin K synthesizedContains grit Uric acid from kidneys added
D. Equine – nonruminant herbivore 1. Anatomy
2. Digestive Disturbances in Horses a. Colic (abdominal pain) Signs Look at flank, kick belly, restless, violent rolling, perspiration Causes Over consumption of high fiber feed, not enough water, gas produced from rapid fermentation of too much grain Solutions Balance amount of fiber and grain, feed small amounts, use laxative such as wheat bran
b. Founder • Over consumption of fermentable feeds such as grains or early spring grass – lactic acid in blood causes inflammation in feet – causes extreme pain in feet and abnormal hoof growth. Laminitis is a less severe form of founder
Heaves – obstructive airway disease similar to human asthma. • Allergic reaction to dust in feed: develops as horses age and becomes chronic. avoid feeding moldy or dusty feeds and bedding May have to feed pelleted ration and bed with paper
E. Cats have a few nutrition characteristics that make them different from other monogastrics: 1. Protein: Cats have the highest requirement for protein of all domesticated species. When cats were evolving, a high protein and fat diet was always available so cats never found it necessary to conserve proteins. Cats always "waste" some of the dietary protein by breaking it down for energy. 2. Taurine: (tor Rine) Cats require taurine because they cannot convert other amino acids into taurine. Taurine is important to prevent visual, cardiac and reproductive problems and is found naturally only in meat and fish, but now routinely made artificially.
3. Fats: Cats also require both linoleic and arachidonic acids to prevent skin and coat problems and poor reproduction. Arachidonic acid is found only in animal sources of fat.4. Vitamins: Pre-formed vitamin A must also be present in the cats diet. Dogs can break β-carotene into two molecules of vitamin A; cats cannot. Pre-formed vitamin A is also found only in animal tissues.
• Cats are also somewhat peculiar in their eating behavior. Cats will tend to eat and drink limited quantities on numerous occasions, consuming up to 16 small meals during a 24-hour period when fed on an ad lib basis. (source: http://www.aspca.org/site/PageServer? pagename=careforcats)
F. Foods to Avoid Feeding to Your Dog• Alcoholic beverages • Moldy or spoiled foods• Avocado • Onions, onion powder• Chocolate (all forms of chocolate) • Raisins and grapes• Coffee (all forms of • Salt coffee) • Yeast dough• Fatty foods • Garlic• Macadamia nuts • Products sweetened with xylitol(source: http://www.aspca.org/site/PageServer?pagename=apcc_poisonsafe
1. Example Ration for Early Lactation/High Production Group Lbs. DM Alfalfa hay 14.0 lbs Corn silage 14.0 lbs 50-60% roughage Corn 13.0 lbs energy Soybean meal, 44% 8.0 lbs protein Fat 1.0 lb energy Dicalcium phosphate 0.5 lb Ground limestone 0.25 lb Trace mineralized salt 0.25 lb Mineral-vitamin mix 0.10 lb 51.1 lb DMBalanced for fiber, energy, protein, salt, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins ADE
2. Example Ration for young Calves – Pre-rumination Liquid milk replacer – primary source of nutrition for the first 4 to 6 weeks Grain starter diet: Corn 50.0% Oats 22.0% Soybean meal 20.0% Molasses 5.0% Dicalcium phosphate 0.5% Ground limestone 1.5% Vitamin – TM premix 1.0% Roughage is not need in a calves diet for rumen development.