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  2. 2. CARBOHYDRATES • an organic compound that contains the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides
  3. 3. Classification of Carbohydrates: I. Monosaccharides – has one sugar unit Carbohydrate Source •Glucose ( grape sugar dextrose or corn sugar) Grapes, corn, honey, fruits digestive end product of sugars and starches •Fructose (fruit sugar) honey, ripe fruits digestive end product of sucrose •Galactose not found free in nature digestive end product of milk
  4. 4. II. Disaccharides – has 2 sugar units Carbohydrate Source •Sucrose ( table sugar or cane sugar) most common table sugar, molasses, sugarcane, fruits •Lactose (milk sugar) Milk and milk products •Maltose (malt sugar) Malted products, cereal
  5. 5. III. Polysaccharides – more than 10 saccharide units Carbohydrate Source A. Digestible • Starch Cereal grains, rice, wheat, tubers Unripe fruits and vegetables, legumes • Dextrins Toasted bread • Glycogen (animal starch) Liver, oyster, muscle meat B. Partially Digestible • Inulin Tubers, onion and garlic • Mannosans legumes
  6. 6. C. Indigestible • Cellulose Skins of fruits, covering of nuts and legumes, stems and mature leaves • Hemi-cellulose a. Agar-agar seaweeds b. Pectins Slightly unripe fruits Polysaccharides
  7. 7. * Dietary Fiber – indigestible part of food - also called roughage - 20 to 30 grams of fiber per day is recommended
  8. 8. Functions of Dietary Fiber Provides bulk Acts as a broom in our digestive tract to prevent constipation Aids in normal elimination of waste Reduces incidence of colon cancer Reduces blood cholesterol level
  9. 9. Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body • Chief source of energy – provides 4kcal/gram • Cheap and main energy food • Protein sparer • Regulator of fat metabolism • Sole energy source for the brain and nerve tissues • Storage form of energy as glycogen • Regulator of peristalsis and provider of bulk
  10. 10. Food Sources of Carbohydrates: • Sugars, fruits and milk • Cereal grains and products ( rice, corn, oat, breads and other baked goods, noodles or pasta) • Root crops, vegetables and legumes
  11. 11. Molasses Malted barley
  13. 13. PROTEIN • An organic compound that contains the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen arranged into amino acids linked in a chain by peptide bonds
  14. 14. Amino Acids • Building blocks of protein • Contains hydrogen atom, an amino group, acid group and a distinctive side group • There are about 20 different amino acids. • Can be broken down by means of hydrolysis
  15. 15. Classification of Amino Acids • Essential amino acids – amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs • “indispensable” • TV TILL PM (tryptophan, valine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, methionine) • Note: histidine & arginine are considered essential for infants
  16. 16. • Semi-essential amino acid– reduces the need for a particular essential amino acid or partially spares it • Non-essential amino acid – amino acids that the body can synthesize – Ex. Alanine, arginine, asparagine,aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, tyrosine etc.
  17. 17. Classification of Protein According to Amino Acid Content • Complete protein – contains all essential amino acids in amount sufficient for growth and life maintenance Ex. Egg and animal proteins
  18. 18. • Partially complete – can maintain life but do not support growth ex. Wheat and legumes • Incomplete protein – cannot support life or growth ex. Corn and most plant proteins
  19. 19. FUNCTIONS of PROTEINS: • As building materials – for growth and maintenance ex. Skin, muscles (actin & myosin), hair (keratin), tendons & bone matrix (collagen) • As enzymes – facilitates chemical reactions in
  20. 20. • As hormones – regulates body processes • As antibodies – inactivates foreign invaders thus protecting our body against infection • As regulators of fluid balance – maintains the fluid volume and the composition of the body fluids • As acid-base regulators – maintains acid-base
  21. 21. • As transporters – transports substances such as lipids, vitamins, minerals, oxygen around the body • As source of energy – provides some fuel for the body’s needs – Each gram of protein yields 4 calories
  23. 23. Marasmus - occurrence increases prior to age 1 Body weight may be reduced to less than 80% of the normal weight for that height extensive tissue and muscle wasting dry skin, loose skin folds, beading of the ribs Irritable and voraciously hungry
  24. 24. Kwashiorkor - occurrence increases after 18 months  failure to gain weight  stunted linear growth  generalized edema  protuberant (swollen) abdomen  diarrhea, skin desquamation (peeling) and vitiligo  reddish pigmentation of hair  decreased muscle mass  lethargy, apathy, and irritability
  25. 25. LIPIDS • Organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in fat solvents and are utilizable by man • Contains the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in glyceride linkage • Yields 3 fatty acids and a molecule of glycerol
  26. 26. LIPIDS • Solid lipid is called FAT while its liquid form is termed OIL
  27. 27. Classification of Fatty Acids I. Degree of Saturation or Unsaturation • Saturated fatty acid (SAFA) – commonly found in coconut oil, palm oil, chocolate, butter and animal fat
  28. 28. • Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) – with one double bond between 2 carbons – found in olive oil, avocado, almonds, peanuts and margarine • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) – with 2 or more double bonds – found in corn oil, soybean oil and fish oils
  29. 29. II. Essentiality • Essential fatty acids » Arachidonic acid » Linolenic acid (omega-6) » Linoleic acid (omega-3) • Non-essential fatty acids
  30. 30. *Trans-Fatty Acid - also called “trans-fats” - made from hydrogenation of PUFA -> changes liquid oils to solid fats *Hydrogenated Fats - turns polyunsaturated vegetable oils into saturated fats
  31. 31. Functions of Fats • Source of energy - provides 9 calories per gram • Provide structural function - insulation: prevents hypothermia - protective pad & gives support to organs
  32. 32. Functions of Fats • Acts as regulator of body processes - spares protein, thiamin & niacin - supplies EFAs - carrier of fat-soluble vitamins • Performs other special functions - has high satiety value - contributes to flavor and palatability