PSYCHOLOGICAfr, -1 ~I ( f(:: .-........ vBEINGNOTES AND OBSERVATIONSONChristian Wolfs Psychologia EmpiricaBYEMANUELSWEDENB...
PREFACEI.II.III.IV.V.VI.VII.VIII.IX.X.XI.XII.XIII.XIV.XV.XVI.XVII.XVIII.XIX.XX.XXI.XXII.XXIII.CONTENTS.Nos.BY THE TRANSLAT...
CONTENTS.XXIV. THE MEMBRANES ......................• 22~230XXV. [CONCERNING PHILOSOPHy]............... 231XXVI. FAITH IN C...
Preface.Some three or four months ago, Professor E. E. IUNGERICHbrought to the present writer a draft translation into Eng...
PREFACE.justice both to the translator and to the reader the Latin textof the work should be published at the same time as...
PREFACE.Grateful acknowledgment is made to Pro£. C. E. DOERINGwho has given considerable assistance in connection with the...
PREFACE.in one or two cases he has subdivided paragraphs (though with­out numbering them) ; this seemed useful for greater...
PREFACE.noted, however, that the first draft of the PRINCIPIA did not~. include what is now known as Chapter 1 on "The Mea...
PREFACE.chapter was originally intended as the Preface or Introductionto the work, and that what is now Chapter 2 was Chap...
--PREFACE.CIPIA, which are contained on p. 58 of:codexJ~8~and which wereincluded in Chapter 1 of the printed work. He then...
PREFACE.he wrote out for the press that meEIoraple first chaplet ofJ~ePRINCIPIA entitled "The Means conducing to a True Ph...
PREFACE.June 14th to 15th, prepares PRINCIPIA for press.July 10th, sees Wolffs COSMOLOGIA.40-49 Principia notes and Journa...
PREFACE./......(4..this way unless each particle becomes fluid, so that each singleparticle contributes to the moti~;;--~w...
PREFACE.!orerunner. This leads us to a consideration of the develop­ment of the psychological theory outlined in the work ...
PREFACE.this is specifically indicated in the INFINITE (p. 268) where inspeaking of a work which he proposes to write on t...
PREFACE.closely followed up in the years following 1719. Chapter 1 ofthe PRINCIPIA on "The Means conducing to a True Philo...
PREFACE.-1­z,1whole body, so that th~ tremulous or undulatory motio~0n theenclosed elements are the verimost animal spirit...
PREFACE.as affirmative and positive; for e?Cper~~ce and geometry are theonly things which must affirm and establish. And w...
PREFACE.will and the action of the soul in the will. Turning from thist-;-~ consideration of the souls state after the dea...
PREFACE.ANIMAL KINGDOM. But in all these writings he seems ever to~~~-k~pt-ht-~ew the end which he had outlined in the TRE...
","" 1PSYCHOLOGICABeingNotes and ObservationsonChristian Wolffs Psychologia Empirica[1.]1. Is GOD A SPIRIT. iVolff says th...
1PSYCHOLOGICA.[In][Chr. Wolffii][Psychologiam Empiricam]MS., p. 159. 3 Ph. MS., p. 102.Num Deus sit spiritus. Deum esse Sp...
2f1..PSYCHOLOGICA.reason of His having assumed a body. But there is a nexus ofChrist and the Holy Spirit with the Infinite...
2PSYCHOLOGICA.assumserit; at Christi et Spiritus Sancti est nexus cum Infinito,sed qualis sit nobis est incognitum. Ergo s...
3PSYCHOLOGICA.6. We learn the e.tistence of the soul before that of the body[n. 22]. For if one thinks or if one doubts, t...
3PSYCHOLOGICA.6. Animae existentiam ante cognoscimus quam corporis.Nam si cogitat vel si dubitat, causa vel ens dubitans a...
4-5PSYCHOLOGICA.thought; thought exists in the foolish, in whom the soul hardlyoperates at all. There is corporeal thought...
4-5PSYCHOLOGICA.anima, est cogitatio. Cogitatio datur corporea, datur animae,quae simul dant mihi rationale. Did sic potes...
6-8PSYCHOLOGICA.nature of the apperception,-whether or not there is in it a[rational] soul,-this may be concluded from the...
6-8PSYCHOLOGICA.qualitate et modo apperceptionis conc1udi potest, num animasit vel non.MS., 162.Omnis cogitatio et percept...
9-12PSYCHOLOGICA.[IV.][THE FORMAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PERCEPTIONS.]9. The light of the soul is the clarity of perception. T...
9-12PSYCHOLOGICA.Lumen animae est claritas perceptionis: IUuminari anima,ut dum sibi conscia est, quod percipit, ut ea qua...
13-14PSYCHOLOGICA.forward, it is a sign that, when the given notion had first reachedthe soul, it had come from such a dis...
13-14PSYCHOLOGICA.at; si aliquid dissimile, signum est quum notio illa ad animamprimo pervenerit, a tali venisse vel una c...
15PSYCHOLOGICA.[V.]OBSERVANDA.15. Granting that tremulation is the cause of our sensation inthe soul; and granting that th...
15PSYCHOLOGICA.MS., 164.OBSERVANDA.Sit quod tremulatio sit causa nostrae sensationis in anima;et sit quod animae figurae s...
....- 16PSYCI-IOLOGICA.at once acquires another setting of the tone, but yet such, thatall things follow in order harmonio...
16PSYCHOLOGICA.aliam toni constellationem nanciscitur, ita tamen ut omniaordine harmonice succedant. 6. Dnus tonus una pot...
17PSYCHOLOGICA.of a geometric, according to the above figures. 6. The samegeometric proportion is preserved wherever the l...
17PSYCHOLOGICA.secundum superiora. 6. Quod eadem proportio geometricaconservetur, ubicunque incidit in hyperbolam, seu ad ...
17PSYCHOLOGICA.are not attached, and here the first element flows into them and isactuated into a similar motion in accord...
17PSYCHOLOGICA.elementum primum in conos, quod secundum motum tremulummembranae in similem motum agitur; sic potest anima ...
17PSYCHOLOGICA.1. RS are the spirals or helices of the supremely subtle[membrane] of the soul. ·Within them are actives of...
17PSYCHOLOGICA.secundum delineationem: ut I. RS sunt spirae seu helicessubtilissimae animae in quibus sint activa primi; i...
18-19PSYCHOLOGICA.18. THE TREMORS IN THESE TUNICS. 1. In the first is thesupremely distinct tremor of the soul. 2. Likewis...
18-19PSYCHOLOGICA.Tremores in his tunicis. I. In prima est ipsa animae, dis­tinctissima. 2. Pariter in altera. 3. In terti...
20-21PSYCHOLOGICA.has been impressed, and thus a dissimile comes forward in thesimile.* Hence either the man reasons absur...
20-21PSYCHOLOGICA.simile cum simili prodit; sic vel absurde ratiocinatur, vel exmemoria per multam imaginationem plane per...
22-24PSYCHOLOGICA.can we say of touch, smell, and hearing, that they depend onmutations, if we do not say the same thing o...
22-24PSYCHOLOGICA.tremulatio existat. Quid dicemus de tactu et olfactu, auditu,quod dependeant a mutationibus, nisi etiam ...
25-27PSYCHOLOGICA.simile, or because of a mutation-therefore the motion advancesonwards to the soul, and becomes a rationa...
25-27PSYCHOLOGICA.vel propter mutationem, hinc pergit motus ad animam fitqueperceptio rationalis; nee illuc perveniri pote...
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Em Swedenborg-PSYCHOLOGICA-psychological-notes-Latin-English-Alfred-Acton-SSA-Philadelphia-1923

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGICAfr, -1 ~I ( f(:: .-........ vBEINGNOTES AND OBSERVATIONSONChristian Wolfs Psychologia EmpiricaBYEMANUELSWEDENBORGTRANSLATED FROM THE PHOTOLITHOGRAPHED MANUSCRIPTBYALFRED ACTON, M.A., B.Th.DEAN OF THE mEOLOGICAL SCHOOL OF THE ACADEMYOF THE NEW CHURCHSWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATIONPHILADELPHIA, PA.19 2 3
  2. 2. PREFACEI.II.III.IV.V.VI.VII.VIII.IX.X.XI.XII.XIII.XIV.XV.XVI.XVII.XVIII.XIX.XX.XXI.XXII.XXIII.CONTENTS.Nos.BY THE TRANSLATOR.Is GOD A SPIRIT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1THE EXISTENCE OF THE HUMAN SOUL.Wolffs Rules.... . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2How TO ACQUIRE A KNOWLEDGE OF THESOUL............................... 3-8THE FORMAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PER­CEPTIONS , . 9-14OBSERVANDA. [Diversities of Tremulations.]How the membranes seem to be effigied.The tremors in the tunics. The forma­tions of the tremulations . 15-20SENSATION . 21-41IMAGINATION . 42-71SLEEP AND DREAMING . 72-86THE FACULTY OF PICTURING . 87-105THE MEMORy . 106-132ATTENTION AND REFLECTION . 133-142THE INTELLECT AND COGNITION . 143-144THE THREE OPERATIONS OF THE INTELLECT 145-150NATURAL DISPOSITIONS AND HABITS OF THEINTELLECT . 151-158PLEASURE AND VVEARINESS . 159-164SENSITIVE ApPETITE AND SENSITIVE AVER­SION 165AFFECTIONS 166-194THE WILL 195-199THE WILL AND ITS DETERMINATIONS 200-208THE CONSTITUTION OF THE SOUL. THESOUL AFTER DEATH 209-216THE PHILOSOPHY OF PARTICLES. . . . . . . . . . 217THE MEMBRANES 218-226[NATURE IS MECHANICAL]............... 227iii
  3. 3. CONTENTS.XXIV. THE MEMBRANES ......................• 22~230XXV. [CONCERNING PHILOSOPHy]............... 231XXVI. FAITH IN CHRIST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232ApPENDIX. EMINENT GENERATION.SUBJECT INDEX.iv
  4. 4. Preface.Some three or four months ago, Professor E. E. IUNGERICHbrought to the present writer a draft translation into English ofpp. 159-206 of the third volume of the Swedenborg photo-lithographed MSS:--The writing contained in these pages hadnot been given any title by the author, but in the photolitho-graphed volume Dr. R. L. Tafel had supplied the title" AComparison of the Systems of Christian Wolff and Sweden-borg "; for which, Pro£. Iungerich had substituted as beingmore descriptive, the title "A Psychology of Tremulationsbased on the Apothegms of Chr. Wolff." Neither of thesetitles seemed satisfactory. The first involves a systematic com-parison of the whole of Wolffs philosophy with the philosophyof Swedenborg, whereas the work itself consists merely of notesmade on various points in lIIolffs PSYCHOLOGIA EMPIRICA in-terspersed with sundry observations. The second title, whileindeed descriptive, seems to involve that the work was writtenas a set treatise, whereas on the face of it, it is ~othing mo:.-ethan notes written during the course of --!".-e~ding. We havepreferred therefore the title " Psychologica" or PsychologicalNotes. .~ -- ---After hearing a brief description of the work from Prof.IUNGERICH, it needed but a glance at his draft translation toconvince the writer of these lines, as to the importance of thework in question; and the matter of its publication was at oncebrought up before the Directors of the Swedenborg ScientificAssociation, with the result that Mr. HAROLD F. PITCAIRN gen-erously offered to defray the cost of printing.Pro£. IUNGERICHS translation was not in shape to be pub-lished. Indeed it became clear that considerable research wouldbe necessary before a finished translation could be undertaken;and even with this, it was clear that in many places the trans-lator would be obliged to become more or less of an interpre-ter. As soon as this became evident, it was suggested that inv
  5. 5. PREFACE.justice both to the translator and to the reader the Latin textof the work should be published at the same time as the Englishtranslation; and we record, with great appreciation, that Mr.HAROLD F. PITCAIRN at once extended his offer to cover thisadditional printing.The new translation which was then commenced by the pres­ent writer was made from the photolithographed manuscriptdirect, but based on Prof. IUNGERICHS draft translation. Thechanges, however, have been so numerous and far-reaching,that the work is really a new translation, and for it the trans­lator alone must be held responsible. At the same time grate­ful acknowledgment is made for many suggestions supplied byPro£. Iungerichs translation.The PSYCHOLOGICA was evidently written by the author forhis own use; consequently the language is frequently so ellipti­cal as to be obscure. The translator, therefore, had. twochoices; either he could translate the work with exact literal­ness; or he could supply more or less of interpretation whereverthe text does not make the authors meaning c1ear,-as for in­stance in the numerous cases where it is not clear what specifi­cally is the subject or object of the verb.The objection to the first method is that a literal translationwould be far more obscure than the original Latin; for theEnglish language does not have genders like the Latin, and doesnot always show by the form of the verb whether the subjectis singular or plural. It is on this plan that Pro£. Iungerichstranslation was made. To our mind, the second plan is to bepreferred, and this, therefore, we have adopted. Any possibleobjections which may be made to it are almost entirely obviatedby the publication of the Latin text.The Latin text is in places extremely difficult to read. Pro£.IUNGERICH hilmade a transcript befo~~preparing his transla­tion, and in making the present translation, an independenttranscript was also made. This latter Pro£. IUNGERICH verykindly compared with his own and supplied valuable suggestions.In view of this revision by so competent a scholar, the readermay be assured of the correctness, so far as possible, of thereadings presented in the printed text.vi
  6. 6. PREFACE.Grateful acknowledgment is made to Pro£. C. E. DOERINGwho has given considerable assistance in connection with thediagram in n. 17. Swedenborgs explanation of this diagrampresents some difficulty; but after considerable research, Pro£.DOERING found that by a slight alteration in the letters referringto the diagram, Swedenborgs conclusion was fully established.It seems clear, as suggested by Pro£. DOERING, that Swedenborgmade a slip in writing C and E for A and A. Pro£. DOERINGalso informs us that the proposition based on this diagram seemsto be original with Swedenborg, for no such proposition is tobe found in any of the very numerous works on Mathematicswhich the Professor has consulted in the course of his studies.Acknowledgment is also made to Mr. WINFRED S. HYATT,for his kindness in executing the interpretations of Sweden-borgs diagrams.To Pro£. Iungerichs translation, which covered pp. 102-136of the photolithographed MS., we have added pp. 137-140.These latter pages do not concern Wolffs PSYCHOLOGICA EM-PIRICA, but the same is true also of the four preceding pages.In any case, it is clear that the pages now added belong to thesame series of writings.We have also added an appendix consisting of a short pieceentitled" Eminent Generation," which has been translated fromthe sixth volume of the photolithographed MSS., p. 311. Itwas written some six or seven years after the PSYCHOLOGICA,and is inserted as an appendix to the present work partly as.furnishing some indication as to Swedenborgs literary plans,and partly because it has not hitherto appeared in print. Theoriginal title supplied by the author was" Eminent Generation,or the Generation of the Spirituous Fluid." This he altered to" Eminent Generation."The editing of the present volume has consisted in supplyingan index, in adding a few explanatory footnotes and in givingreferences to other of Swedenborgs writings. The giving ofreferences is somewhat unusual but seems useful in the presentcase as supplying means to the student to elucidate or morefully understand the authors meaning. The editor has alsosupplied all the paragraph numbers printed in black letter, andvii
  7. 7. PREFACE.in one or two cases he has subdivided paragraphs (though with­out numbering them) ; this seemed useful for greater ease inreading and study.THE PSYCHOLOGICA AND, CODEXJ~.8.The manuscript here translated is contained in codex 88 ofthe Swedenborg MSS. preserved in-the Library of the RoyalAcademy of Sciences of Sweden, where it occupies pp. 159-206/ :of the codex. For the most parte codex 88)s a commonplaceb29.k wherein Swedenborg entered "{rom ,!ayjoj.ay:_his j~l!~:I:alof travels. From da¥ to day also, and thus between the entriesof the journal, he wrote various draft paragraphs to be incor­porated in the first chapter of his PRINCIPIA, notes on works hewas reading, and observations on various mining operationswhich had engaged his attention.Pages 3-7 of the codex, which were the first pages to bewritten on, contain a little treatise entitled " A General Treat­ment of the Motion of the Element." * This work was writtenin Stockholm and probably in April 1733; for immediately fol­lowing it, on p. 8, Swedenborg commences his journal of travels,beginning with the statement thatheIeftStockholm-on May10th. This part of the journal extends from pages 8 to 39,and contains entries from May 10th to July 15th. From it welearn that on June 7th Swedenborg arrived in Dresden, wherehe stayed for some time. Here, from June 14th to the 19th,he devoted himself to reading and correcting his PRINCIPIA inpreparation for its publication.The special object of his journey to the continent on thisoccasion, was the publication of the OPERA MINERALOGICA, of~hich th.e PRINCIPIA ~onst}j:utes vOlumel This ;orkhad beenwritten in Sweden prior to the commencement of Swedenborgsjourney, and, as far at any rate as the PRINCIPIA is concerned,the author specifically states that he had completed it two yearsbefore it was printed, that is to say, in 1731.t It should be, ---..,-.:..:> ( *Translated in I Scientific and) four volumes, or else to have been,,-Philos?~hical Treatises, pp. 99-1QS.j divided into four "tomes," for on--rrIie original MS. of the p. 57 of(todex 8§,_ in a note" OnPRINCIPIA appears to have filled the Orde; of the Particle" theviii
  8. 8. PREFACE.noted, however, that the first draft of the PRINCIPIA did not~. include what is now known as Chapter 1 on "The Means Con- ~ucing to a True Philosophy" but that Chapter 2 of the pub-lished work was originally Chapter 1 of the draft, and so forth.A less immediate object of Swedenborgs journey, though nota less important, was to learn about and study the numerouslearned works which were daily appearing on the Conffnentand;1i1Cli in Sweden, at that time, were difficult to pr~~ure. Andwhen we consider Swedenborgs intense thir~ for knowledge,we can well understand the eagerness with which he searchedfor new works, and the avidity with which he read and studiedthem. Indeed his journal contains many extracts from theworks which he came across in the course of his travels, besidesinnumerable notes of works of which he had heard or read.On July 10th he notes that at the house of a friend, he hadseen, for the first time, a copy of Wolffs COSMOLOGIA GEN-ERALIS, a work in which "the author has endeavored to estab-lish elementary nature from purely metaphysical principles."Swedenborg evidently procured a copyof this work,* and de-voted some of his time at Dresden to studying it.. ,The journal for July 15th, 1733, ends on p. 39 of(codex 88:On the following pages (40-46) are contained sundry draftnotes for" My Preface to the Principia." After some shortjou~nal entries dated July 21st to 23rd, at which latter dateSwedenborg arrived in Prague, these ~raft notes are continuedfrom p. 50 to p. 57. Several paragraphs of th.ese~r~ts weresubsequently incorporated verbatim et literatim in Chapter 1 of) the PRINCIPIA on "The Means Conducing to a True Philos-, ~p~y."It appears therefore, as noted above, that at this time whatis now the first chapter of the printed PRINCIPIA was either notwritten, or was not in complete form. It also appears that thisauthor states that "what has been Phil. Tr., p. 124). The printedsaid about vortical motion and the PRINCIPIA is divided into threefirst obstruction of the sun and parts.the dispersal of its crust should *The Cosmologia is entered inbe adduced from the fourth tome the Auctioneers catalog of Swe-of the Principia" (I Scient. & denborgs library.ix
  9. 9. PREFACE.chapter was originally intended as the Preface or Introductionto the work, and that what is now Chapter 2 was Chapter 1 ofthe draft which the aut~rcarried -with him from SwedeO.This is-further confirmed by one of the draft paragraphs in­tended for the PRINCIPIA. This paragrapllis entitled" Con­cerning the Active of indefinite Celerity arising from the Point."Here Swedenborg observes" This should be inserted at the endof the fourth particle." The words" at the end of the fourthparticle" would seem to indicate at the end of the chapter whichtreats of the fourth particle; or it may be that the word " par­ticle " is a misprint for" article" ; for we firnCihat°tiielrlsertlOn° r-eferred to is actually made at the end of Chapter 5 of the, printed PRINCIPIA, whi~~ccording to our argumen~wouldbe~hapter 4 of t~e first draft. -Among these PRI!1SI~._notes, occurs a paragraph headed"A Comparison of Wolffs Cosmologia Generalis with ourPrincipia." A part of this note is incorporated in the" Ap­pendix to the Principia," p. 452,* and it is in this connectionthat Swedenborg states that his PRINCIPIA was written "twoyears" before he saw Wolffs Cosmologia, that is to say, twoyears prior to July 10th, 1733.It should here be noted that these draft notes for the PRIN­- - .._---­CIP.!:, and also the first chapter of that work (into which someof the notes were afterwards incorporated), deal largely withthe question of the operation of th~ elements on the membr~esof the human body,-a subject which, as shown by the present;-ork, a~d by other contents ofGO~ex ~") largely occupiedSwedenborgs attention at this time, but which is not dealt withat all in the PRINCIPIA itself. This fact is of considerable sig­nificance as indicating the connection, which was already clearlydefined in Swedenborgs mind, between the theory of the e1e­-0 ments and the doctrine concerning the soul and its operations2 - into and in the body.---- - --­A brief journal entry at the end of the draft notes for thePRINCIPIA, on p. 57, states that on July 29th Swedenborg wentto Carlsbad. Here he makes some further notes for the PRIN­*The page references contained in this Preface refer to Latin edi­tions.x
  10. 10. --PREFACE.CIPIA, which are contained on p. 58 of:codexJ~8~and which wereincluded in Chapter 1 of the printed work. He then continueshis journal from pp. 59-86, describing his visits to various min­ing towns, and his return to Carlsbad on August 13th. Herehe remained for five days, during which he wrote, on pp. 86-88,a paragraph comparing nature to a spiders web, which was laterprinted verbatim et literatim in Chapter 1 oC,theyRINcIPIA.*Following this paragraph, pp. 89-115 of (codex 88)containnothing but journal entries, including notes oncopp~smeltingand gold mining, one of which was subsequently incorporatedin the second volume (De Cupro) of the OPERA MINERALOGICA.On August 25th he returned to Dr~en, and on September 4thhe arrived at Leip~ig. The last entry in the journal for 1733is dated October 5th, on which day, as Swedenborg notes, hebegan the printing of his PRINCIPIA.--. Then, commencing with p. 116, come fifteen pages of a workon "The Mechanism of the Soul and the Body," t the mainsubject of which is the mode whereby sensations are convey~d,to .~he_~ul, namely by means of membranous tremulatlOns.This is followed by twenty-one pages of excerpts on the subjectof Generation, and five pages of anatomical observations :j: end­ing with p. 157.Page 158 is blank; and fro~. 152ommences the work, thetranslation of which is containedin the present volume. Thisends on p. 213, with the paragraph "Concerning Faith inChrist.,,,-Following this, on p. 214, comes an entry in the journal datedMarch 1st, 1734, to the effect that on that date Swedenborgjourneyed to Halle.It is evident therefore that the PSYCHOLOGICA was wri~ten_inLeipzig, between the 5th October 1733 and the 1st March,1734.Now·on the 5th October Sw~de~bo~g c~~e~ed printingthethree folios of his OPERA MINERALOGICA; and, as indicated bythe evidence adduced above, it was doubtless at this time that*All the draft notes for the t Translated in I Scient. & Phil.PRINCIPIA referred to in this Pref· Tr., pp. 13-32. _.Ice are translated into English in I :j: Translated in I Scient. & PJiil,Scient. & Phil. Tr., pp. 107-125. Tr., pp. 35-42.. .~Xl
  11. 11. PREFACE.he wrote out for the press that meEIoraple first chaplet ofJ~ePRINCIPIA entitled "The Means conducing to a True Philos­, . - -ophy." Allowing for the time taken while he was thus en­gaged; allowing also for the writing of the MECHANISM OF THESOUL AND THE BODY, for the copying of the excerpts on Gen­eration, and the composing of the Anatomical Observations, itis probable.!..hat th.e..P--S:X<2.HOL<:lGICA was wr~!~en in J~.!1~!y a?~Febr_uary of 1734. --- -­--In any event it is clear that at the end of 1733 or the begin­ning of 1734, Swedenborg came across Wolffs PSYCHOLOGIAEMPIRICA, which was published in Leipzig and Balle at the endof 1732 *and which Swedenborg had never before seen._ Beinga great admirer of Wolff, Swedenborg seems to have enteredinto a careful study of this work; and it was in the course of) this study, that he wrote the notes now published. These notesembody and further amplify Swedenborgs doctrine with respectto the intercourse between the soul and the body, especially asrelated to his PRINCIPIA theory. Be had already written onthis subject in Sweden, before commencing his journey, histhoughts being set forth in the little work on "The Motion ofthe Elements." The theory there expounded he had furtherelaborated in the course of his journal, in his drafts of Chapter1 of the PRINCIPIA, in his finished copy of the chapter itself,in the treatise on "The Mechanism of the Soul and the Body,"as contained on pp. 116-130 of(fodex_?8>and in the work onthe INFINITE, which was published simultaneously with thePRINCIPIA.For the greater clearness of the reader, we present below thecontents of, codex 88"in the form of a table:"--.Pages of codex 88.1-2 Sundry notes (written after 1740).t3-7 The Motion of the Elements (written in Stockholm).8-39 Journal, May 10th to July 15th, 1733.Leaves Stockholm May 10th; arrives Dresden June 7th.*Hist. des Wolffischen Phi!. by was finished on December 27th,C. G. Ludivici, Leipzig, 1738, p. 67. 1739; also some anatomical notes.t P. 1 is the first cover page. It The page facing it (p. 1 proper)contains the statement that the contains drafts of the title page ofEconomy of the Animal Kingdom the Economy.xii
  12. 12. PREFACE.June 14th to 15th, prepares PRINCIPIA for press.July 10th, sees Wolffs COSMOLOGIA.40-49 Principia notes and Journal to July 23rd.Arrives at Prague July 23rd.49-57 Principia notes and Journal to July 30th.Arrives at Carlsbad July 29th.58 Principia notes.58-86 Journal, August 6th to August 13th.Describes journeys to mining towns.Returns to Carlsbad on August 13th.86-88 Principia notes.88-115 Journal, August 16th to October 5th.Arrives in Leipzig September 4th.Commences printing of PRINCIPIA October 5th.116-130 Mechanism of Soul and Body.131-157 Anatomical Excerpts and Observations.158 Blank.159-213 Notes on Wolffs PSYCHOLOGIA EMPIRICA (the present work).214-215 Journal, March 1st to 4th, 1734.Leaves Leipzig for Halle March 1st.216-236 Anatomical Excerpts.237-276 Abstract of Principia.*The rest of the codex, to p. 713, is filled with various philosophical andanatomical excerpts.THE PLACE OF THE PSYCHOLOGICA IN THE SERIES OFSWEDENBORGS WORKS.While in Leipzig, Swedenborg published also a " Prodomus,or introduction concerning the Infinite," part 2 of which dealswith the intercourse between the soul and the body. Whetherthis work was written in Leipzig or whether it was completed,at any rate in first draft, before Swedenborg left Stockholm, isnot clear.As indicating that it was written prior to the printing of thePRINCIPIA, we note that on p. 224 t Swedenborg refers to "myPrincipia concerning the elementary world"; and he adds: "Iwish to quote therefrom only the following words: !f. an~e­ment comes into existepce it must most certainly be fluid, so ast~bie tOlfow-with the utmost aptne~-; no£.. ~an iLflQ1L!n* An English translation of this Swedenborg Scientific Association.Abstract was published by the t Latin edition, London 1886.xiii
  13. 13. PREFACE./......(4..this way unless each particle becomes fluid, so that each singleparticle contributes to the moti~;;--~w~~le," etc. Thesewords appear to have been taken fromthe first dr<!ft; for thoughwe have made the most diligent search, we can find no suchwords in the printed PRINCIPIA.On the other hand, later on in the INFINITE (p. 263), theauthors references to Chapters 5 and 7 of the PRINCIPIA areclearly to the printed work. Moreover, certain aspects of thework on the INFINITE appear clearly to indicate that it waswritten during the course of Swedenborgs travels in 1733. Werefer particularly to t~ote of sadness sound~d here and there,at the contemplation of the prevalence _01 ~~heism. We findthe same note in the MECHANISM OF THE SOUL AND BODY andalso in the present work.* Indeed the work on the INFINITEappears to be specially addressed to the unbelieving philosopher.Again, we have the fact that the MECHANISM OF THE SOUL... - .- ----,...------.ANp~ODY, the first chapter of the PRINCIPIA, and the PSYCHO­LOGICA,-undoubtedly written about the same period, namely inLeipzig between September 1733 and the end of February 1734,have a common peculiarity that distinguishes them from allothers of Swedenborgs writings, except the INFINITE, namely,the use of the word " simile" as a noun and-;ith-a particularpsychological meaning. However, the time when the INFINITEwas written, whether prior to Swedenborgs journey com­menced in May 1733, or during the journey, cannot be decidedwith any degree of certainty.It does seem clear, however, that the PSYCHOLOGICA waswritten after the INFINITE. It is indeed true that one or twopassages in the former work are very similar to passages in theINFINITE; yet we observe that the same similarity exists in thecase of the PSYCHOLOGICA and the MECHANISM BETWEEN THESOUL AND THE BODY, which latter work was undoubtedly theearlier of the two. Moreover, several facts seem clearly to indi­cate that the PSYCHOLOGICA was written after the INFINITE,and that it constitutes a preliminary essay in preparation forthat work, of which the INFINITE was the "~~Q<:1(nn..11_~~~?r*See Psychological Transactions Preface p. xiii.xiv
  14. 14. PREFACE.!orerunner. This leads us to a consideration of the develop­ment of the psychological theory outlined in the work nowpublished.THE COSMOLOGICAL WORKS AND THE PHYSIOLOGICAL.Early students of Swedenborg have doubtless observed theapparent gap between the PRINCIPIA and the physiological1 __ works. In the one the elements of the universe are considered;2. - in the other, the bloods of the _b5?dy and tne operation of thesoul into the body. But the -connection between these twoseries, namely the operations of the elements upon th;bfo;ds,wasonly obscurely understood. It appeared as if Swedenborghad not written anything to fill the gap between his two seriesof works. Something of a connection between them i~edsupplied by the INFINITE, where on p. 263 Swedenborg indicatesthat the soul consists of the first and second actives of his PRIN­CIPIA. But this rather whetted than satisfied the appetite ofthe student. In 1904, however, further light was thrown onthis matter when the SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATIONpublished the little work from(codex 88entitled "A generaltreatment of the Motion of the---Elements." * In this work," - Swedenborg shows that the elements of the un}~erse operate2. - upon the membranes of the body and there produce undulationsand tremulations. The con~ection between his two serie~-!?fworks was made still clearer by the publication of the " Mech­anism of the Soul and Body" t where our author enters morefully into the effects of the ele~ents upon human membranes,and where he specifically connects his PRINCIPIA theory withhis doctrine of the intercourse between the soul and the body.And now, with the appearance of the PSYCHOLOGICA, thestudent is offered the means of entering still more fully into ~" ~ ~gerstanding of the co~nection between the elements or bloous1 ~ of_ the universe and the blQods or_ekments of the huma~~dy.A study of Swedenborgs philosophical writings leads us toconclude that this connection was in general clearly present in~~s mind long before the writing of the PRINCIPIA. Ind~*In I Scient. & Phil. Tr. pp. 99 t 11 ibid. pp. 13 seq.seq.xv
  15. 15. PREFACE.this is specifically indicated in the INFINITE (p. 268) where inspeaking of a work which he proposes to write on the subjectof the soul, its motion, geometry and mechanism, he adds thatin this work he will set forth" how far I have already advancedin this enquiry."The first indication of Swedenborgs specific doctrine respect­ing the soul and its mechanism is contained in the little workon TREMuLATION, written in 1719. Here Swedenborg advancesthe doctrine that all sensations, whether internal or external, arenothing but the perceptions by the soul of tremulations in mem­b.ran.es. Here also he indicates, what he so often insists~-;inhis PRINCIPIA and later works, that all nature, even the mostoccult, is mechanical and geometrical; that perception, imagina­tion, memory, sensation, all are to be explained geometrically bythe tremulations of membra~es-:--By thisdoctrine as set forthin TRE;~~~TIoN"he explains sympathy and antipathy, and alsowhat is now called thought.!ransfe~~~ce; ascribing these to mo­tions transmitted to the elements from one person and receivedby the subtle membranes of another. - ­- In-pr~paring the TREMULATION, Swedenborg entered into avery thorough study of anatomy or, to quote his own words ascontained in a letter written to his brother-in-law, Dr. Benze1ius,in November 1719, where he refers to the work on TREMuLA­TION as " A little anatomy of our vital forces": " For the pur­pose of writing this work I have made myself thoroughly ac­q~ted with the anatomy~the_nerves and membranes, andI have proved t.h~--futrmony which exists between that and theinteresting geometry of tremulations; togethe~-~ith many otherideas, where I have found that I agree with those of Baglivi"(I Doe. c. Swed. p. 310).*There are many evidences of Swedenborgs intense study ofanatomy and of his remarkable familiarity with the most minutedet~ls of. the hu~~n__body; but it is not generally kn~~~ thatthese studies commenced so early as prior to 1719. In additionto the TREMuLAmN, there are other evidencesof Swedenborgsearly anatomical studies, studies which appear to have been*Baglivis work, De Fibra M0- Swedenborg and he frequentlytrice, was very closely studied by quotes from it in his later works.xvi
  16. 16. PREFACE.closely followed up in the years following 1719. Chapter 1 ofthe PRINCIPIA on "The Means conducing to a True Philos­ophy" is full of reference.:>~dicatingthe most exact anatom~<:alk~~~!~dge; and such knowledgeis quite"clearly indicated in thework on the INFINITE.After writing TREMULATION, however, Swedenborg appearsto have come to the conclusion that it would be vain for him tofollow up this subject until he had first developed !_the~rY.--?-ft~ u!1i~~!se. He therefore bent his efforts to a study of chem­istry and of the mineral kingdom; and finally these studies andresearches culminated in the writing of the PRINCIPIA, pub­lished in 1734.In the INFINITE, which was published in the same year,Swedenborg specifically states his reason for presenting thet:doctrine of the elements before turning to the full presentation<:. of the do~tEin~-~,Cth~oul and its intercourse with the body,of which he had treated in a preliminary way in the little work.- on TREMULATION. "Unless the theory of the elements be pre­mised (he says) we would labo~ vain t~~t;)a knowledge- of t1~~~, ,ope,rati~ns in human.Ji.fe" (p. 235); that is to say,unless the PRINCIPIA precede, the physiological and psychologi­cal works could never follow.The work on the INFINITE however, although written as anexposition of psychological principles, was professedly" a fore­runner," and, as shown in the work itself, <;to forerunner to acontemplated treatise which was to show mechanically anddem­onstrate geometrically the intercourse of soul and body. Thedoctrines which Swedenborg proposed to demonstrate in thisintended work were already present in his mirld, before he hadwritten the PRINCIPIA, but they could not be presented until the" theory of the elem~:~ts had first been premised."In the INFINITE, or forerunner of this proposed work, Swe­denborg several times refers to " the work itself" (p. 192).On p. 247 he says: "Of themselves the membranes of thebody are nothing but merely passive; but they are so formedthat they can receive the motion of elementary parts and beactuated into imitation thereof. Hence by means of the ele­~~nts a like modulation is spread in a moment throughout thexvii2
  17. 17. PREFACE.-1­z,1whole body, so that th~ tremulous or undulatory motio~0n theenclosed elements are the verimost animal spirits which are saidto act i~ Obedience to the willing sour Btitof these ~atters~e shall treat b~-tter-i~-a speaal the~ry; here I could presentonly a confused and general idea of this operation."On p. 251, after speaking of the necessity of membranes be­ing harmoniously adapted by use and cultivation to p-~ucedistinct~ffects; andConsequently of there being ~t1~essioIl..Q.ffi~._~nd finer membranes for the reception and representation~f vib~atiOns, he continues: "but all these particulars will befully deduced and geometrically demonstrated in a specialtheory. I wish here only to present a general idea, by helpwhereof, others, more penetrating than I, may perhaps moredeeply investigate the operations of the elements upon the mem­br~~es, and of the me~branest.i:pon-the elements." -- . _...._­On p. 266 he says: " In brutes the soul is much more grossthan the human soul. It is an elementary, not consisting ofactives, which latter constitute the actuality of reason; but inplace of actives the soul of brutes is an elementary something.In a special exposition on this subject, I wish to confirm thisproposition with a great many arguments which perhaps are notas yet well known."On pp. 267-268 he again repeats his intention of writing onthis subject. "If we suppose the actuality of .!4~-2Q...ul to con­sist in motion and in a force highly mechanical, while its surfaceconsists in a figure highly geometrically; and if the mind willtht;n examine all things which experience can present to it forex~ation,that i;to s~y~he anato~y of the human body, theparts of all the extern.<J:L senses and all the modes and facultieswhich can be knownand distinguished in the iinagination~I!!­!!..ry, perc<:E!~n and__will, and the varieties and difference~ ofthem all as arising from divers affections and other causes, and~J;ly-oth~LJhings which~re tcibe-;pecially scrutinized andcompared, then at last something certain can be concluded con­cerning the true geometry and mechanism of this most perfectentity. As to how far I h;:tve advanced in this enquiry, it is myintention 1;;-present this in detail, if G.od· grant me life andleisure. Here in-general, I think that nothing can be presentedxviii
  18. 18. PREFACE.as affirmative and positive; for e?Cper~~ce and geometry are theonly things which must affirm and establish. And when experi­ence and geometry have done this, then by consent of the soulwe shall have the rationale of the subject. The principal_endof this. pre>p.9.sed wo~k is that th;immClrtality of the soul maybe demonstrated before the very senses."On p. 192 he enters into further detail as the character of hisproposed work to which the INFINITE was the forerunner.After noting the objection to his doctrine concerning the soul,namely, that if it were subject to mechanical rules, it would bematerial and perishable, and not spiritual and imm~tal; andafter showing, that such an objection could arise only from a(" gross conception of the "purer mechanism" of the more per­fect world in which the soul lives, and the destructi~;£~hICh----------- ----- . --- -._~) would involve the annihilation of the whole created univ~rse, he-, _._--~- . ~.~continues: "But what need is there of words? In the workI itself, so far as possible, I desire to demonstrate this to the eye, namely, that the soul is perfectly and purely mechanical; that) the soul i~L~~!,1g!1al; and that it ~~nnot per~h, unks.s_the un}­verse be annihilated; likewise, that the soul is so created and{ formed, that it co~mencesto live in thebody, an4 that it knowsn2,Ulyi~; ancl"ihai-it is naturally {mp9ssible fo!"_~t to4Ie; thatit cannot be injured by fire, nor by air, nor by ether, nor byelements still more subtle." *It is clear from these references that t~ proposed work towhich the INFINITE was the introduction was-to estaW:~~~,_0eexistence and immortality of the soul and its communion withthe bodY~he most exact and rati~nal manner; that it was to be, as it were, a demonstration of the City of God as existing~n earth in a hum~;--it IS withsuch a work in ~ind thatS-wedenborg see~ to have entered upon his study orWolffsPSYCHOLOGIA EMPIRICA; and in this study to have introducedso many passages, invariably marked" Nota Bene," wheielnheoutlines hrs doctri~e~oncerning-the ;~~l, especially ~s to-itsbeinggeometricarand mechanicaL----­As he reaches the end of Wolffs work, 4~ set [or!h hls~~ideas at greater length, writing in some detail concerning the-- -.----, -_... ._------ --­*Compare with this passage Psy- chologica, 209.xix
  19. 19. PREFACE.will and the action of the soul in the will. Turning from thist-;-~ consideration of the souls state after the death of the body,he addresses himself to the fascinating theme of the theologian,the communion of souls. After this, under the heading " Con­cerning Philosophy" he gives a draft table of the contents ofthe proposed work,-which was to consist of seventeen chap­ters ; to which table he adds a note to the effect that all the pointsto be treated of are to be demonstrated from geometry, anatomy,and experience in the elements. He then proceeds (n. 223 seq.)to set down some anatomical observations, evidently with a viewto using them in the development of his proposed work; andfinally concludes with a second and alternative list of chapterheadings for his propos~d work, follo~~d by ·~k-;bf~ para­graph on Faith in Christ, where is shown the profound sim­( plicity and reverent adoration of the author as opposed to theatheism of materialistic learning.It seems clear therefore that the PSYCHOLOGICA was writtenafter the INFINITE and with a general idea of preparing for" the work itself" referred to and promised in the INFINITE,­a work which perhaps was to be entitled "Philosophy" or"The Philosophy of the Particles." * - - . ­Swedenborg, however, whether at this time or later, con­cluded .that before his doctrines could be comprehended, itwould be necessary for him to enter into a detailed expositionof the human body and its parts, and especially of the brains.Therefore, laying aside for the time, the pro.Qosed work whichwas to demonstrate the existence, the i~m~t~lity·and-··theblessedness of the soul-he turned to those work; wherein hewas to···set f~~th--the results of his intense studies and deepreflection in the field of physiology.The years that followed the publication of the PRINCIPIAwere therefore devoted to the writing of works on physiology.In 1737 or 1738, he wrote on the Brain; and in December 1739he completed the ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. In thefollowing year he wrote furiheronthe ·Brain·~~(lT;terhe com­posed a long series of anatomical works, culminating in the*The reading" particularum" in tirely satisfactory.the heading of n. 217, is not en-xx
  20. 20. PREFACE.ANIMAL KINGDOM. But in all these writings he seems ever to~~~-k~pt-ht-~ew the end which he had outlined in the TREMU-LATION, and which he more fully sets forth in the work on theINFINITE.In one of his manuscripts containing notes on the brain, wesee a plain indication of this intention in a little paragraph en-titled" Eminent Generation,* by which is meant the Generationof the Spirituous Fluid, or the descent of the soul into. the body." Emi~e.l:lt ge~eration (he says) cannot be understoode~.~ept_bymea1]-s of refl.ection_and similitude, and unless we know howevery active force can be represented if!...th~ aura, just as everyimage is represented iJ:!. t~e ether. But there is required re-flection and concentration, and this upon the cortical substance.We are not permitted to go further without a mathematicalphilosophy of series and degrees." Therefore he proposed tohimself a long course before he could finally reach the goal, hereadumbrated in the PSYCHOLOGICA.As to the nature of the work itself which is now presented tothe public, this we shall leave to the judgment of the reader.Suffice it to say that it marks one more step on the path thatwill lead the student to a clearer understanding of that doct:!i!!.eof the soul which was present in Swedenborgs mind- ev"ffi"whenhe wrote the PRINCIPIA; which so deeply influenced the-;l~leof lis subseque.t.!.t writings ; w~ic~_it was the goal of his ambitionto set forth in clearer lig~t, that men might be led to venerate,worship and adore the wisdom of God; and which, finally,firmly established in his own mind, was to become the meanswhereby he might rationaliy receive and fitly present to theworld, the heavenly doctrine of the New Jerusalem.ALFRED ACTON.BRYN ATHYN, PA.,June 14, 1923.*See Appendix.xxi
  21. 21. ","" 1PSYCHOLOGICABeingNotes and ObservationsonChristian Wolffs Psychologia Empirica[1.]1. Is GOD A SPIRIT. iVolff says that in his NATURAL THE­OLOGY, he wishes to demonstrate that God is a Spirit [Preface,n. 7]. But let us first define what a spirit is. 1. Men say thatangels or genii are spirits. 2. They say that the soul is a spirit.3. They say that the devil is a spirit. 4. We say that all thingsthat are active per se, even though in material things, arespirits.* But all these spirits were created and made by theInfinite, and consequently are finite and not infinite. God aloneis infinite. Whatever was created by the Infinite must befinite. There is no middle term, unless it be something similarto the finite which has not yet been so finited as to have theattributes of the finite, though in potency, that is, in its at­tributes, it is similar to the finite. Therefore since spirits arecreated, they are finite; and if finite, they are mechanical andgeometrical, ~th an acti~e added thereto. Therefore there canbe no created spirits unless they are finite; nor finite unless theyare endowed with geometrical attributes, and consequently, un­less they are subject to mechanical rules. As to the Infinite, onthe other hand, this can have nothing geometrical in it, andnothing mechanical; for it is the cause of every mechanicalprinciple. Hence there is no mechanical or geometrical nexusbetween the Infinite and the finite. The Infinite is the cause,and the effect is immediate.t Hence there would be no nexuswith God if not through Christ; nor through Christ except by*CL n. 75. t Cf. n. 230.t -2
  22. 22. 1PSYCHOLOGICA.[In][Chr. Wolffii][Psychologiam Empiricam]MS., p. 159. 3 Ph. MS., p. 102.Num Deus sit spiritus. Deum esse Spiritum demonstrarevelle ait Claris. Wollfius in sua Theologia Naturalis. Sedprimum definiamus quid sit spiritus: I. Angelos seu geniosesse dicunt spiritus. 2. Animam dicunt esse spiritum.3. Diabolum dicunt esse spiritum. 4. Omnia quae per seactiva sunt quamvis in rebus materialibus dicimus essespiritum. Sed on::mes hi spiritus sunt creati et ab infinitofacti, et consequenter sunt finiti, non vero infiniti; solus Deusest infinitum; quicquid creatum est ab infinito, hoc erit fini­tum; medium non datur, nisi aliquid simile finito, quod itanondum finitum est, ut finiti attributa habeat, sed in potentia,hoc est, in suis attributis simile finito. Ergo si creati, suntfiniti, si finiti, accedente activo, sunt mechanici et geometrici.Ideoque non dari possunt spiritus creati, nisi finiti, nee finitinisi geometricis attributis polleant, et consequenter nisinormis mechanicis subjecti. Quod vera infinitum attinet,nihil geometrice, nihil mechanice potest in se habere, quiaest causa omnis principii mechanici; unde nullus est nexusmechanicus nee geometricus infiniti et finiti; est causa eteffectus est immediatus. Unde cum Deo nullus foret nexusnisi per Christum, nee per Christum nisi quatenus corpus3
  23. 23. 2f1..PSYCHOLOGICA.reason of His having assumed a body. But there is a nexus ofChrist and the Holy Spirit with the Infinite, though to us, thenature of this nexus is unknown.* Finite spirits, therefore, aremechanical and geometrical, and so cannot be called spirits,except it be finite spirits who are actuated by their own rules.But God or the Infinite is not a spirit in any degree as comparedwith" finit~ spirits"; nor can He be called a spirit, unless youwould say Infinite Spirit,---=-~erm which can be predicated ofthe..!.I0ly"Spi!"it, not oCthe Infinite Father. -­[11.][THE EXISTENCE OF THE HUMAN SOUL.t]2. WOLFFS RULES. 1. We experience every moment, thatwe are conscious of ourselves and of other thinqs stationedabout us [n. 11] ; to wit, by means of the eleme!)ts and of tile?-~gans that shall conspire therewith. That this is a materialand mechanical characteristic, we see from the fact that the likeexists in brutes, in that their organs are mechanical and areadapted to the motions of !he elem~Ets.2. That we are conscious of ourselves, is confirmed by ourvery doubting [no 12] ; for we cannot doubt except with regardto something which exists.3.(He---Who is"actually conscious, of himself and of otherthingsAalso actually is, or f!.-xists. It follows therefore that weexist. The knowledge of our existence is confirmed by ourvery doubting, or, From the fact that we doubt as to whetherwe exist or not, comes theinfere1;cethat we do exist [no 13,14, "is] ..­4. Geometrical truths are learned by the same evidence asthat by which our own existence becomes known to us [n. 18].S. That entity in us which is conscious of itself and of otherthings outside uZ is Ter~d th;-soul~ It is called the human~, likeuJise the hu--:;,wn mind. Th"erefore th"; h~;;"a~ so~Tex­ists [no 20, iij.·---­*Cf. Mechanism of Soul and t The titles of Chapters II toBody, n. 25; I Infinite xiv. XIX are taken from Wolff.4
  24. 24. 2PSYCHOLOGICA.assumserit; at Christi et Spiritus Sancti est nexus cum Infinito,sed qualis sit nobis est incognitum. Ergo spiritus finiti suntmechanici et geometrici; ergo nec spiritus appellari possunt,nisi spiritus finiti, qui regulis suis aguntur. At vero Deusvel Infinitum non est spiritus in aliquo gradu comparativecum spiritibus finitis; nec spiritus potest appellari, nisi velisspiritus infinitus, quod de Spiritu Sancto non de Patre In­finito praedicari potest.MS., 160.Reg. 1 Wolfii. Nos esse nostri rerumque aliarum extra nosconstitutarum conscios quovis momento experimur, scilicet medi­antibus elementis et organis quae conspirabunt; hoc essemateriale et mechanicum, videmus ex eo, quod simile sit inbrutis, quod organa sint mechanica, et ad motus elementorumaptata. Ph. MS., 103.2. Nos esse nostri conscios ipsa dubitatione confirmatur; nonenim dubitare possumus quam de re aliqua quae existit.3. Qui sui aliarumque rerum actu conscius est, ille etiam actuest sive existit. Ergo sequitur, nos existimus. Cognitio existen­tiae nostrae ipsa dubitatione confirmatur; ex eo quod dubitamusutrum existamus necne, colligitur nos existere.4. Veritates geometricae eadem evUlentia cognoscuntur, quaexistentia nostra nobis innotescit.S. Ens illud quod in nobis sibi, sui et aliarU1n rerum extra nosconscium est, anima dicitur; vocatur anima humana, item menshumana. Ergo anima humana existit.5
  25. 25. 3PSYCHOLOGICA.6. We learn the e.tistence of the soul before that of the body[n. 22]. For if one thinks or if one doubts, the cause, or t~doubting or thinking entity, is in the soul; since if it did notexist as a-cause-(there ;~~ldb~no doubti~g orthinking] . Thedoubt or the thought is concerning [the existence of] the body. Hence the causing entity exists before the causate.* My opin­ion is; What need is there to deduce the fact of my own exist­) ence, or to argue that I am? In such a question there is noroom for doubt, nor any definite-termination. Who candoubtthat heTsrlt is what he is that should be inquired into; whetherhe is rational or not; whether he possesses a soul or [not]; orwhether there is a soul. Hence the deduction to be made is:I think, therefore, there is a soul. Still it is not yet clearwhether this soul is a rational soul or is like the soul of brutes;for, in thei~ o~n ~ay, b-~utes also think and they possess a kindof phantasy. But [the clearer deduction is] I doubt, thereforethere is a [rational] soul. F~ if I doubt, I will affirm or deny;I will Ai.ss~ss argutn~Ets. Thus in the thought, there is ananalysis, and a kind of ratio or analogy. Hence it can be knownthat I doubt, therefore I am rational or enjoy a rational soulwhich-can doubt and affirm," can-weight arguments,;-nd byanalogy or analytical thought, can come to some concl"tffiion;therefore I am rational; that is to say, I doubt, thereforeTamrational. . . - - - ­[Ill.][How TO ACQUIRE A KNOWLEDGE OF THE SOUL.]3. Wolff says: Thinking is an act of the soul whereby it isI conscious of itself and of other things outside itself [n. 23].L Bare thought-~-also appii~bktZbrui:eswhiCh enjoy a kind ofimagination,-but an imagination without any analytical andrational searching into distinct arguments. In dreams there isthought, but what kind of thought? The existence of the soulis not proved by the existence of thought, but by the mode of• Swedenborg here paraphrases Wolffs confirmation of his theorem.6
  26. 26. 3PSYCHOLOGICA.6. Animae existentiam ante cognoscimus quam corporis.Nam si cogitat vel si dubitat, causa vel ens dubitans autcogitans est in anima, quod si non existit ut causa, dubitatioest de corpore vel cogitatio de corpore, hinc praeexistit enscausans, quam causatum. Mea sententia, quid opus existen­tiam deducere, seu argumentari quod sim, nee quisquam inhoc dubitandi locus aut terminus est; quis dubitare potest,quod sit; sed qualis sit disquirendum est, num rationalis velnon, num anima polleat, vel num sit anima. Hine dedueen­dum, eogito ergo est anima. Sed nondum liquet an sit animarationalis vel sit similis brutorum; nam bruta etiam suo modocogitant et phantasia quadam pollent; sed dubito ergo estanima. Nam si dubito, affirmabo vel negabo, argumentadiseutiam; ergo est analysis et quaedam ratio aut analogia incogitatione. Hine potest seiri, dubito ergo sum rationalis seuanima rationali gaudeo, quae dubitare et affirmare, quaeargumenta perpendere, et per analogiam seu eogitationemanalyticam quid concludere potest; ergo sum rationalis; hocest, dubito ergo sum rationalis.MS., 161.Cogitare dicit, est actus animae, quo sibi sui rerumque aliarumextra se conscia est. Cogitatio nuda applieari potest etiamad bruta quae quadam imaginatione pollent, sed qua, sinedisquisitione analytica, in argumenta distineta et rationali.In somnis est cogitatio, sed qualis; ex eogitatione non probaturanima, sed a cogitationis modo. In fatuis ubi vix operatur7
  27. 27. 4-5PSYCHOLOGICA.thought; thought exists in the foolish, in whom the soul hardlyoperates at all. There is corporeal thought, and th<:E~ is thoughtfrc:>m_ th~ ~~l; and these two together give me ~--rational.Therefore, it can be said: I think, therefore I am; but not, Ithink, therefore I am rational and a soul. Perhaps manythoughts have an origin other than the soul, although the firstorigin of such thoughts was the soul; but afterwards, the soulruns into the traces it has impressed on the organs of the-T;ody,without -any -further as~ent and, as it were, spontaneously; -for~motion ~nce commenced is c2ntinued without any new motory,as may be seen in tremulous bodies. In the strings of a musicalinstrument the finger is the first mover, but the string may after­wards be moved either by itself, or by something simil~r, or bysome other agency; and on such occasion, the motion cannot besaid to commence in the soul, but to come from other agencies.*4. The m{nd is said to perceive, when it reP!!.~!!!!Lto itselfs2-1J!§_o£j£!!t. Perception is therefore an act of the mindwhereby it represents to itself some object; such as colors, odors,sounds [n. 24]. But to perceive colors, odors, sounds, is aproperty also of brute animals; to perceive distinctly, however,and not only to sensate harmony, but also-to know and perceiveit, is the property of man alone.5. Apperception is attributed to the mind, inasmuch as thelatter is conscious of its own perception [n.-2S] . Apperceptionis also-and es"i)edally aproperty of -the rational soul; but it isalso a property of brutes. They perceive a thing by their or­gans, they apperceive it by their soul; for with brutes there canbe no perception without apperception. This indeed is notpossible in any living creature, inasmuch as there is a terminusto which perception goes, and when it has arrived at this ter­minus, it becomes apperception. _ In man this terminus is in his[rational] soul; in brutes, it is in their soul. But as to the* In a harp, the finger moves a xi; Princ. I, 3, p. 31. In the fiddle,string, and the movement is then the finger is the first mover, butextended to other strings and is the direct mover is the bow. Socontinued for some time as it were with the piano, zither, etc.spontaneously; coni. 11 Ini. IV,8
  28. 28. 4-5PSYCHOLOGICA.anima, est cogitatio. Cogitatio datur corporea, datur animae,quae simul dant mihi rationale. Did sic potest, cogito ergosum, non vera, cogito ergo sum rationalis, et anima. Multaecogitationes fortassis aliud principium habent quam ab anima,quamvis primum illius cogitationis principium fuerit animaesed dein in organis corporis impressa ejus vestigia sine assen-tiente amplius anima recurrit tanquam sponte sua; nam motussemel inchoatus sine novo motore continuatur, ut in tremulisvidere licet; in chordis est digitus primum movens, sed deinpotest moveri vel per se, vel per aliud simile, vel per aliudquid, qui motus non sic dici potest incipere in anima ilIa vice,sed ab aliis.Ph. MS., 104.Mens percipere dicitur, quando sibi objectum aliquod reprae-sentat; est itaque perceptio actio mentis, qua objectum sibi reprae-sentat, ut colores, odores, sonos. Sed percipere etiam estbrutorum, qua colores, odores, sonos; sed distincte percipere,harmoniam non modo sentire, sed etiam scire et percipere,hoc est hominis.Menti tribuitur apperceptio, quatenus perceptionis suae con-scia est; est etiam apperceptio animae rationalis speciatim,sed etiam est brutorum; percipiunt per organa, appercipiuntillud per suam animam. Nam penes bruta non dari potestperceptio sine apperceptione, in nullo vivo, quatenus terminusest ad quem tendit perceptio, quum pervenit ad illum ter-minum fit apperceptio, quod in homine quidem est in anima,in brutis in illorum anima; sed qualis sit apperceptio, ex9
  29. 29. 6-8PSYCHOLOGICA.nature of the apperception,-whether or not there is in it a[rational] soul,-this may be concluded from the quality andmode of the apperception.6. Every thought involves both perception and apperception[n. 26]. This is true, according to what was said above,namely, that no thought is possible without perception and ap­perception; nor, in living creatures, is perception possible with­out apperception. The same is also true of brutes. Therefore,to apperceive, is to be conscious. According to our author,"when I see the sun, I am conscious of its existence" [ib.].This at once involves something more than apperception; it in­volves something more distinct, some resultant arising from theapperception that the sun exists; as for instance, what thenature of the sun is, and what its distance from the earth.This apperception involves still more; it involves also an act ofthe soul. Wolf! adds: We are conscious of the sun, not as itreally is, but as our mind represents it to herself [ib.]. Thisalso is a property of brutes.7. All that is gathered by legitimate 1easoning from the thingsobserved to be in our mind, and all that is then inferred there­from, is agreeable also to the mind. The sa·me holds good ofevery other entity [n. 27] . This agrees exactly with the defini­tion of reason which I gave in my PRINCIPIA, namely that it issomething analogica1.* The only difference is, that whereasWolff says the things observed to be in our mind, I can state itin this way: "the things which may be in the organs of the bodyand of the senses, or of the soul,"-for they are in organs.8. We come to a knowledge of the mind, if we pay attentionto our thoughts; and if further, we attlibute to the mind all thathas been gathered from the thoughts by legitimate reasoning[no 28]. This also coincides with the definition in our PRIN­CIPIA. For if we pay attention to our thoughts, there is at oncesomething else at hand which reasons, distinguishes, collates;or, there is an analogy or rational.*"The rational consists in know­ analogy may be obtained; and alsoing how to arrange the ratios in being able to make this arrange­learned from the world, into such ment." (Prill. I, 2, fin.)order and connection, that an10
  30. 30. 6-8PSYCHOLOGICA.qualitate et modo apperceptionis conc1udi potest, num animasit vel non.MS., 162.Omnis cogitatio et perceptionem et apperceptionem involvit;verum est secundum antedicta, nulla cogitatio datur sineperceptione et apperceptione; in vivis nee perceptio sineapperceptione, hoc etiam in brutis; ergo appercipere estconscius esse. Quum solem video, secundum autorem, ejusconsistentiae conscius sum; hoc statim involvit aliquid plusquam apperceptionem ; involvit distinctius quid et resultatumex apperceptione quod consistat, ut qualis sit sol, qualisdistantia; haec apperceptio involvit plus et actum animae.Addit, Solis nobis conscii sumus, non qualis revera est, sedqualem sibi repraesentat mens nostra, hoc etiam brutorum est.Quae ex iis, quae menti inesse observamus, legitimo ratiociniocolliguntur, et quae porro ex his inferuntur; eadem quoque menticonveniunt; idem valet de omni ente alio. Haec conveniunt adamussim cum definitione rationis, quam dedi in Principiis,quod analogicum sit; ilIa tantum est differentia, quod dicat,quae menti inesse observamus, possum ita dicere, quae organiscorporis et sensuum vel animae inesse possunt, nam insunt inorganis.Ad cognitionem mentis pervenitur, si ad cogitationes nostrasattendimus, eidemque porro tribuimus quae legitimo ratiocinioex iis colliguntur. Hoc etiam coincidit cum nostra definitionein Principiis; nam si attendimus ad cogitationem, fit statimaliud quid ratiocinans, distinguens, conferens, vel analogonaut rationale.1 The reading in the MS. is ratiocinate.113
  31. 31. 9-12PSYCHOLOGICA.[IV.][THE FORMAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PERCEPTIONS.]9. The light of the soul is the clarity of perception. The soulis said to be enlightened,. as when it is conscious that it per­ceives, and when it makes proper distinctions between the thingswhich it perceives. On the other hand, darkness in the soul iscalled obscurity [n. 35, 36]. A clear perception is called dis­tinct,. and the opposite, confused [n. 38, 39]. Perception ispartial and compound [n. 40].10. If the particular perceptions have been clear, the com­pound is distinct [n. 41]. This is true merely of man and ofreason, that from distinct particulars he can form a distinct com­pound; for between them there is a middle ratio. In all othercases, there are no clear particular perceptions except in form;and more especially since no clear compounds are possible unlessthe particulars be clear; therefore no compound is clear becauseno particular; for it is compounded of unknown particulars.11. One who clearly perceives in a single perceptible entitymany particulars which can be enunciated separately, perceivesthat entity more distinctly than one who clearly perceives in itfewer particulars [n. 42] . This is in accordance with my opin­ion, that there must be many similars, in order that a compoundor resultant may be obtained.12. If total perceptions are distinct, the soul is in astate ofdistinct perceptions [n. 45]. In rational thought new percep­tions are always rising up, both particular perceptions and simi­lar total perceptions; and this by alternations; which is a signthat from one thing, many are suggested, one being ever thecause or conductor of another; and that similar things alwayscome forward; or, that from one thing come a thousand otherand similar things, whether they be such as have presentedthemselves as similar in the formation, or such as have offeredthemselves as equal to the simile.* If some dissimile comes*By simile the author means a leading; while to use " similar" asstate or tremor similar to some a noun is an unnecessary barbarism.other state or tremor. We have The above applies also to the wordelected to use the word simile; for " dissimile.""similar thing" is apt to be mis­12
  32. 32. 9-12PSYCHOLOGICA.Lumen animae est claritas perceptionis: IUuminari anima,ut dum sibi conscia est, quod percipit, ut ea quae percipit,probe a se invicem distinguat; obscuritas vero vocatur tene­brae. Perceptio clara dicitur distincta; e contra confusa. Per­ceptio partialis et composita.Si perceptiones particulares fuerint clarae, composita dis­tincta est. Hoc est mere hominis et rationis, ut a distinctisparticularibus formare possit, distinctum compositum, namintercedit ratio media; alias particulares clarae non dantur 2Ph. MS., IOS.nisi qua formam; praecipue quum composita nulla clara daripossint, nisi particularia sint clara, ergo nullum compositumest clarum, quia nullum particulare quia a particularibusignotis componitur.MS., 163.Qui plura singiUatim enunciabilia in eodem perceptibili clarepercipit, is magis distincte idem percipit aUero, qui pauciorain eodem clare percipit: Secundum meam opinionem quodplura similia dari debeant, ut compositum aut resultatumhabeatur.Si perceptiones totales distinctae sunt, anima est in statuperceptionum 3 distinctarum §. 4S; aliae et aliae semper subeunt,tarn particulares quam similes totales, et sic alternis in cogi­tatione rationali, quod signum est ex uno plura succurrere,et semper unum esse alterius causam vel manuductionem,et similia semper prodire, sive ex uno mille alia similia, velquae in efformatione simile se stiterat, vel simili se par obtuler-I datur. • perfectionum.13
  33. 33. 13-14PSYCHOLOGICA.forward, it is a sign that, when the given notion had first reachedthe soul, it had come from such a dissimile, or together with it jand thus the dissimile sometimes comes forward. This, how­ever, is a blemish in cultivation and use, or in the first * methodof learning.t13. If the partial perceptions which enter into a total per­ception have been obscure, the total perception is obscure; or:If the partial perceptions are obscure, the soul is in a state ofobscure perceptions [n. 46, 47]. For the first perception, whichwill be the cause of the other and similar perceptions, is obscure,and so consists of tones over-obtuse and not certain, or else oftwo dissimilar tones j and if these are to be the causes andorigins of the other and similar perceptions, then the simile andthe dissimile come in simultaneously; and from two dissimilesthere cannot come a single simile, unless it be a discord of themany. For one perception must be the cause of many percep­tions, and these many present themselves in an instant. If thenthey be dissimilar, or if they cannot come forward, then theparticular becomes obscure together with the compound. Thiscan be demonstrated in tones, nerves or strings and membranes jit can be demonstrated in geometrical ratio or analysis. T~us,if there be, not a single principle or beginning, but two, thenthe others cannot be disposed in order, so as to present a ratio,or give a result.t14. The representation of a thing when considered objectivelyis called an idea; the representation of things or [of genera and]species in a universal, is called a notion. Notions like percep­tions are clear or obscure,. [and the clear are] distinct or con­fused. To cognize a thing is to acquire an idea or notion ofthat thing. Cognition is an action of the soul. The facultyof cognizing is that by which we acquire ideas and notions.The inferior [part of the] faculty of cognizing, is that by whichwe acquire obscure and confused ideas j the opposite is the casewith the superior [part of the] faculty of cognizing [n. 48-55].*According to the MS. this t Cf. II Inf. IV, xii.should be "the true first," etc. :: Cf. Mechanism, 2--8.14
  34. 34. 13-14PSYCHOLOGICA.at; si aliquid dissimile, signum est quum notio illa ad animamprimo pervenerit, a tali venisse vel una cum tali, unde dis­simile interdum provenit; quod tamen est naevus in cultu etusu, seu in vera prima methodo discendi.Si perceptiones partiales, quae totalem ingrediuntur fuerintobscurae, perceptio totalis obscura est. Sive si perceptionespartiales obscurae sunt, anima est in statu perceptionum obscura­rum. Prima enim perceptio quae causa erit reliquarum etsimilium obscura est, et sic constat vel tonis nimis obtusis neccertis, vel duobus dissimilibus, qui si esse debeant causae etorigines reliquarum similium, venit simile et dissimile simul,nec a binis dissimilibus unum simile pervenit, nisi sit pluriumdiscordia; nam una perceptio esse debet causa multarum,quae multae in instanti se sistunt, quae si dissimiles sint velnon provenire possint, fit particulare cum composito obscurum;hoc in tonis, nervis et membranis demonstrari potest; hoc inratione sive analysi geometrica; adeo ut nisi unum sit princi­pium, sed duo sint, reliqua ordine disponi nequeunt, ut sistantrationem, vel 4 dent resultatum.Repraesentatio rei objective considerata vocatur idea;repraesentatio rerum vel specierum in universali, notio.Notiones sunt, ut perceptiones, clarae vel obscurae; [claraenotiones sunt] distinctae vel confusae. Rem cognoscere estejus ideam vel notionem sibi acquirere. Cognitio est facultasanimae. Facultas cognoscendi qua ideas et notiones nobisacquirimus. Facultatis cognoscendi [pars] inferior qua ideasobscuras et confusas comparamus; contra facultas cognoscendisuperior.4 nee.15
  35. 35. 15PSYCHOLOGICA.[V.]OBSERVANDA.15. Granting that tremulation is the cause of our sensation inthe soul; and granting that the soul is in the figure of a snailsshell or of a spiral with cones, and thus can be moved differentlyat every kind of tremulous motion; let us now see how manydiversities are possible. 1. There is always some diversity atevery distance from the center; and since the polar cones arealso spiral, the distances from the center are almost infinite innumber.* 2. If the case be such, moreover, that the density ofthe spiral is more subtle in the center and thicker toward thesurface, it will also differ in the ratio of thickness at every dis­tance from the center. 3. If the tremors be greater or well­nigh undulatory, or if they be tremulatory,t that is, if theytremulate to a greater or lesser distance, there is at once aninfinitude of differences in this respect. In the same way, wesee that no one instrument sounds like another, even thoughthey be so harmonious that, in respect to harmony, they differnot at all. Hence we have tones that are more or less soft,sharp, vehement. So also in human sound; no one speaks inthe same tone as another. 3[a] Hence, in one and the sameplace in a membrane, divers sounds may be exhibited. Just aswith the ear-drum; although there is but one drum, yet it canbe bent in an instant and successively, in accordance with alltremors, similar and dissimilar. So also in the present case;although naturally [the membrane] has a single tone at one andthe same distance from the center, yet by reason of the slownessor celerity of the tremor, it can vary this tone. 4. Thereforeit can be so contorted, that at a great distance it may acquirethe same tone as at a place nearer to the center. 5. In a differ­ent situation, extension, compression, dilatation of the poles, it*Cf. II Infinite IV, x. tion of Elements 11. 8, 32• 8 ; 11 In­t For the distinction between Un­ finite IV, v fin.dulation and Tremulation, see Mo­16
  36. 36. 15PSYCHOLOGICA.MS., 164.OBSERVANDA.Sit quod tremulatio sit causa nostrae sensationis in anima;et sit quod animae figurae sit cochlearis seu spiralis cum conis,adeo ut sic moveri possit differenter ad quemcunque motumtremulum; videamus jam quot diversitates dari possint. I.Semper aliqua diversitas ab omni a centra distantia; et quiaconi polares sint etiam spirales, hinc distantiae fere infinitaesunt a centro. 2. Si accedat, quod etiam densitas ejus sitsubtilior in centro et crassior versus superficiem rationePh. MS., 106.crassitie[i] etiam in quavis distantia differt a centra. 3. Sitremores sint majores vel fere undulatoriae, vel si sint tremula-tores, hoc est, si ad majorem vel minorem distantiam tremu-lent, statim differentiae sunt infinitae in hoc respectu; proutvidemus nullum instrumentum alteri simile sonare, quamvissint harmonici, adeo ut qua harmoniam nihil differant; undetoni molliores, acutiores, vehementiores; ut etiam in sonohumano, nullus alteri similiter qua tonum loquitur. 3. Ineodem loco membranae hinc diversi soni possunt exhiberi,non aliter ac tympanum auris, licet unicum sit, tamen ad omnestremores similes et dissimiles in instanti et successive flectipotest; sic etiam hoc, quamvis naturaliter ad unam eandemquedistantiam a centra unum tonum habeat, sed ratione lenti-tudinis vel celeritatis tremoris variare potest. 4. Unde itatorqueri potest, ut ad ampliorem distantiam eundem tonumnanciscatur cum loco prapinquiori ad centrum. S. In aliositu, extensione, compressione, dilatatione polorum, statim17
  37. 37. ....- 16PSYCI-IOLOGICA.at once acquires another setting of the tone, but yet such, thatall things follow in order harmoniously. 6. One tone can existtogether with another; two tones can exist simultaneously;three or more can exist simultaneously. 7. An octave, and theoctaves thereof can be moved simultaneously or separately.16. That this consists in an HARMONIC PROPORTION; or, alongthe distances from the center, there is an harmonic proportion,so that the differences are to each other as the first number isto the last.* [1] Thus if we have 2,3,6, then as 3-2 is to 6-3,so is 2 to 6. Or according to the figure, as B is to D, or asAB is to AD, so BC is to CD. If therefore the ratio of theA B C DI 1 - 1 1distances between two points be the same as the ratio of thedistance of each from the center, then there is a harmony.This is most highly in accordance with nature. 2. An harmonicproportion is thus similar to a geometric: AB: AD:: BC: CD.3. If this proportion is continuous, it is still more harmonic.4. This may be seen in the hyperbola, where, if AC, AE, AF,tare in arithmetical proportion, then AB, CD, EG, FH, are inharmonic proportion. S. Thus an harmonic proportion par­takes at once of an arithmetic proportion also; just as it consists*A proportion is harmo111c when two. Thus 2, 3, 6, is an harmonicthe first number is to the last as proportion; for 2: 6:: 3-2: 6-3.the difference between the first two t In the MS. this is "AC, CE,to the difference between the last EF." See Preface, p. xi.I 18
  38. 38. 16PSYCHOLOGICA.aliam toni constellationem nanciscitur, ita tamen ut omniaordine harmonice succedant. 6. Dnus tonus una potest essecum altero; bini toni simul, tres et plures simul.. 7. Octavumet ejus octava possunt simul moveri, vel separatim.MS., 165.Quod in proportione harmonica consistat hoc; sive secundumdistantias a centro, proportio harmonica est, quod differentiaese habeant ut primus numerus ad ultimum, vel sit 2. 3: 6."" , ~ ) Q..• , t·~ Cibi 3-2: 6-3, sic 2 ad 6; sive b ad d, vel ab ad ad, sic bc ad cd.Si ergo distantiarum proportio inter utrumque prout est dis­tantiarum utriusque a centro, tunc fit harmonia, quod maximenaturale est. 2. Harmonica proportio sic est geometricaesimilis, ab. ad: bc. cd. 3. Si haec proportio continua sit,eo magis harmonica est. 4. Hoc in hyperbolis videre licet,~ .. ­A·~~it ­ut si ac. ce. ef sint in proportione arithmetica, tunc est ab, cd,eg, fh, in proportione harmonica. 5. Adeo ut sic participatimmediate etiam ex arithmetica, prout constet ex geometrica,19
  39. 39. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.of a geometric, according to the above figures. 6. The samegeometric proportion is preserved wherever the lines from A,e, E, F, fall upon the hyperbola, or at whatever angle, providedonly they be parallel, as ex and EY. The curvature of thehyperbola is also preserved, because it is formed from oppositepoints within the asymptotes to the other side.* This ratio canin no wise be changed, no matter what the sine. The spaceskeep this ratio. 6 [a1 From which it follows that this spiralcurvature in the soul is hyperbolic; and differently hyperbolicaccording to compression and dilatation.t 7. Such harmonicproportions may also exist in other curves, as in the parabola,the ellipse, etc.17. How THE MEMBRANES SEEM TO BE EFFIGIED. They maybe effigied in a thousand ways; and therefore, in these highlyobscure matters, we wish to exhibit a formation such as seemsto be most in harmony with our elementary particles and ouractives, and which follows as a consequence from our principlesas given in our philosophy of the elements.:!: An infinite num­ber of varieties may be propounded, though not very suitableones; hence guesswork will here have room for play. What isnot guesswork, is that which is a consequence of our principles,as follows:1. The supremely subtle membrane is convoluted from centerto peripheries into spirals.§ It arose from the dilatation ofsome finite which can be expanded only into a membrane ofsuch form, according to the flux of its parts. With their tor­tuous situation, these spirals possess polar cavities [or cones].Within are actives of the first finite, and the membrane itselfis composed of second finites.11 l[a] On one side, these cones*In connection with points 1-6, 11 In the MS. this is marked 2,ef. II Inf. IV, xi. and then come 3, 4, etc. We havet Cf. Mechanism, 35. altered 2 to 1[a], 3 to 2, etc., in:j: ef. the little work A General order to make these numbers con­Treatment Concerning the Motion form with the numbers in the ex­of the Elements, in Scientific and planation of the delineation, andPhilosophical Treatises vo!. 1, p. also in n. 18. For the convenience97 seq. of the reader, we have put I, 2, 3,§ Cf. II Inf. IV, xi. etc., as separate paragraphs, al­20
  40. 40. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.secundum superiora. 6. Quod eadem proportio geometricaconservetur, ubicunque incidit in hyperbolam, seu ad quem­cunque angulum, modo lineae sint parallelae, ut cx, ed. Quodetiam ipsa curvatura hyperbolae quod ex oppositis spatiisinter asymptotes ad alterum latus; quod haec ratio nullo modopossit ad quemcunque sinum mutari; quod ipsa spatia con-Ph. MS., 107.servant hanc rationem. 6. Ex quibus sequitur spiralemhanc curvaturam esse hyperbolicam in anima; et diversehyperbolicam secundum compressionem et dilatationem. 7.Tales proportiones harmonicae in aliis curvis etiam dari pos­sunt, ut in parabola, in ellipsi, etc.Membranae quomodo videantur esse effigiatae. Mille modiseffigiari possunt, hinc velimus in obscurissimis his talem forma­tionem exhibere, quae particulis nostris elementaribus etMS., 166.activis convenientissima esse videtur, et tanquam consequenssequitur ex principiis nostris in elementorum philosophia;sed possunt tradi infinitae varietates, sed non convenientiores,hi[n]c divinatio hie locum habebit; quod non divinatio est,est quod secundum seriem principiorum ita sequatur: I. Sub­tilissima membrana est in spiras convoluta, a centra ad peri­pherias, orta ex dilatatione alicujus finiti, quod non aliterpotest expandi quam in membranam talis formae, secundumfluxum partium ejus; tortuoso situ, gaudent polaribus cavi­tatibus. Intus sunt activa primi, et membrana ex finitissecundis. 2. Ab una parte sunt non ligati, sed ibi influitthough here, and also in the ex- constitute a single paragraph as inplanation of the delineation, they n. 18.21
  41. 41. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.are not attached, and here the first element flows into them and isactuated into a similar motion in accordance with the tremulousmotion of the membranes. Thus the soul can be actuated intomotion by this element, and itself can actuate the latter intomotion. In these operations consists the supremely subtle sym­pathy and communion of souls and angels, and their correspond­ence with our soul.*2. On the other side, a substance consisting of third finites isapplied to the cones, that is to say, to the polar cones of thesespirals; and here also there is a helix-like tortuosity. Thus thissubstance consists of cells not unlike the shells of the snail andof certain kinds of testaceans. Within are actives of the firstand second finite; for the enclosed actives must needs formtheir circumferences into spirals or continuing circles,-to whichoperation they flow of their own accord.3. This part coheres with a highly delicate membrane consist­ing of fourth finites and perhaps also of third. It is a mem­brane which is here and there distended; and it holds the firstelement enclosed within. It is mobile in the same way as thesurface of the ether [bulla]; in which latter also the first ele­ment is enclosed.4. This whole membrane taken together contains within itcavities filled with the second element, which is like the first butgrosser.5. Attached to it is a membrane wherein is enclosed ether,which perhaps has formed for itself rivulets running from theone membrane to the other, in order that it may freely flowthrough them and be evacuated and replenished.6. Then comes a tunic consisting of a kind of subtle liquor.7. And finally a tunic consisting of arteries and veins.The arrangement is shown in the following delineation: t... Cf. Tremulation, p. 6. with the circles RS forming thet It should be noted that in the center. EFG and HIJKL wouldinterpretation of this delineation, the also be continued in the peripheriesthree upper lines have been curved. around this center. Thus the wholeIf continued they would form a would represent a primitive cell.sphere, flattened at the poles, and22
  42. 42. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.elementum primum in conos, quod secundum motum tremulummembranae in similem motum agitur; sic potest anima abelemento hoc in motum agi, et potest illud in motum agere ;in his consistit sympathia subtilissima, et communio animarum,angelorum, et illorum correspondentia cum anima nostra.3. Ab altera parte in conis est applicata substantia finitistertiis constans, scilicet in conis illorum polaribus, ubi helicisinstar etiam tortuositas est; et sic constat cellulis non aliterac cochleae et quaedam testarum genera. Intus sunt activaprimi et secundi, nam activa inclusa non possunt aliter quamformare ambientes in spiras seu continue circulares, ad quodetiam suapte fluunt. 4. Haec pars cohaeret cum membranatenuissima constans finitis. quartis, et fortassis simul tertiis,estque membrana quae hic et ibi distenta est et inclusum habetelementum primum; quae non aliter mobilis est ac ipsa super­ficies aetheris, cui etiam inclusum est elementum primum.5. Tota haec membrana simul sumta, intus habet cavitatesrepletas elemento secundo, similis priori sed crassior. 6. Huicvero aligata est membrana cui inclusus est aether, qui fortassisrivulos sibi formaverat ab una in alteram, ut libere possitpercurrere, et evacuari et repleri. 7. Dein tunica subtiliMS., 167. Ph. MS., 108.quodam liquore constans. 8. Tandem arteriis et venis; vel23
  43. 43. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.1. RS are the spirals or helices of the supremely subtle[membrane] of the soul. ·Within them are actives of thefirst finite. [la] At T where there is no attachment, is thefirst element.2. QP is the tortuosity with its hollow spirals. Themembrane consists of third finites. Within are enclosedactives of the first and second * finite.3. NO is the membrane adhering to it, in which is en­closed the first element.4. CD is the membrane in which is enclosed the secondelement; yet together with the former it constitutes a singlemembrane; [h, i, k, 1, m, are second elementary particles.]S. ABCD is the membrane where ether is enclosed, whichcan flow like a rivulet [e, g, f}.6. There is a still grosser membrane, where there is asubtle juice.7. And another yet grosser, where is blood with itsarteries. Such is the nature of the membrane foundthroughout the entire head, and over each individual par­ticle or minutest gland.t8. But in a body where there is no rational soul but onlya sensitive, RS are wanting.9. The one RS is entirely similar to the other.*The MS. has" third." tives, elements and membranes int The reference is to the pia their psychological aspect, see Prin­mater, or perhaps to the piissima cipia I, i, pp. 9-10, 39-40, 41; IImater; see Motion of El. 6; Brain, Inf. IV, fi~ and xiii, fin; Mech­411. In further study of the ac- anism, 12, 16,36; Motion of El. 2,24
  44. 44. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.secundum delineationem: ut I. RS sunt spirae seu helicessubtilissimae animae in quibus sint activa primi; in Test ele­mentum primum, ubi non alligata est. 2. QP est tortuositascum suis cavis spiralibus; membrana constat finitis tertiis;intus sunt inc1usa activa primi et tertii. 3. NO est mem­brana ei adhaerens, cui inc1usum est elementum primum.4. CD membrana cui inc1usum est elementum secundum; unatamen membrana cum priori. S. ABCD est membrana ubiaether inc1usus, qui rivuli instar fluere possit. 6. Adhuccrassiora sunt, ubi succus subtilis. 7. Adhuc crassiora ubisanguis cum arteriis. Talis membrana est per totum caput,et super quam[li]bet particulam vel glandulam minimam. 8. Atvero in corpore desunt RS ubi non est anima rationalis sedsensitiva. 9. Una RS est plane similis alteri.5, 7, 30. In n. 6 of the last named A subtler membrane investing thework, mention is made of six mem- subtler parts of the pia mater. 6.branes, as follows: 1. The cranium. A still more subtle membrane which2. The tunic investing the arteries issues from the next subtler. Seeand veins, usually consisting in part also n. 228 below, where sevenof nervous ramifications. 3. The tunics are enumerated.dura mater. 4. The pia mater. 5.25
  45. 45. 18-19PSYCHOLOGICA.18. THE TREMORS IN THESE TUNICS. 1. In the first is thesupremely distinct tremor of the soul. 2. Likewise in the sec­ond. 3.* In the third is the memory of brutes; but in man thememory is in the second and likewise in the third., 4. In thefourth is the organ of sight. 5. In the fifth is the organ ofhearing, and likewise the other sensations according to the di­versities of the tremulations. In the 6th is implanted sensationwhether evil or good.19. THE FORMATIONS OF THE TREMULATIONS. [1] Theyare effected by use and cultivation, as the membrane is adaptedto one tremor or another. 2. All things tremble harmonically,as for instance at the octave or some similar interval; for allthe membranes differ in their octaves. 3. If something newenters in, which is being affixed to the membrane; or to whosemotion the membrane is being adapted, it places itself, either atan octave with a similar thing, or else within the octave; to theend that the distances or differences may be as extremes fromcenters. It cannot place itself in an intermediate situation, sinceapperception is effected by means of a simile. Then, betweenthese two there is also a harmony; hence when either octave ismoved, this new thing also readily comes into motion; and thusfrom the three come those things which are still harmonicallyjoined together; and so on. From this it follows that whenmen are being cultivated it is necessary, that they use such amethod that similes shall come in with similes. If perchancesome dissimile should harmoniously occupy a place among sim­iles, then its motion t is effected by the motion or tremor that*We understand 3 to be identical "cannot have actives of the firstwith points 3 and 4 of n. 17, and and second kind, although that soul4 to be identical with S, and so also consists of an expanse."forth. Brutes know the four quarters andt Compare n. 17 point 8, and also "therefore something enters intoM echallism, n. 14. In the latter their expanse which is of the qual­reference, the soul of brutes ap­ ity of the second or magnetic ele­pears to be identified with points 3 ment. Therefore we also can haveand 4 of n. 17 of the present work; the soul of brutes; but we havefor it is said that the brute soul also a soul still more subtle." See26
  46. 46. 18-19PSYCHOLOGICA.Tremores in his tunicis. I. In prima est ipsa animae, dis­tinctissima. 2. Pariter in altera. 3. In tertia est memoriabrutorum, sed in 2daest memoria hominum pariter in tertia.4. In quarta est organum visus. 5. In quinta est auditus;pariter reliquae sensationes secundum diversitates tremula­In 6tationum. satus est sensus malus vel bonus.Formationes tremulationum. Fit ex usu et cuItu; si aptaturad hunc aut iilum tremorem. 2. Omnia trement harmonice,ut ad octavum, vel simile; nam membranae omnes differuntoctavis. 3. Si novum quid intrat quod affigitur vel cujusmotui aptatur membrana, vel ad octavum se locat cum simili,vel inter octavum, ut distantiae vel differentiae sint ut extremaMS., 168.a centris; intermedie non se locare potest, si per simile fiatapperceptio; dein inter haec duo etiam hamlonia, unde utroquemoto octavo facile etiam hoc in motum venit; et sic a tribusveniunt illa quae adhuc sunt harmonice juncta; et sic porro.Ex his sequitur, quod cum excolantur homines, necessariumsit, ut methodo utantur, ut similia cum similibus veniunt;si dissimile occuparet forte locum inter similia harmonice,tunc a motu vel tremore impresso fit ejus mOtlls, et sic dis­also Mechanism, n. 3, 21; II Inf. :: That is, the motion of the mem­IV, xiii (the Soul of Brutes); brane.Prin. I, pp. 1, 2; I, i, pp. 9-11.274
  47. 47. 20-21PSYCHOLOGICA.has been impressed, and thus a dissimile comes forward in thesimile.* Hence either the man reasons absurdly; or else, bymeans of much imagination, [the dissimile] is entirely lost tothe memory and obliterated, and something more similar grad­ually occupies its place. This must be effected by use and culti­vation.20. Therefore according to Volffs rules if a compound beconfused, the soul is in a state of confused perceptions; and thereverse [n. 12, 13, above].[VL][SENSATION.]21. Perceptions of material things in the visible world dependon contingent mutations in our body [no 57]. Thus in the caseof touch, taste, smell, sound, sight, everything must exist frommutations or be dependent thereon. So also the understandingand the many phenomena occurring in the most subtle [senses] ;there must be something that shall do the moving; as, for in­stance, the passions of the animus, bilious ichor.t Thus theimagination itself depends on mutations; it must have an originwhich shall move it; it does not exist from itself. Add to thisthat perception cannot be thought of as being without an originwhich shall bring change or movement; so neither can it be con­ceived of as being without a terminus, in that the motion goesto a definite terminus and, as it were, to a center. Unless therebe a terminus to the motion, there can be no perception. There­fore some motions are terminated in subtle organs, and somein the soul. They cannot all go to the soul itself, except byhelp of the imagination. Thus a tremor in a larger [medium]that is to say, a grosser tremor, moves simultaneously, and inlike manner at the octave, with the differences in smaller[mediums] and thus a tremulation comes into existence.:j: How*C/. Mechanism, 2-6; Prin. 1,4, grosser medium and tends to ap.43. more subtle medium, it sensibly be­t C/. II In/. IV, 3. comes the same motion in things:j: We interpret this in the sense more subtle, and consequently aindicated in II Infinite IV, v fin: more distinct motion. Tremulation"Vhen a motion begins in a in the air may cause undulation in28
  48. 48. 20-21PSYCHOLOGICA.simile cum simili prodit; sic vel absurde ratiocinatur, vel exmemoria per multam imaginationem plane perit et obliteratur,et sensim quid similius locum illum occupat, quod fiet ex usuet cultu.Ergo secundum regulas Wollfii si compositum sit confusumest anirila in statu perceptionum confusarum; et contra.Ph. MS., 109.Perceptiones rerum materialium in mundo aspectabili amutationibus in corpore isto contingentibus dependent. Sic intactu, gustu, olfactu, sono, visu, omnia existent vel dependenta mutationibus; sic etiam intellectus et plura in subtilissimis,erit aliquid quod movet, ut si passiones corporis, si aliquidbilosum icor; sic ipsa imaginatio dependet a mutationibus,habebit originem se moventem, ex se non existit. Acceditquod perceptio non considerari possit sine origine quae mutetvel moveat; sic etiam non concipi possit sine termino, quodmoveatur ad certum terminum et quasi ad centrum; nisiterminus sit motus, nulla erit perceptio. Ergo quidam motusterminantur in organis subtilibus, quidam in anima; non omniaad ipsam animam ire possunt,5 nisi adjuvante imaginatione,adeo ut tremor in majori, seu crassiusculus, moveat simulsimiliter ad octavum differentibus in minoribus, adeo utthe ether, and undulation in the trcmulation of a grosser membraneether may cause a still greater un- may bring undulation to a moredulation in a more subtle element. subtle membrane." Compare alsoThis can be ocularly shown by ibid. 12, 3, 32, 3.large and small balls," etc. Sce & possint.also Mot. of Elements 43 : "The29
  49. 49. 22-24PSYCHOLOGICA.can we say of touch, smell, and hearing, that they depend onmutations, if we do not say the same thing of sight also, and ofthe passions of the body and of the animus ! * As nature oper­ates in the greater so she operates in the lesser. There is nodifference. Why take refuge in the unknown just because wedo not see? The things which we do not see are infinitely morethan those which we see. If we do not see an insect, are wethen to say it is [non] existent? that it lacks membrane? thatit does not move mechanically, etc.?22. Those bodies are present to us which have such a situationin relation to our body, that they can be perceived by us if therebe no accidental obstacle [n. 60]. They are not present becausethey exist, but they are present in respect of a contiguum.Thus the sun is present by reason of a contiguum, a rose, byreason of its odor. A thing is present to the perception byreason of a contiguum. Otherwise no presence can be thoughtof.23. A body is present in some place, if it is situated withinthe termini by which we define that place [n. 61]. Thereforepresence cannot be thought of unless there be a terminus towhich [it is referred]. If it be presence in the soul, the termi­nus must be there; if elsewhere, the terminus must be there.[The thing present] always goes off to the soul; for the thingsof the memory are ever in motion with all else; hence a subtletremor arises therefrom, and thus passes on to the soul. Ifthere were no tremors of the memory, there would be no per­ception. Through the memory the tremor is led on to the soul.In brutes the motion of the sight, hearing, etc., can be broughtonly to the sensitive soul; and it is brought thither only bymeans of more subtle tremors.24. Sensation is a perception which can be explained in anintelligible way as a mutation effected in some organ of ourbody as such [no 65]. Sensation cannot come to the soul, unlessthere be intermediate membranes tremulous to a more subtlemotion. Since these membranes are instantly moved to tremu­lous motions adapted to them,-and this, either because of some*The MS. has "animae" (of as a slip for animi.the soul) which we have assumed30
  50. 50. 22-24PSYCHOLOGICA.tremulatio existat. Quid dicemus de tactu et olfactu, auditu,quod dependeant a mutationibus, nisi etiam idem dicamus devisu, de passionibus corporis et animae; qualiter operaturnatura in majori sic in minori, nulla est differentia. Cur adignotum fugimus ideo quod non videamus; sunt infinite pluraquae non videmus, quam quae videmus; si insectum nonvidemus, ergo dicemus illud [non] esse, carere membris, nonmechani[ce] moveri, etc.MS., 169.Corpora ista nobis praesentia sunt, quae eum ad corpus nos­trum habent situm, ut percipi a nobis possint, nisi accidentaleaUquod obstaculum adsit. Praesentia sunt non quod sint, sedrespectu contigui sunt praesentia, ut sol ratione contigui,rosa ratione odoratus; perceptioni est praesens ratione con­tigui, alias nulla praesentia considerari potest.[Corpus] praesens aliquo in loco si intra terminos consistit,quibus locum istud definimus. Ergo praesentia non potestconsiderari nisi sit tenninus ad quod; si sit anima, erit ibitenninus, si alibi erit ibi tenninus. Abit semper ad animam,quia res memoriae semper moventur cum reliquis; hinc fitinde tremor subtilior sicque vadit ad animam. Nisi tremoresmemoriae sint, nulla perceptio foret, per illam deducitur adanimam; ipse motus visus, auditus etc non ad animam nisisensitivam brutorum perduci potest, nisi ope tremorumsubtiliorum eo deducatur.Sensatio est perceptio per mutationem, quae fit in organoaliquo corporis nostri qua taU, intelligibili modo explicabilis.Sensatio non pervenit ad animam, nisi sint membranae adsubtiliorem motum tremulae intennediae, quae cum ad motustremulos sibi adaequatos illico moventur, vel propter simile,31
  51. 51. 25-27PSYCHOLOGICA.simile, or because of a mutation-therefore the motion advancesonwards to the soul, and becomes a rational perception. Butthat motion cannot be brought thither, unless the little mem­branes by cultivation and use ~ave been made accustomed to it,so that they may be moved in some similar way, but more subtly.From undulation comes tremulation; * hence comes rationalperception.25. A sensory organ is an organic part of the body in whosemutations are contained the reason of the perceptions of mate­rial things in the visible world en. 66]. This is true. Percep­tion does indeed come from these mutations; but it comes bymeans of a tremor in more subtle membranes, by whose help itis carried to the soul where is the terminus, and thus becomesperception.26. N. B. The question arises: FOR WHAT REASON HASNATURE FORMED IN OUR SENSES THAT WHICH IS SO DELIGHT­FUL? as for instance in our sight, so many gladsome colors; inour hearing, such great harmony; and so in the other senses;with the result that we are harmonic organs full of delight.The reason is because all the way to the soul, all things mustconspire to the production of harmony; all the membranessimultaneously from the greatest to the least; all the octaveshigher and higher, the grosser and the subtler, even to the soul.And because the harmony of all is so great, it reaches even tothe soul. Hence come such great delights, especially if some­thing intervenes which constitutes an harmonic proportion; asfor instance intermediate delights which thus come to the soulwithout impeding or injuring any organ by tremors which arenot harmonious, etc. On the other hand, if other tremors inter­vene, the undelightful at once arises, and this presents the oppo­site effect. Hence we have undelightful colors, undelightfulsounds, smell, taste, touch, etc.t27. A stronger sensation obscures a weaker, so that presentlywe entirely fail to pe1ceive the weaker [n. 76]. The tremula­tion is the same if only it be of the same celerity, whether it bemore acute or more obtuse, or whether it go to a greater dis­* Cl. Motion of Elements 12,8, t Cf. Mechanism, 2-3.42, 3; Principia I, 1, p. 10.32
  52. 52. 25-27PSYCHOLOGICA.vel propter mutationem, hinc pergit motus ad animam fitqueperceptio rationalis; nee illuc perveniri potest, nisi per cultumet usum, membranulae ad illum motum factae sint assuetae,ut moveantur simili quodam modo sed subtilius; ab undula­tione fiat tremulatio, hinc fit perceptio rationalis.Organum sensorium est pars organica corporis, in cujusmutationibus continentur rationes perceptionum rerum materi-Ph. MS., 110.alium in mundo aspectabili. Hoc verum est; ab istis mutation­ibus pervenit quidem perceptio, sed mediante tremore insubtilioribus membranis, cujus ope 6 defertur ad animam ubiterminus, et fit sic perceptio.N. B. Quaeritur quae ratio sit quod tarn deliciosum forma­verit natura in nostribus sensibus, ut in visu tot laetos colores,in auditu tantarn harmoniam, et sic in reliquis sensibus, adeout nos simus organon harmonicum et delitiosum; ratio est,quod omnia conspirent usque ad animam ad harmoniamMS., 170.producendam; omnes membranae simul a maxima ad mini­mam; omnes octavi altiores et altiores usque ad animam,crassiores et subtiliores. Et quia tanta est harmonia omnium,usque dum ad animam pervenit, unde tantae delitiae, praeci­pue si aliquid intervenit, quod constituit proportionem har­monicam, ut intermediae quae sic ad animam perveniunt,sine impedimento et laesione alicujus organi per alios tremoresquam harmonicos, etc.7 Contra vero, si alii intercederent,illico injucundum venit, et contrarium effectum sistit; undecolores injucundi, soni injucundi, odoratus, gustus, tactus, etc.Sensatio fortior obscurat debiliorem, ita ut subinde debilioremprorsus non appercipiamus. Tremulatio eadem est modo sitejusdem celeritatis, si vel sitS acutior vel obtusior, si ad majorem6 opus. 7 et.8 si.33

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