Em Swedenborg-PSYCHOLOGICA-psychological-notes-Latin-English-Alfred-Acton-SSA-Philadelphia-1923
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Em Swedenborg-PSYCHOLOGICA-psychological-notes-Latin-English-Alfred-Acton-SSA-Philadelphia-1923 Document Transcript

  • 1. PSYCHOLOGICAfr, -1 ~I ( f(:: .-........ vBEINGNOTES AND OBSERVATIONSONChristian Wolfs Psychologia EmpiricaBYEMANUELSWEDENBORGTRANSLATED FROM THE PHOTOLITHOGRAPHED MANUSCRIPTBYALFRED ACTON, M.A., B.Th.DEAN OF THE mEOLOGICAL SCHOOL OF THE ACADEMYOF THE NEW CHURCHSWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATIONPHILADELPHIA, PA.19 2 3
  • 2. PREFACEI.II.III.IV.V.VI.VII.VIII.IX.X.XI.XII.XIII.XIV.XV.XVI.XVII.XVIII.XIX.XX.XXI.XXII.XXIII.CONTENTS.Nos.BY THE TRANSLATOR.Is GOD A SPIRIT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1THE EXISTENCE OF THE HUMAN SOUL.Wolffs Rules.... . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2How TO ACQUIRE A KNOWLEDGE OF THESOUL............................... 3-8THE FORMAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PER­CEPTIONS , . 9-14OBSERVANDA. [Diversities of Tremulations.]How the membranes seem to be effigied.The tremors in the tunics. The forma­tions of the tremulations . 15-20SENSATION . 21-41IMAGINATION . 42-71SLEEP AND DREAMING . 72-86THE FACULTY OF PICTURING . 87-105THE MEMORy . 106-132ATTENTION AND REFLECTION . 133-142THE INTELLECT AND COGNITION . 143-144THE THREE OPERATIONS OF THE INTELLECT 145-150NATURAL DISPOSITIONS AND HABITS OF THEINTELLECT . 151-158PLEASURE AND VVEARINESS . 159-164SENSITIVE ApPETITE AND SENSITIVE AVER­SION 165AFFECTIONS 166-194THE WILL 195-199THE WILL AND ITS DETERMINATIONS 200-208THE CONSTITUTION OF THE SOUL. THESOUL AFTER DEATH 209-216THE PHILOSOPHY OF PARTICLES. . . . . . . . . . 217THE MEMBRANES 218-226[NATURE IS MECHANICAL]............... 227iii
  • 3. CONTENTS.XXIV. THE MEMBRANES ......................• 22~230XXV. [CONCERNING PHILOSOPHy]............... 231XXVI. FAITH IN CHRIST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232ApPENDIX. EMINENT GENERATION.SUBJECT INDEX.iv
  • 4. Preface.Some three or four months ago, Professor E. E. IUNGERICHbrought to the present writer a draft translation into English ofpp. 159-206 of the third volume of the Swedenborg photo-lithographed MSS:--The writing contained in these pages hadnot been given any title by the author, but in the photolitho-graphed volume Dr. R. L. Tafel had supplied the title" AComparison of the Systems of Christian Wolff and Sweden-borg "; for which, Pro£. Iungerich had substituted as beingmore descriptive, the title "A Psychology of Tremulationsbased on the Apothegms of Chr. Wolff." Neither of thesetitles seemed satisfactory. The first involves a systematic com-parison of the whole of Wolffs philosophy with the philosophyof Swedenborg, whereas the work itself consists merely of notesmade on various points in lIIolffs PSYCHOLOGIA EMPIRICA in-terspersed with sundry observations. The second title, whileindeed descriptive, seems to involve that the work was writtenas a set treatise, whereas on the face of it, it is ~othing mo:.-ethan notes written during the course of --!".-e~ding. We havepreferred therefore the title " Psychologica" or PsychologicalNotes. .~ -- ---After hearing a brief description of the work from Prof.IUNGERICH, it needed but a glance at his draft translation toconvince the writer of these lines, as to the importance of thework in question; and the matter of its publication was at oncebrought up before the Directors of the Swedenborg ScientificAssociation, with the result that Mr. HAROLD F. PITCAIRN gen-erously offered to defray the cost of printing.Pro£. IUNGERICHS translation was not in shape to be pub-lished. Indeed it became clear that considerable research wouldbe necessary before a finished translation could be undertaken;and even with this, it was clear that in many places the trans-lator would be obliged to become more or less of an interpre-ter. As soon as this became evident, it was suggested that inv
  • 5. PREFACE.justice both to the translator and to the reader the Latin textof the work should be published at the same time as the Englishtranslation; and we record, with great appreciation, that Mr.HAROLD F. PITCAIRN at once extended his offer to cover thisadditional printing.The new translation which was then commenced by the pres­ent writer was made from the photolithographed manuscriptdirect, but based on Prof. IUNGERICHS draft translation. Thechanges, however, have been so numerous and far-reaching,that the work is really a new translation, and for it the trans­lator alone must be held responsible. At the same time grate­ful acknowledgment is made for many suggestions supplied byPro£. Iungerichs translation.The PSYCHOLOGICA was evidently written by the author forhis own use; consequently the language is frequently so ellipti­cal as to be obscure. The translator, therefore, had. twochoices; either he could translate the work with exact literal­ness; or he could supply more or less of interpretation whereverthe text does not make the authors meaning c1ear,-as for in­stance in the numerous cases where it is not clear what specifi­cally is the subject or object of the verb.The objection to the first method is that a literal translationwould be far more obscure than the original Latin; for theEnglish language does not have genders like the Latin, and doesnot always show by the form of the verb whether the subjectis singular or plural. It is on this plan that Pro£. Iungerichstranslation was made. To our mind, the second plan is to bepreferred, and this, therefore, we have adopted. Any possibleobjections which may be made to it are almost entirely obviatedby the publication of the Latin text.The Latin text is in places extremely difficult to read. Pro£.IUNGERICH hilmade a transcript befo~~preparing his transla­tion, and in making the present translation, an independenttranscript was also made. This latter Pro£. IUNGERICH verykindly compared with his own and supplied valuable suggestions.In view of this revision by so competent a scholar, the readermay be assured of the correctness, so far as possible, of thereadings presented in the printed text.vi
  • 6. PREFACE.Grateful acknowledgment is made to Pro£. C. E. DOERINGwho has given considerable assistance in connection with thediagram in n. 17. Swedenborgs explanation of this diagrampresents some difficulty; but after considerable research, Pro£.DOERING found that by a slight alteration in the letters referringto the diagram, Swedenborgs conclusion was fully established.It seems clear, as suggested by Pro£. DOERING, that Swedenborgmade a slip in writing C and E for A and A. Pro£. DOERINGalso informs us that the proposition based on this diagram seemsto be original with Swedenborg, for no such proposition is tobe found in any of the very numerous works on Mathematicswhich the Professor has consulted in the course of his studies.Acknowledgment is also made to Mr. WINFRED S. HYATT,for his kindness in executing the interpretations of Sweden-borgs diagrams.To Pro£. Iungerichs translation, which covered pp. 102-136of the photolithographed MS., we have added pp. 137-140.These latter pages do not concern Wolffs PSYCHOLOGICA EM-PIRICA, but the same is true also of the four preceding pages.In any case, it is clear that the pages now added belong to thesame series of writings.We have also added an appendix consisting of a short pieceentitled" Eminent Generation," which has been translated fromthe sixth volume of the photolithographed MSS., p. 311. Itwas written some six or seven years after the PSYCHOLOGICA,and is inserted as an appendix to the present work partly as.furnishing some indication as to Swedenborgs literary plans,and partly because it has not hitherto appeared in print. Theoriginal title supplied by the author was" Eminent Generation,or the Generation of the Spirituous Fluid." This he altered to" Eminent Generation."The editing of the present volume has consisted in supplyingan index, in adding a few explanatory footnotes and in givingreferences to other of Swedenborgs writings. The giving ofreferences is somewhat unusual but seems useful in the presentcase as supplying means to the student to elucidate or morefully understand the authors meaning. The editor has alsosupplied all the paragraph numbers printed in black letter, andvii
  • 7. PREFACE.in one or two cases he has subdivided paragraphs (though with­out numbering them) ; this seemed useful for greater ease inreading and study.THE PSYCHOLOGICA AND, CODEXJ~.8.The manuscript here translated is contained in codex 88 ofthe Swedenborg MSS. preserved in-the Library of the RoyalAcademy of Sciences of Sweden, where it occupies pp. 159-206/ :of the codex. For the most parte codex 88)s a commonplaceb29.k wherein Swedenborg entered "{rom ,!ayjoj.ay:_his j~l!~:I:alof travels. From da¥ to day also, and thus between the entriesof the journal, he wrote various draft paragraphs to be incor­porated in the first chapter of his PRINCIPIA, notes on works hewas reading, and observations on various mining operationswhich had engaged his attention.Pages 3-7 of the codex, which were the first pages to bewritten on, contain a little treatise entitled " A General Treat­ment of the Motion of the Element." * This work was writtenin Stockholm and probably in April 1733; for immediately fol­lowing it, on p. 8, Swedenborg commences his journal of travels,beginning with the statement thatheIeftStockholm-on May10th. This part of the journal extends from pages 8 to 39,and contains entries from May 10th to July 15th. From it welearn that on June 7th Swedenborg arrived in Dresden, wherehe stayed for some time. Here, from June 14th to the 19th,he devoted himself to reading and correcting his PRINCIPIA inpreparation for its publication.The special object of his journey to the continent on thisoccasion, was the publication of the OPERA MINERALOGICA, of~hich th.e PRINCIPIA ~onst}j:utes vOlumel This ;orkhad beenwritten in Sweden prior to the commencement of Swedenborgsjourney, and, as far at any rate as the PRINCIPIA is concerned,the author specifically states that he had completed it two yearsbefore it was printed, that is to say, in 1731.t It should be, ---..,-.:..:> ( *Translated in I Scientific and) four volumes, or else to have been,,-Philos?~hical Treatises, pp. 99-1QS.j divided into four "tomes," for on--rrIie original MS. of the p. 57 of(todex 8§,_ in a note" OnPRINCIPIA appears to have filled the Orde; of the Particle" theviii
  • 8. PREFACE.noted, however, that the first draft of the PRINCIPIA did not~. include what is now known as Chapter 1 on "The Means Con- ~ucing to a True Philosophy" but that Chapter 2 of the pub-lished work was originally Chapter 1 of the draft, and so forth.A less immediate object of Swedenborgs journey, though nota less important, was to learn about and study the numerouslearned works which were daily appearing on the Conffnentand;1i1Cli in Sweden, at that time, were difficult to pr~~ure. Andwhen we consider Swedenborgs intense thir~ for knowledge,we can well understand the eagerness with which he searchedfor new works, and the avidity with which he read and studiedthem. Indeed his journal contains many extracts from theworks which he came across in the course of his travels, besidesinnumerable notes of works of which he had heard or read.On July 10th he notes that at the house of a friend, he hadseen, for the first time, a copy of Wolffs COSMOLOGIA GEN-ERALIS, a work in which "the author has endeavored to estab-lish elementary nature from purely metaphysical principles."Swedenborg evidently procured a copyof this work,* and de-voted some of his time at Dresden to studying it.. ,The journal for July 15th, 1733, ends on p. 39 of(codex 88:On the following pages (40-46) are contained sundry draftnotes for" My Preface to the Principia." After some shortjou~nal entries dated July 21st to 23rd, at which latter dateSwedenborg arrived in Prague, these ~raft notes are continuedfrom p. 50 to p. 57. Several paragraphs of th.ese~r~ts weresubsequently incorporated verbatim et literatim in Chapter 1 of) the PRINCIPIA on "The Means Conducing to a True Philos-, ~p~y."It appears therefore, as noted above, that at this time whatis now the first chapter of the printed PRINCIPIA was either notwritten, or was not in complete form. It also appears that thisauthor states that "what has been Phil. Tr., p. 124). The printedsaid about vortical motion and the PRINCIPIA is divided into threefirst obstruction of the sun and parts.the dispersal of its crust should *The Cosmologia is entered inbe adduced from the fourth tome the Auctioneers catalog of Swe-of the Principia" (I Scient. & denborgs library.ix
  • 9. PREFACE.chapter was originally intended as the Preface or Introductionto the work, and that what is now Chapter 2 was Chapter 1 ofthe draft which the aut~rcarried -with him from SwedeO.This is-further confirmed by one of the draft paragraphs in­tended for the PRINCIPIA. This paragrapllis entitled" Con­cerning the Active of indefinite Celerity arising from the Point."Here Swedenborg observes" This should be inserted at the endof the fourth particle." The words" at the end of the fourthparticle" would seem to indicate at the end of the chapter whichtreats of the fourth particle; or it may be that the word " par­ticle " is a misprint for" article" ; for we firnCihat°tiielrlsertlOn° r-eferred to is actually made at the end of Chapter 5 of the, printed PRINCIPIA, whi~~ccording to our argumen~wouldbe~hapter 4 of t~e first draft. -Among these PRI!1SI~._notes, occurs a paragraph headed"A Comparison of Wolffs Cosmologia Generalis with ourPrincipia." A part of this note is incorporated in the" Ap­pendix to the Principia," p. 452,* and it is in this connectionthat Swedenborg states that his PRINCIPIA was written "twoyears" before he saw Wolffs Cosmologia, that is to say, twoyears prior to July 10th, 1733.It should here be noted that these draft notes for the PRIN­- - .._---­CIP.!:, and also the first chapter of that work (into which someof the notes were afterwards incorporated), deal largely withthe question of the operation of th~ elements on the membr~esof the human body,-a subject which, as shown by the present;-ork, a~d by other contents ofGO~ex ~") largely occupiedSwedenborgs attention at this time, but which is not dealt withat all in the PRINCIPIA itself. This fact is of considerable sig­nificance as indicating the connection, which was already clearlydefined in Swedenborgs mind, between the theory of the e1e­-0 ments and the doctrine concerning the soul and its operations2 - into and in the body.---- - --­A brief journal entry at the end of the draft notes for thePRINCIPIA, on p. 57, states that on July 29th Swedenborg wentto Carlsbad. Here he makes some further notes for the PRIN­*The page references contained in this Preface refer to Latin edi­tions.x
  • 10. --PREFACE.CIPIA, which are contained on p. 58 of:codexJ~8~and which wereincluded in Chapter 1 of the printed work. He then continueshis journal from pp. 59-86, describing his visits to various min­ing towns, and his return to Carlsbad on August 13th. Herehe remained for five days, during which he wrote, on pp. 86-88,a paragraph comparing nature to a spiders web, which was laterprinted verbatim et literatim in Chapter 1 oC,theyRINcIPIA.*Following this paragraph, pp. 89-115 of (codex 88)containnothing but journal entries, including notes oncopp~smeltingand gold mining, one of which was subsequently incorporatedin the second volume (De Cupro) of the OPERA MINERALOGICA.On August 25th he returned to Dr~en, and on September 4thhe arrived at Leip~ig. The last entry in the journal for 1733is dated October 5th, on which day, as Swedenborg notes, hebegan the printing of his PRINCIPIA.--. Then, commencing with p. 116, come fifteen pages of a workon "The Mechanism of the Soul and the Body," t the mainsubject of which is the mode whereby sensations are convey~d,to .~he_~ul, namely by means of membranous tremulatlOns.This is followed by twenty-one pages of excerpts on the subjectof Generation, and five pages of anatomical observations :j: end­ing with p. 157.Page 158 is blank; and fro~. 152ommences the work, thetranslation of which is containedin the present volume. Thisends on p. 213, with the paragraph "Concerning Faith inChrist.,,,-Following this, on p. 214, comes an entry in the journal datedMarch 1st, 1734, to the effect that on that date Swedenborgjourneyed to Halle.It is evident therefore that the PSYCHOLOGICA was wri~ten_inLeipzig, between the 5th October 1733 and the 1st March,1734.Now·on the 5th October Sw~de~bo~g c~~e~ed printingthethree folios of his OPERA MINERALOGICA; and, as indicated bythe evidence adduced above, it was doubtless at this time that*All the draft notes for the t Translated in I Scient. & Phil.PRINCIPIA referred to in this Pref· Tr., pp. 13-32. _.Ice are translated into English in I :j: Translated in I Scient. & PJiil,Scient. & Phil. Tr., pp. 107-125. Tr., pp. 35-42.. .~Xl
  • 11. PREFACE.he wrote out for the press that meEIoraple first chaplet ofJ~ePRINCIPIA entitled "The Means conducing to a True Philos­, . - -ophy." Allowing for the time taken while he was thus en­gaged; allowing also for the writing of the MECHANISM OF THESOUL AND THE BODY, for the copying of the excerpts on Gen­eration, and the composing of the Anatomical Observations, itis probable.!..hat th.e..P--S:X<2.HOL<:lGICA was wr~!~en in J~.!1~!y a?~Febr_uary of 1734. --- -­--In any event it is clear that at the end of 1733 or the begin­ning of 1734, Swedenborg came across Wolffs PSYCHOLOGIAEMPIRICA, which was published in Leipzig and Balle at the endof 1732 *and which Swedenborg had never before seen._ Beinga great admirer of Wolff, Swedenborg seems to have enteredinto a careful study of this work; and it was in the course of) this study, that he wrote the notes now published. These notesembody and further amplify Swedenborgs doctrine with respectto the intercourse between the soul and the body, especially asrelated to his PRINCIPIA theory. Be had already written onthis subject in Sweden, before commencing his journey, histhoughts being set forth in the little work on "The Motion ofthe Elements." The theory there expounded he had furtherelaborated in the course of his journal, in his drafts of Chapter1 of the PRINCIPIA, in his finished copy of the chapter itself,in the treatise on "The Mechanism of the Soul and the Body,"as contained on pp. 116-130 of(fodex_?8>and in the work onthe INFINITE, which was published simultaneously with thePRINCIPIA.For the greater clearness of the reader, we present below thecontents of, codex 88"in the form of a table:"--.Pages of codex 88.1-2 Sundry notes (written after 1740).t3-7 The Motion of the Elements (written in Stockholm).8-39 Journal, May 10th to July 15th, 1733.Leaves Stockholm May 10th; arrives Dresden June 7th.*Hist. des Wolffischen Phi!. by was finished on December 27th,C. G. Ludivici, Leipzig, 1738, p. 67. 1739; also some anatomical notes.t P. 1 is the first cover page. It The page facing it (p. 1 proper)contains the statement that the contains drafts of the title page ofEconomy of the Animal Kingdom the Economy.xii
  • 12. PREFACE.June 14th to 15th, prepares PRINCIPIA for press.July 10th, sees Wolffs COSMOLOGIA.40-49 Principia notes and Journal to July 23rd.Arrives at Prague July 23rd.49-57 Principia notes and Journal to July 30th.Arrives at Carlsbad July 29th.58 Principia notes.58-86 Journal, August 6th to August 13th.Describes journeys to mining towns.Returns to Carlsbad on August 13th.86-88 Principia notes.88-115 Journal, August 16th to October 5th.Arrives in Leipzig September 4th.Commences printing of PRINCIPIA October 5th.116-130 Mechanism of Soul and Body.131-157 Anatomical Excerpts and Observations.158 Blank.159-213 Notes on Wolffs PSYCHOLOGIA EMPIRICA (the present work).214-215 Journal, March 1st to 4th, 1734.Leaves Leipzig for Halle March 1st.216-236 Anatomical Excerpts.237-276 Abstract of Principia.*The rest of the codex, to p. 713, is filled with various philosophical andanatomical excerpts.THE PLACE OF THE PSYCHOLOGICA IN THE SERIES OFSWEDENBORGS WORKS.While in Leipzig, Swedenborg published also a " Prodomus,or introduction concerning the Infinite," part 2 of which dealswith the intercourse between the soul and the body. Whetherthis work was written in Leipzig or whether it was completed,at any rate in first draft, before Swedenborg left Stockholm, isnot clear.As indicating that it was written prior to the printing of thePRINCIPIA, we note that on p. 224 t Swedenborg refers to "myPrincipia concerning the elementary world"; and he adds: "Iwish to quote therefrom only the following words: !f. an~e­ment comes into existepce it must most certainly be fluid, so ast~bie tOlfow-with the utmost aptne~-; no£.. ~an iLflQ1L!n* An English translation of this Swedenborg Scientific Association.Abstract was published by the t Latin edition, London 1886.xiii
  • 13. PREFACE./......(4..this way unless each particle becomes fluid, so that each singleparticle contributes to the moti~;;--~w~~le," etc. Thesewords appear to have been taken fromthe first dr<!ft; for thoughwe have made the most diligent search, we can find no suchwords in the printed PRINCIPIA.On the other hand, later on in the INFINITE (p. 263), theauthors references to Chapters 5 and 7 of the PRINCIPIA areclearly to the printed work. Moreover, certain aspects of thework on the INFINITE appear clearly to indicate that it waswritten during the course of Swedenborgs travels in 1733. Werefer particularly to t~ote of sadness sound~d here and there,at the contemplation of the prevalence _01 ~~heism. We findthe same note in the MECHANISM OF THE SOUL AND BODY andalso in the present work.* Indeed the work on the INFINITEappears to be specially addressed to the unbelieving philosopher.Again, we have the fact that the MECHANISM OF THE SOUL... - .- ----,...------.ANp~ODY, the first chapter of the PRINCIPIA, and the PSYCHO­LOGICA,-undoubtedly written about the same period, namely inLeipzig between September 1733 and the end of February 1734,have a common peculiarity that distinguishes them from allothers of Swedenborgs writings, except the INFINITE, namely,the use of the word " simile" as a noun and-;ith-a particularpsychological meaning. However, the time when the INFINITEwas written, whether prior to Swedenborgs journey com­menced in May 1733, or during the journey, cannot be decidedwith any degree of certainty.It does seem clear, however, that the PSYCHOLOGICA waswritten after the INFINITE. It is indeed true that one or twopassages in the former work are very similar to passages in theINFINITE; yet we observe that the same similarity exists in thecase of the PSYCHOLOGICA and the MECHANISM BETWEEN THESOUL AND THE BODY, which latter work was undoubtedly theearlier of the two. Moreover, several facts seem clearly to indi­cate that the PSYCHOLOGICA was written after the INFINITE,and that it constitutes a preliminary essay in preparation forthat work, of which the INFINITE was the "~~Q<:1(nn..11_~~~?r*See Psychological Transactions Preface p. xiii.xiv
  • 14. PREFACE.!orerunner. This leads us to a consideration of the develop­ment of the psychological theory outlined in the work nowpublished.THE COSMOLOGICAL WORKS AND THE PHYSIOLOGICAL.Early students of Swedenborg have doubtless observed theapparent gap between the PRINCIPIA and the physiological1 __ works. In the one the elements of the universe are considered;2. - in the other, the bloods of the _b5?dy and tne operation of thesoul into the body. But the -connection between these twoseries, namely the operations of the elements upon th;bfo;ds,wasonly obscurely understood. It appeared as if Swedenborghad not written anything to fill the gap between his two seriesof works. Something of a connection between them i~edsupplied by the INFINITE, where on p. 263 Swedenborg indicatesthat the soul consists of the first and second actives of his PRIN­CIPIA. But this rather whetted than satisfied the appetite ofthe student. In 1904, however, further light was thrown onthis matter when the SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATIONpublished the little work from(codex 88entitled "A generaltreatment of the Motion of the---Elements." * In this work," - Swedenborg shows that the elements of the un}~erse operate2. - upon the membranes of the body and there produce undulationsand tremulations. The con~ection between his two serie~-!?fworks was made still clearer by the publication of the " Mech­anism of the Soul and Body" t where our author enters morefully into the effects of the ele~ents upon human membranes,and where he specifically connects his PRINCIPIA theory withhis doctrine of the intercourse between the soul and the body.And now, with the appearance of the PSYCHOLOGICA, thestudent is offered the means of entering still more fully into ~" ~ ~gerstanding of the co~nection between the elements or bloous1 ~ of_ the universe and the blQods or_ekments of the huma~~dy.A study of Swedenborgs philosophical writings leads us toconclude that this connection was in general clearly present in~~s mind long before the writing of the PRINCIPIA. Ind~*In I Scient. & Phil. Tr. pp. 99 t 11 ibid. pp. 13 seq.seq.xv
  • 15. PREFACE.this is specifically indicated in the INFINITE (p. 268) where inspeaking of a work which he proposes to write on the subjectof the soul, its motion, geometry and mechanism, he adds thatin this work he will set forth" how far I have already advancedin this enquiry."The first indication of Swedenborgs specific doctrine respect­ing the soul and its mechanism is contained in the little workon TREMuLATION, written in 1719. Here Swedenborg advancesthe doctrine that all sensations, whether internal or external, arenothing but the perceptions by the soul of tremulations in mem­b.ran.es. Here also he indicates, what he so often insists~-;inhis PRINCIPIA and later works, that all nature, even the mostoccult, is mechanical and geometrical; that perception, imagina­tion, memory, sensation, all are to be explained geometrically bythe tremulations of membra~es-:--By thisdoctrine as set forthin TRE;~~~TIoN"he explains sympathy and antipathy, and alsowhat is now called thought.!ransfe~~~ce; ascribing these to mo­tions transmitted to the elements from one person and receivedby the subtle membranes of another. - ­- In-pr~paring the TREMULATION, Swedenborg entered into avery thorough study of anatomy or, to quote his own words ascontained in a letter written to his brother-in-law, Dr. Benze1ius,in November 1719, where he refers to the work on TREMuLA­TION as " A little anatomy of our vital forces": " For the pur­pose of writing this work I have made myself thoroughly ac­q~ted with the anatomy~the_nerves and membranes, andI have proved t.h~--futrmony which exists between that and theinteresting geometry of tremulations; togethe~-~ith many otherideas, where I have found that I agree with those of Baglivi"(I Doe. c. Swed. p. 310).*There are many evidences of Swedenborgs intense study ofanatomy and of his remarkable familiarity with the most minutedet~ls of. the hu~~n__body; but it is not generally kn~~~ thatthese studies commenced so early as prior to 1719. In additionto the TREMuLAmN, there are other evidencesof Swedenborgsearly anatomical studies, studies which appear to have been*Baglivis work, De Fibra M0- Swedenborg and he frequentlytrice, was very closely studied by quotes from it in his later works.xvi
  • 16. PREFACE.closely followed up in the years following 1719. Chapter 1 ofthe PRINCIPIA on "The Means conducing to a True Philos­ophy" is full of reference.:>~dicatingthe most exact anatom~<:alk~~~!~dge; and such knowledgeis quite"clearly indicated in thework on the INFINITE.After writing TREMULATION, however, Swedenborg appearsto have come to the conclusion that it would be vain for him tofollow up this subject until he had first developed !_the~rY.--?-ft~ u!1i~~!se. He therefore bent his efforts to a study of chem­istry and of the mineral kingdom; and finally these studies andresearches culminated in the writing of the PRINCIPIA, pub­lished in 1734.In the INFINITE, which was published in the same year,Swedenborg specifically states his reason for presenting thet:doctrine of the elements before turning to the full presentation<:. of the do~tEin~-~,Cth~oul and its intercourse with the body,of which he had treated in a preliminary way in the little work.- on TREMULATION. "Unless the theory of the elements be pre­mised (he says) we would labo~ vain t~~t;)a knowledge- of t1~~~, ,ope,rati~ns in human.Ji.fe" (p. 235); that is to say,unless the PRINCIPIA precede, the physiological and psychologi­cal works could never follow.The work on the INFINITE however, although written as anexposition of psychological principles, was professedly" a fore­runner," and, as shown in the work itself, <;to forerunner to acontemplated treatise which was to show mechanically anddem­onstrate geometrically the intercourse of soul and body. Thedoctrines which Swedenborg proposed to demonstrate in thisintended work were already present in his mirld, before he hadwritten the PRINCIPIA, but they could not be presented until the" theory of the elem~:~ts had first been premised."In the INFINITE, or forerunner of this proposed work, Swe­denborg several times refers to " the work itself" (p. 192).On p. 247 he says: "Of themselves the membranes of thebody are nothing but merely passive; but they are so formedthat they can receive the motion of elementary parts and beactuated into imitation thereof. Hence by means of the ele­~~nts a like modulation is spread in a moment throughout thexvii2
  • 17. PREFACE.-1­z,1whole body, so that th~ tremulous or undulatory motio~0n theenclosed elements are the verimost animal spirits which are saidto act i~ Obedience to the willing sour Btitof these ~atters~e shall treat b~-tter-i~-a speaal the~ry; here I could presentonly a confused and general idea of this operation."On p. 251, after speaking of the necessity of membranes be­ing harmoniously adapted by use and cultivation to p-~ucedistinct~ffects; andConsequently of there being ~t1~essioIl..Q.ffi~._~nd finer membranes for the reception and representation~f vib~atiOns, he continues: "but all these particulars will befully deduced and geometrically demonstrated in a specialtheory. I wish here only to present a general idea, by helpwhereof, others, more penetrating than I, may perhaps moredeeply investigate the operations of the elements upon the mem­br~~es, and of the me~branest.i:pon-the elements." -- . _...._­On p. 266 he says: " In brutes the soul is much more grossthan the human soul. It is an elementary, not consisting ofactives, which latter constitute the actuality of reason; but inplace of actives the soul of brutes is an elementary something.In a special exposition on this subject, I wish to confirm thisproposition with a great many arguments which perhaps are notas yet well known."On pp. 267-268 he again repeats his intention of writing onthis subject. "If we suppose the actuality of .!4~-2Q...ul to con­sist in motion and in a force highly mechanical, while its surfaceconsists in a figure highly geometrically; and if the mind willtht;n examine all things which experience can present to it forex~ation,that i;to s~y~he anato~y of the human body, theparts of all the extern.<J:L senses and all the modes and facultieswhich can be knownand distinguished in the iinagination~I!!­!!..ry, perc<:E!~n and__will, and the varieties and difference~ ofthem all as arising from divers affections and other causes, and~J;ly-oth~LJhings which~re tcibe-;pecially scrutinized andcompared, then at last something certain can be concluded con­cerning the true geometry and mechanism of this most perfectentity. As to how far I h;:tve advanced in this enquiry, it is myintention 1;;-present this in detail, if G.od· grant me life andleisure. Here in-general, I think that nothing can be presentedxviii
  • 18. PREFACE.as affirmative and positive; for e?Cper~~ce and geometry are theonly things which must affirm and establish. And when experi­ence and geometry have done this, then by consent of the soulwe shall have the rationale of the subject. The principal_endof this. pre>p.9.sed wo~k is that th;immClrtality of the soul maybe demonstrated before the very senses."On p. 192 he enters into further detail as the character of hisproposed work to which the INFINITE was the forerunner.After noting the objection to his doctrine concerning the soul,namely, that if it were subject to mechanical rules, it would bematerial and perishable, and not spiritual and imm~tal; andafter showing, that such an objection could arise only from a(" gross conception of the "purer mechanism" of the more per­fect world in which the soul lives, and the destructi~;£~hICh----------- ----- . --- -._~) would involve the annihilation of the whole created univ~rse, he-, _._--~- . ~.~continues: "But what need is there of words? In the workI itself, so far as possible, I desire to demonstrate this to the eye, namely, that the soul is perfectly and purely mechanical; that) the soul i~L~~!,1g!1al; and that it ~~nnot per~h, unks.s_the un}­verse be annihilated; likewise, that the soul is so created and{ formed, that it co~mencesto live in thebody, an4 that it knowsn2,Ulyi~; ancl"ihai-it is naturally {mp9ssible fo!"_~t to4Ie; thatit cannot be injured by fire, nor by air, nor by ether, nor byelements still more subtle." *It is clear from these references that t~ proposed work towhich the INFINITE was the introduction was-to estaW:~~~,_0eexistence and immortality of the soul and its communion withthe bodY~he most exact and rati~nal manner; that it was to be, as it were, a demonstration of the City of God as existing~n earth in a hum~;--it IS withsuch a work in ~ind thatS-wedenborg see~ to have entered upon his study orWolffsPSYCHOLOGIA EMPIRICA; and in this study to have introducedso many passages, invariably marked" Nota Bene," wheielnheoutlines hrs doctri~e~oncerning-the ;~~l, especially ~s to-itsbeinggeometricarand mechanicaL----­As he reaches the end of Wolffs work, 4~ set [or!h hls~~ideas at greater length, writing in some detail concerning the-- -.----, -_... ._------ --­*Compare with this passage Psy- chologica, 209.xix
  • 19. PREFACE.will and the action of the soul in the will. Turning from thist-;-~ consideration of the souls state after the death of the body,he addresses himself to the fascinating theme of the theologian,the communion of souls. After this, under the heading " Con­cerning Philosophy" he gives a draft table of the contents ofthe proposed work,-which was to consist of seventeen chap­ters ; to which table he adds a note to the effect that all the pointsto be treated of are to be demonstrated from geometry, anatomy,and experience in the elements. He then proceeds (n. 223 seq.)to set down some anatomical observations, evidently with a viewto using them in the development of his proposed work; andfinally concludes with a second and alternative list of chapterheadings for his propos~d work, follo~~d by ·~k-;bf~ para­graph on Faith in Christ, where is shown the profound sim­( plicity and reverent adoration of the author as opposed to theatheism of materialistic learning.It seems clear therefore that the PSYCHOLOGICA was writtenafter the INFINITE and with a general idea of preparing for" the work itself" referred to and promised in the INFINITE,­a work which perhaps was to be entitled "Philosophy" or"The Philosophy of the Particles." * - - . ­Swedenborg, however, whether at this time or later, con­cluded .that before his doctrines could be comprehended, itwould be necessary for him to enter into a detailed expositionof the human body and its parts, and especially of the brains.Therefore, laying aside for the time, the pro.Qosed work whichwas to demonstrate the existence, the i~m~t~lity·and-··theblessedness of the soul-he turned to those work; wherein hewas to···set f~~th--the results of his intense studies and deepreflection in the field of physiology.The years that followed the publication of the PRINCIPIAwere therefore devoted to the writing of works on physiology.In 1737 or 1738, he wrote on the Brain; and in December 1739he completed the ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. In thefollowing year he wrote furiheronthe ·Brain·~~(lT;terhe com­posed a long series of anatomical works, culminating in the*The reading" particularum" in tirely satisfactory.the heading of n. 217, is not en-xx
  • 20. PREFACE.ANIMAL KINGDOM. But in all these writings he seems ever to~~~-k~pt-ht-~ew the end which he had outlined in the TREMU-LATION, and which he more fully sets forth in the work on theINFINITE.In one of his manuscripts containing notes on the brain, wesee a plain indication of this intention in a little paragraph en-titled" Eminent Generation,* by which is meant the Generationof the Spirituous Fluid, or the descent of the soul into. the body." Emi~e.l:lt ge~eration (he says) cannot be understoode~.~ept_bymea1]-s of refl.ection_and similitude, and unless we know howevery active force can be represented if!...th~ aura, just as everyimage is represented iJ:!. t~e ether. But there is required re-flection and concentration, and this upon the cortical substance.We are not permitted to go further without a mathematicalphilosophy of series and degrees." Therefore he proposed tohimself a long course before he could finally reach the goal, hereadumbrated in the PSYCHOLOGICA.As to the nature of the work itself which is now presented tothe public, this we shall leave to the judgment of the reader.Suffice it to say that it marks one more step on the path thatwill lead the student to a clearer understanding of that doct:!i!!.eof the soul which was present in Swedenborgs mind- ev"ffi"whenhe wrote the PRINCIPIA; which so deeply influenced the-;l~leof lis subseque.t.!.t writings ; w~ic~_it was the goal of his ambitionto set forth in clearer lig~t, that men might be led to venerate,worship and adore the wisdom of God; and which, finally,firmly established in his own mind, was to become the meanswhereby he might rationaliy receive and fitly present to theworld, the heavenly doctrine of the New Jerusalem.ALFRED ACTON.BRYN ATHYN, PA.,June 14, 1923.*See Appendix.xxi
  • 21. ","" 1PSYCHOLOGICABeingNotes and ObservationsonChristian Wolffs Psychologia Empirica[1.]1. Is GOD A SPIRIT. iVolff says that in his NATURAL THE­OLOGY, he wishes to demonstrate that God is a Spirit [Preface,n. 7]. But let us first define what a spirit is. 1. Men say thatangels or genii are spirits. 2. They say that the soul is a spirit.3. They say that the devil is a spirit. 4. We say that all thingsthat are active per se, even though in material things, arespirits.* But all these spirits were created and made by theInfinite, and consequently are finite and not infinite. God aloneis infinite. Whatever was created by the Infinite must befinite. There is no middle term, unless it be something similarto the finite which has not yet been so finited as to have theattributes of the finite, though in potency, that is, in its at­tributes, it is similar to the finite. Therefore since spirits arecreated, they are finite; and if finite, they are mechanical andgeometrical, ~th an acti~e added thereto. Therefore there canbe no created spirits unless they are finite; nor finite unless theyare endowed with geometrical attributes, and consequently, un­less they are subject to mechanical rules. As to the Infinite, onthe other hand, this can have nothing geometrical in it, andnothing mechanical; for it is the cause of every mechanicalprinciple. Hence there is no mechanical or geometrical nexusbetween the Infinite and the finite. The Infinite is the cause,and the effect is immediate.t Hence there would be no nexuswith God if not through Christ; nor through Christ except by*CL n. 75. t Cf. n. 230.t -2
  • 22. 1PSYCHOLOGICA.[In][Chr. Wolffii][Psychologiam Empiricam]MS., p. 159. 3 Ph. MS., p. 102.Num Deus sit spiritus. Deum esse Spiritum demonstrarevelle ait Claris. Wollfius in sua Theologia Naturalis. Sedprimum definiamus quid sit spiritus: I. Angelos seu geniosesse dicunt spiritus. 2. Animam dicunt esse spiritum.3. Diabolum dicunt esse spiritum. 4. Omnia quae per seactiva sunt quamvis in rebus materialibus dicimus essespiritum. Sed on::mes hi spiritus sunt creati et ab infinitofacti, et consequenter sunt finiti, non vero infiniti; solus Deusest infinitum; quicquid creatum est ab infinito, hoc erit fini­tum; medium non datur, nisi aliquid simile finito, quod itanondum finitum est, ut finiti attributa habeat, sed in potentia,hoc est, in suis attributis simile finito. Ergo si creati, suntfiniti, si finiti, accedente activo, sunt mechanici et geometrici.Ideoque non dari possunt spiritus creati, nisi finiti, nee finitinisi geometricis attributis polleant, et consequenter nisinormis mechanicis subjecti. Quod vera infinitum attinet,nihil geometrice, nihil mechanice potest in se habere, quiaest causa omnis principii mechanici; unde nullus est nexusmechanicus nee geometricus infiniti et finiti; est causa eteffectus est immediatus. Unde cum Deo nullus foret nexusnisi per Christum, nee per Christum nisi quatenus corpus3
  • 23. 2f1..PSYCHOLOGICA.reason of His having assumed a body. But there is a nexus ofChrist and the Holy Spirit with the Infinite, though to us, thenature of this nexus is unknown.* Finite spirits, therefore, aremechanical and geometrical, and so cannot be called spirits,except it be finite spirits who are actuated by their own rules.But God or the Infinite is not a spirit in any degree as comparedwith" finit~ spirits"; nor can He be called a spirit, unless youwould say Infinite Spirit,---=-~erm which can be predicated ofthe..!.I0ly"Spi!"it, not oCthe Infinite Father. -­[11.][THE EXISTENCE OF THE HUMAN SOUL.t]2. WOLFFS RULES. 1. We experience every moment, thatwe are conscious of ourselves and of other thinqs stationedabout us [n. 11] ; to wit, by means of the eleme!)ts and of tile?-~gans that shall conspire therewith. That this is a materialand mechanical characteristic, we see from the fact that the likeexists in brutes, in that their organs are mechanical and areadapted to the motions of !he elem~Ets.2. That we are conscious of ourselves, is confirmed by ourvery doubting [no 12] ; for we cannot doubt except with regardto something which exists.3.(He---Who is"actually conscious, of himself and of otherthingsAalso actually is, or f!.-xists. It follows therefore that weexist. The knowledge of our existence is confirmed by ourvery doubting, or, From the fact that we doubt as to whetherwe exist or not, comes theinfere1;cethat we do exist [no 13,14, "is] ..­4. Geometrical truths are learned by the same evidence asthat by which our own existence becomes known to us [n. 18].S. That entity in us which is conscious of itself and of otherthings outside uZ is Ter~d th;-soul~ It is called the human~, likeuJise the hu--:;,wn mind. Th"erefore th"; h~;;"a~ so~Tex­ists [no 20, iij.·---­*Cf. Mechanism of Soul and t The titles of Chapters II toBody, n. 25; I Infinite xiv. XIX are taken from Wolff.4
  • 24. 2PSYCHOLOGICA.assumserit; at Christi et Spiritus Sancti est nexus cum Infinito,sed qualis sit nobis est incognitum. Ergo spiritus finiti suntmechanici et geometrici; ergo nec spiritus appellari possunt,nisi spiritus finiti, qui regulis suis aguntur. At vero Deusvel Infinitum non est spiritus in aliquo gradu comparativecum spiritibus finitis; nec spiritus potest appellari, nisi velisspiritus infinitus, quod de Spiritu Sancto non de Patre In­finito praedicari potest.MS., 160.Reg. 1 Wolfii. Nos esse nostri rerumque aliarum extra nosconstitutarum conscios quovis momento experimur, scilicet medi­antibus elementis et organis quae conspirabunt; hoc essemateriale et mechanicum, videmus ex eo, quod simile sit inbrutis, quod organa sint mechanica, et ad motus elementorumaptata. Ph. MS., 103.2. Nos esse nostri conscios ipsa dubitatione confirmatur; nonenim dubitare possumus quam de re aliqua quae existit.3. Qui sui aliarumque rerum actu conscius est, ille etiam actuest sive existit. Ergo sequitur, nos existimus. Cognitio existen­tiae nostrae ipsa dubitatione confirmatur; ex eo quod dubitamusutrum existamus necne, colligitur nos existere.4. Veritates geometricae eadem evUlentia cognoscuntur, quaexistentia nostra nobis innotescit.S. Ens illud quod in nobis sibi, sui et aliarU1n rerum extra nosconscium est, anima dicitur; vocatur anima humana, item menshumana. Ergo anima humana existit.5
  • 25. 3PSYCHOLOGICA.6. We learn the e.tistence of the soul before that of the body[n. 22]. For if one thinks or if one doubts, the cause, or t~doubting or thinking entity, is in the soul; since if it did notexist as a-cause-(there ;~~ldb~no doubti~g orthinking] . Thedoubt or the thought is concerning [the existence of] the body. Hence the causing entity exists before the causate.* My opin­ion is; What need is there to deduce the fact of my own exist­) ence, or to argue that I am? In such a question there is noroom for doubt, nor any definite-termination. Who candoubtthat heTsrlt is what he is that should be inquired into; whetherhe is rational or not; whether he possesses a soul or [not]; orwhether there is a soul. Hence the deduction to be made is:I think, therefore, there is a soul. Still it is not yet clearwhether this soul is a rational soul or is like the soul of brutes;for, in thei~ o~n ~ay, b-~utes also think and they possess a kindof phantasy. But [the clearer deduction is] I doubt, thereforethere is a [rational] soul. F~ if I doubt, I will affirm or deny;I will Ai.ss~ss argutn~Ets. Thus in the thought, there is ananalysis, and a kind of ratio or analogy. Hence it can be knownthat I doubt, therefore I am rational or enjoy a rational soulwhich-can doubt and affirm," can-weight arguments,;-nd byanalogy or analytical thought, can come to some concl"tffiion;therefore I am rational; that is to say, I doubt, thereforeTamrational. . . - - - ­[Ill.][How TO ACQUIRE A KNOWLEDGE OF THE SOUL.]3. Wolff says: Thinking is an act of the soul whereby it isI conscious of itself and of other things outside itself [n. 23].L Bare thought-~-also appii~bktZbrui:eswhiCh enjoy a kind ofimagination,-but an imagination without any analytical andrational searching into distinct arguments. In dreams there isthought, but what kind of thought? The existence of the soulis not proved by the existence of thought, but by the mode of• Swedenborg here paraphrases Wolffs confirmation of his theorem.6
  • 26. 3PSYCHOLOGICA.6. Animae existentiam ante cognoscimus quam corporis.Nam si cogitat vel si dubitat, causa vel ens dubitans autcogitans est in anima, quod si non existit ut causa, dubitatioest de corpore vel cogitatio de corpore, hinc praeexistit enscausans, quam causatum. Mea sententia, quid opus existen­tiam deducere, seu argumentari quod sim, nee quisquam inhoc dubitandi locus aut terminus est; quis dubitare potest,quod sit; sed qualis sit disquirendum est, num rationalis velnon, num anima polleat, vel num sit anima. Hine dedueen­dum, eogito ergo est anima. Sed nondum liquet an sit animarationalis vel sit similis brutorum; nam bruta etiam suo modocogitant et phantasia quadam pollent; sed dubito ergo estanima. Nam si dubito, affirmabo vel negabo, argumentadiseutiam; ergo est analysis et quaedam ratio aut analogia incogitatione. Hine potest seiri, dubito ergo sum rationalis seuanima rationali gaudeo, quae dubitare et affirmare, quaeargumenta perpendere, et per analogiam seu eogitationemanalyticam quid concludere potest; ergo sum rationalis; hocest, dubito ergo sum rationalis.MS., 161.Cogitare dicit, est actus animae, quo sibi sui rerumque aliarumextra se conscia est. Cogitatio nuda applieari potest etiamad bruta quae quadam imaginatione pollent, sed qua, sinedisquisitione analytica, in argumenta distineta et rationali.In somnis est cogitatio, sed qualis; ex eogitatione non probaturanima, sed a cogitationis modo. In fatuis ubi vix operatur7
  • 27. 4-5PSYCHOLOGICA.thought; thought exists in the foolish, in whom the soul hardlyoperates at all. There is corporeal thought, and th<:E~ is thoughtfrc:>m_ th~ ~~l; and these two together give me ~--rational.Therefore, it can be said: I think, therefore I am; but not, Ithink, therefore I am rational and a soul. Perhaps manythoughts have an origin other than the soul, although the firstorigin of such thoughts was the soul; but afterwards, the soulruns into the traces it has impressed on the organs of the-T;ody,without -any -further as~ent and, as it were, spontaneously; -for~motion ~nce commenced is c2ntinued without any new motory,as may be seen in tremulous bodies. In the strings of a musicalinstrument the finger is the first mover, but the string may after­wards be moved either by itself, or by something simil~r, or bysome other agency; and on such occasion, the motion cannot besaid to commence in the soul, but to come from other agencies.*4. The m{nd is said to perceive, when it reP!!.~!!!!Lto itselfs2-1J!§_o£j£!!t. Perception is therefore an act of the mindwhereby it represents to itself some object; such as colors, odors,sounds [n. 24]. But to perceive colors, odors, sounds, is aproperty also of brute animals; to perceive distinctly, however,and not only to sensate harmony, but also-to know and perceiveit, is the property of man alone.5. Apperception is attributed to the mind, inasmuch as thelatter is conscious of its own perception [n.-2S] . Apperceptionis also-and es"i)edally aproperty of -the rational soul; but it isalso a property of brutes. They perceive a thing by their or­gans, they apperceive it by their soul; for with brutes there canbe no perception without apperception. This indeed is notpossible in any living creature, inasmuch as there is a terminusto which perception goes, and when it has arrived at this ter­minus, it becomes apperception. _ In man this terminus is in his[rational] soul; in brutes, it is in their soul. But as to the* In a harp, the finger moves a xi; Princ. I, 3, p. 31. In the fiddle,string, and the movement is then the finger is the first mover, butextended to other strings and is the direct mover is the bow. Socontinued for some time as it were with the piano, zither, etc.spontaneously; coni. 11 Ini. IV,8
  • 28. 4-5PSYCHOLOGICA.anima, est cogitatio. Cogitatio datur corporea, datur animae,quae simul dant mihi rationale. Did sic potest, cogito ergosum, non vera, cogito ergo sum rationalis, et anima. Multaecogitationes fortassis aliud principium habent quam ab anima,quamvis primum illius cogitationis principium fuerit animaesed dein in organis corporis impressa ejus vestigia sine assen-tiente amplius anima recurrit tanquam sponte sua; nam motussemel inchoatus sine novo motore continuatur, ut in tremulisvidere licet; in chordis est digitus primum movens, sed deinpotest moveri vel per se, vel per aliud simile, vel per aliudquid, qui motus non sic dici potest incipere in anima ilIa vice,sed ab aliis.Ph. MS., 104.Mens percipere dicitur, quando sibi objectum aliquod reprae-sentat; est itaque perceptio actio mentis, qua objectum sibi reprae-sentat, ut colores, odores, sonos. Sed percipere etiam estbrutorum, qua colores, odores, sonos; sed distincte percipere,harmoniam non modo sentire, sed etiam scire et percipere,hoc est hominis.Menti tribuitur apperceptio, quatenus perceptionis suae con-scia est; est etiam apperceptio animae rationalis speciatim,sed etiam est brutorum; percipiunt per organa, appercipiuntillud per suam animam. Nam penes bruta non dari potestperceptio sine apperceptione, in nullo vivo, quatenus terminusest ad quem tendit perceptio, quum pervenit ad illum ter-minum fit apperceptio, quod in homine quidem est in anima,in brutis in illorum anima; sed qualis sit apperceptio, ex9
  • 29. 6-8PSYCHOLOGICA.nature of the apperception,-whether or not there is in it a[rational] soul,-this may be concluded from the quality andmode of the apperception.6. Every thought involves both perception and apperception[n. 26]. This is true, according to what was said above,namely, that no thought is possible without perception and ap­perception; nor, in living creatures, is perception possible with­out apperception. The same is also true of brutes. Therefore,to apperceive, is to be conscious. According to our author,"when I see the sun, I am conscious of its existence" [ib.].This at once involves something more than apperception; it in­volves something more distinct, some resultant arising from theapperception that the sun exists; as for instance, what thenature of the sun is, and what its distance from the earth.This apperception involves still more; it involves also an act ofthe soul. Wolf! adds: We are conscious of the sun, not as itreally is, but as our mind represents it to herself [ib.]. Thisalso is a property of brutes.7. All that is gathered by legitimate 1easoning from the thingsobserved to be in our mind, and all that is then inferred there­from, is agreeable also to the mind. The sa·me holds good ofevery other entity [n. 27] . This agrees exactly with the defini­tion of reason which I gave in my PRINCIPIA, namely that it issomething analogica1.* The only difference is, that whereasWolff says the things observed to be in our mind, I can state itin this way: "the things which may be in the organs of the bodyand of the senses, or of the soul,"-for they are in organs.8. We come to a knowledge of the mind, if we pay attentionto our thoughts; and if further, we attlibute to the mind all thathas been gathered from the thoughts by legitimate reasoning[no 28]. This also coincides with the definition in our PRIN­CIPIA. For if we pay attention to our thoughts, there is at oncesomething else at hand which reasons, distinguishes, collates;or, there is an analogy or rational.*"The rational consists in know­ analogy may be obtained; and alsoing how to arrange the ratios in being able to make this arrange­learned from the world, into such ment." (Prill. I, 2, fin.)order and connection, that an10
  • 30. 6-8PSYCHOLOGICA.qualitate et modo apperceptionis conc1udi potest, num animasit vel non.MS., 162.Omnis cogitatio et perceptionem et apperceptionem involvit;verum est secundum antedicta, nulla cogitatio datur sineperceptione et apperceptione; in vivis nee perceptio sineapperceptione, hoc etiam in brutis; ergo appercipere estconscius esse. Quum solem video, secundum autorem, ejusconsistentiae conscius sum; hoc statim involvit aliquid plusquam apperceptionem ; involvit distinctius quid et resultatumex apperceptione quod consistat, ut qualis sit sol, qualisdistantia; haec apperceptio involvit plus et actum animae.Addit, Solis nobis conscii sumus, non qualis revera est, sedqualem sibi repraesentat mens nostra, hoc etiam brutorum est.Quae ex iis, quae menti inesse observamus, legitimo ratiociniocolliguntur, et quae porro ex his inferuntur; eadem quoque menticonveniunt; idem valet de omni ente alio. Haec conveniunt adamussim cum definitione rationis, quam dedi in Principiis,quod analogicum sit; ilIa tantum est differentia, quod dicat,quae menti inesse observamus, possum ita dicere, quae organiscorporis et sensuum vel animae inesse possunt, nam insunt inorganis.Ad cognitionem mentis pervenitur, si ad cogitationes nostrasattendimus, eidemque porro tribuimus quae legitimo ratiocinioex iis colliguntur. Hoc etiam coincidit cum nostra definitionein Principiis; nam si attendimus ad cogitationem, fit statimaliud quid ratiocinans, distinguens, conferens, vel analogonaut rationale.1 The reading in the MS. is ratiocinate.113
  • 31. 9-12PSYCHOLOGICA.[IV.][THE FORMAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PERCEPTIONS.]9. The light of the soul is the clarity of perception. The soulis said to be enlightened,. as when it is conscious that it per­ceives, and when it makes proper distinctions between the thingswhich it perceives. On the other hand, darkness in the soul iscalled obscurity [n. 35, 36]. A clear perception is called dis­tinct,. and the opposite, confused [n. 38, 39]. Perception ispartial and compound [n. 40].10. If the particular perceptions have been clear, the com­pound is distinct [n. 41]. This is true merely of man and ofreason, that from distinct particulars he can form a distinct com­pound; for between them there is a middle ratio. In all othercases, there are no clear particular perceptions except in form;and more especially since no clear compounds are possible unlessthe particulars be clear; therefore no compound is clear becauseno particular; for it is compounded of unknown particulars.11. One who clearly perceives in a single perceptible entitymany particulars which can be enunciated separately, perceivesthat entity more distinctly than one who clearly perceives in itfewer particulars [n. 42] . This is in accordance with my opin­ion, that there must be many similars, in order that a compoundor resultant may be obtained.12. If total perceptions are distinct, the soul is in astate ofdistinct perceptions [n. 45]. In rational thought new percep­tions are always rising up, both particular perceptions and simi­lar total perceptions; and this by alternations; which is a signthat from one thing, many are suggested, one being ever thecause or conductor of another; and that similar things alwayscome forward; or, that from one thing come a thousand otherand similar things, whether they be such as have presentedthemselves as similar in the formation, or such as have offeredthemselves as equal to the simile.* If some dissimile comes*By simile the author means a leading; while to use " similar" asstate or tremor similar to some a noun is an unnecessary barbarism.other state or tremor. We have The above applies also to the wordelected to use the word simile; for " dissimile.""similar thing" is apt to be mis­12
  • 32. 9-12PSYCHOLOGICA.Lumen animae est claritas perceptionis: IUuminari anima,ut dum sibi conscia est, quod percipit, ut ea quae percipit,probe a se invicem distinguat; obscuritas vero vocatur tene­brae. Perceptio clara dicitur distincta; e contra confusa. Per­ceptio partialis et composita.Si perceptiones particulares fuerint clarae, composita dis­tincta est. Hoc est mere hominis et rationis, ut a distinctisparticularibus formare possit, distinctum compositum, namintercedit ratio media; alias particulares clarae non dantur 2Ph. MS., IOS.nisi qua formam; praecipue quum composita nulla clara daripossint, nisi particularia sint clara, ergo nullum compositumest clarum, quia nullum particulare quia a particularibusignotis componitur.MS., 163.Qui plura singiUatim enunciabilia in eodem perceptibili clarepercipit, is magis distincte idem percipit aUero, qui pauciorain eodem clare percipit: Secundum meam opinionem quodplura similia dari debeant, ut compositum aut resultatumhabeatur.Si perceptiones totales distinctae sunt, anima est in statuperceptionum 3 distinctarum §. 4S; aliae et aliae semper subeunt,tarn particulares quam similes totales, et sic alternis in cogi­tatione rationali, quod signum est ex uno plura succurrere,et semper unum esse alterius causam vel manuductionem,et similia semper prodire, sive ex uno mille alia similia, velquae in efformatione simile se stiterat, vel simili se par obtuler-I datur. • perfectionum.13
  • 33. 13-14PSYCHOLOGICA.forward, it is a sign that, when the given notion had first reachedthe soul, it had come from such a dissimile, or together with it jand thus the dissimile sometimes comes forward. This, how­ever, is a blemish in cultivation and use, or in the first * methodof learning.t13. If the partial perceptions which enter into a total per­ception have been obscure, the total perception is obscure; or:If the partial perceptions are obscure, the soul is in a state ofobscure perceptions [n. 46, 47]. For the first perception, whichwill be the cause of the other and similar perceptions, is obscure,and so consists of tones over-obtuse and not certain, or else oftwo dissimilar tones j and if these are to be the causes andorigins of the other and similar perceptions, then the simile andthe dissimile come in simultaneously; and from two dissimilesthere cannot come a single simile, unless it be a discord of themany. For one perception must be the cause of many percep­tions, and these many present themselves in an instant. If thenthey be dissimilar, or if they cannot come forward, then theparticular becomes obscure together with the compound. Thiscan be demonstrated in tones, nerves or strings and membranes jit can be demonstrated in geometrical ratio or analysis. T~us,if there be, not a single principle or beginning, but two, thenthe others cannot be disposed in order, so as to present a ratio,or give a result.t14. The representation of a thing when considered objectivelyis called an idea; the representation of things or [of genera and]species in a universal, is called a notion. Notions like percep­tions are clear or obscure,. [and the clear are] distinct or con­fused. To cognize a thing is to acquire an idea or notion ofthat thing. Cognition is an action of the soul. The facultyof cognizing is that by which we acquire ideas and notions.The inferior [part of the] faculty of cognizing, is that by whichwe acquire obscure and confused ideas j the opposite is the casewith the superior [part of the] faculty of cognizing [n. 48-55].*According to the MS. this t Cf. II Inf. IV, xii.should be "the true first," etc. :: Cf. Mechanism, 2--8.14
  • 34. 13-14PSYCHOLOGICA.at; si aliquid dissimile, signum est quum notio illa ad animamprimo pervenerit, a tali venisse vel una cum tali, unde dis­simile interdum provenit; quod tamen est naevus in cultu etusu, seu in vera prima methodo discendi.Si perceptiones partiales, quae totalem ingrediuntur fuerintobscurae, perceptio totalis obscura est. Sive si perceptionespartiales obscurae sunt, anima est in statu perceptionum obscura­rum. Prima enim perceptio quae causa erit reliquarum etsimilium obscura est, et sic constat vel tonis nimis obtusis neccertis, vel duobus dissimilibus, qui si esse debeant causae etorigines reliquarum similium, venit simile et dissimile simul,nec a binis dissimilibus unum simile pervenit, nisi sit pluriumdiscordia; nam una perceptio esse debet causa multarum,quae multae in instanti se sistunt, quae si dissimiles sint velnon provenire possint, fit particulare cum composito obscurum;hoc in tonis, nervis et membranis demonstrari potest; hoc inratione sive analysi geometrica; adeo ut nisi unum sit princi­pium, sed duo sint, reliqua ordine disponi nequeunt, ut sistantrationem, vel 4 dent resultatum.Repraesentatio rei objective considerata vocatur idea;repraesentatio rerum vel specierum in universali, notio.Notiones sunt, ut perceptiones, clarae vel obscurae; [claraenotiones sunt] distinctae vel confusae. Rem cognoscere estejus ideam vel notionem sibi acquirere. Cognitio est facultasanimae. Facultas cognoscendi qua ideas et notiones nobisacquirimus. Facultatis cognoscendi [pars] inferior qua ideasobscuras et confusas comparamus; contra facultas cognoscendisuperior.4 nee.15
  • 35. 15PSYCHOLOGICA.[V.]OBSERVANDA.15. Granting that tremulation is the cause of our sensation inthe soul; and granting that the soul is in the figure of a snailsshell or of a spiral with cones, and thus can be moved differentlyat every kind of tremulous motion; let us now see how manydiversities are possible. 1. There is always some diversity atevery distance from the center; and since the polar cones arealso spiral, the distances from the center are almost infinite innumber.* 2. If the case be such, moreover, that the density ofthe spiral is more subtle in the center and thicker toward thesurface, it will also differ in the ratio of thickness at every dis­tance from the center. 3. If the tremors be greater or well­nigh undulatory, or if they be tremulatory,t that is, if theytremulate to a greater or lesser distance, there is at once aninfinitude of differences in this respect. In the same way, wesee that no one instrument sounds like another, even thoughthey be so harmonious that, in respect to harmony, they differnot at all. Hence we have tones that are more or less soft,sharp, vehement. So also in human sound; no one speaks inthe same tone as another. 3[a] Hence, in one and the sameplace in a membrane, divers sounds may be exhibited. Just aswith the ear-drum; although there is but one drum, yet it canbe bent in an instant and successively, in accordance with alltremors, similar and dissimilar. So also in the present case;although naturally [the membrane] has a single tone at one andthe same distance from the center, yet by reason of the slownessor celerity of the tremor, it can vary this tone. 4. Thereforeit can be so contorted, that at a great distance it may acquirethe same tone as at a place nearer to the center. 5. In a differ­ent situation, extension, compression, dilatation of the poles, it*Cf. II Infinite IV, x. tion of Elements 11. 8, 32• 8 ; 11 In­t For the distinction between Un­ finite IV, v fin.dulation and Tremulation, see Mo­16
  • 36. 15PSYCHOLOGICA.MS., 164.OBSERVANDA.Sit quod tremulatio sit causa nostrae sensationis in anima;et sit quod animae figurae sit cochlearis seu spiralis cum conis,adeo ut sic moveri possit differenter ad quemcunque motumtremulum; videamus jam quot diversitates dari possint. I.Semper aliqua diversitas ab omni a centra distantia; et quiaconi polares sint etiam spirales, hinc distantiae fere infinitaesunt a centro. 2. Si accedat, quod etiam densitas ejus sitsubtilior in centro et crassior versus superficiem rationePh. MS., 106.crassitie[i] etiam in quavis distantia differt a centra. 3. Sitremores sint majores vel fere undulatoriae, vel si sint tremula-tores, hoc est, si ad majorem vel minorem distantiam tremu-lent, statim differentiae sunt infinitae in hoc respectu; proutvidemus nullum instrumentum alteri simile sonare, quamvissint harmonici, adeo ut qua harmoniam nihil differant; undetoni molliores, acutiores, vehementiores; ut etiam in sonohumano, nullus alteri similiter qua tonum loquitur. 3. Ineodem loco membranae hinc diversi soni possunt exhiberi,non aliter ac tympanum auris, licet unicum sit, tamen ad omnestremores similes et dissimiles in instanti et successive flectipotest; sic etiam hoc, quamvis naturaliter ad unam eandemquedistantiam a centra unum tonum habeat, sed ratione lenti-tudinis vel celeritatis tremoris variare potest. 4. Unde itatorqueri potest, ut ad ampliorem distantiam eundem tonumnanciscatur cum loco prapinquiori ad centrum. S. In aliositu, extensione, compressione, dilatatione polorum, statim17
  • 37. ....- 16PSYCI-IOLOGICA.at once acquires another setting of the tone, but yet such, thatall things follow in order harmoniously. 6. One tone can existtogether with another; two tones can exist simultaneously;three or more can exist simultaneously. 7. An octave, and theoctaves thereof can be moved simultaneously or separately.16. That this consists in an HARMONIC PROPORTION; or, alongthe distances from the center, there is an harmonic proportion,so that the differences are to each other as the first number isto the last.* [1] Thus if we have 2,3,6, then as 3-2 is to 6-3,so is 2 to 6. Or according to the figure, as B is to D, or asAB is to AD, so BC is to CD. If therefore the ratio of theA B C DI 1 - 1 1distances between two points be the same as the ratio of thedistance of each from the center, then there is a harmony.This is most highly in accordance with nature. 2. An harmonicproportion is thus similar to a geometric: AB: AD:: BC: CD.3. If this proportion is continuous, it is still more harmonic.4. This may be seen in the hyperbola, where, if AC, AE, AF,tare in arithmetical proportion, then AB, CD, EG, FH, are inharmonic proportion. S. Thus an harmonic proportion par­takes at once of an arithmetic proportion also; just as it consists*A proportion is harmo111c when two. Thus 2, 3, 6, is an harmonicthe first number is to the last as proportion; for 2: 6:: 3-2: 6-3.the difference between the first two t In the MS. this is "AC, CE,to the difference between the last EF." See Preface, p. xi.I 18
  • 38. 16PSYCHOLOGICA.aliam toni constellationem nanciscitur, ita tamen ut omniaordine harmonice succedant. 6. Dnus tonus una potest essecum altero; bini toni simul, tres et plures simul.. 7. Octavumet ejus octava possunt simul moveri, vel separatim.MS., 165.Quod in proportione harmonica consistat hoc; sive secundumdistantias a centro, proportio harmonica est, quod differentiaese habeant ut primus numerus ad ultimum, vel sit 2. 3: 6."" , ~ ) Q..• , t·~ Cibi 3-2: 6-3, sic 2 ad 6; sive b ad d, vel ab ad ad, sic bc ad cd.Si ergo distantiarum proportio inter utrumque prout est dis­tantiarum utriusque a centro, tunc fit harmonia, quod maximenaturale est. 2. Harmonica proportio sic est geometricaesimilis, ab. ad: bc. cd. 3. Si haec proportio continua sit,eo magis harmonica est. 4. Hoc in hyperbolis videre licet,~ .. ­A·~~it ­ut si ac. ce. ef sint in proportione arithmetica, tunc est ab, cd,eg, fh, in proportione harmonica. 5. Adeo ut sic participatimmediate etiam ex arithmetica, prout constet ex geometrica,19
  • 39. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.of a geometric, according to the above figures. 6. The samegeometric proportion is preserved wherever the lines from A,e, E, F, fall upon the hyperbola, or at whatever angle, providedonly they be parallel, as ex and EY. The curvature of thehyperbola is also preserved, because it is formed from oppositepoints within the asymptotes to the other side.* This ratio canin no wise be changed, no matter what the sine. The spaceskeep this ratio. 6 [a1 From which it follows that this spiralcurvature in the soul is hyperbolic; and differently hyperbolicaccording to compression and dilatation.t 7. Such harmonicproportions may also exist in other curves, as in the parabola,the ellipse, etc.17. How THE MEMBRANES SEEM TO BE EFFIGIED. They maybe effigied in a thousand ways; and therefore, in these highlyobscure matters, we wish to exhibit a formation such as seemsto be most in harmony with our elementary particles and ouractives, and which follows as a consequence from our principlesas given in our philosophy of the elements.:!: An infinite num­ber of varieties may be propounded, though not very suitableones; hence guesswork will here have room for play. What isnot guesswork, is that which is a consequence of our principles,as follows:1. The supremely subtle membrane is convoluted from centerto peripheries into spirals.§ It arose from the dilatation ofsome finite which can be expanded only into a membrane ofsuch form, according to the flux of its parts. With their tor­tuous situation, these spirals possess polar cavities [or cones].Within are actives of the first finite, and the membrane itselfis composed of second finites.11 l[a] On one side, these cones*In connection with points 1-6, 11 In the MS. this is marked 2,ef. II Inf. IV, xi. and then come 3, 4, etc. We havet Cf. Mechanism, 35. altered 2 to 1[a], 3 to 2, etc., in:j: ef. the little work A General order to make these numbers con­Treatment Concerning the Motion form with the numbers in the ex­of the Elements, in Scientific and planation of the delineation, andPhilosophical Treatises vo!. 1, p. also in n. 18. For the convenience97 seq. of the reader, we have put I, 2, 3,§ Cf. II Inf. IV, xi. etc., as separate paragraphs, al­20
  • 40. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.secundum superiora. 6. Quod eadem proportio geometricaconservetur, ubicunque incidit in hyperbolam, seu ad quem­cunque angulum, modo lineae sint parallelae, ut cx, ed. Quodetiam ipsa curvatura hyperbolae quod ex oppositis spatiisinter asymptotes ad alterum latus; quod haec ratio nullo modopossit ad quemcunque sinum mutari; quod ipsa spatia con-Ph. MS., 107.servant hanc rationem. 6. Ex quibus sequitur spiralemhanc curvaturam esse hyperbolicam in anima; et diversehyperbolicam secundum compressionem et dilatationem. 7.Tales proportiones harmonicae in aliis curvis etiam dari pos­sunt, ut in parabola, in ellipsi, etc.Membranae quomodo videantur esse effigiatae. Mille modiseffigiari possunt, hinc velimus in obscurissimis his talem forma­tionem exhibere, quae particulis nostris elementaribus etMS., 166.activis convenientissima esse videtur, et tanquam consequenssequitur ex principiis nostris in elementorum philosophia;sed possunt tradi infinitae varietates, sed non convenientiores,hi[n]c divinatio hie locum habebit; quod non divinatio est,est quod secundum seriem principiorum ita sequatur: I. Sub­tilissima membrana est in spiras convoluta, a centra ad peri­pherias, orta ex dilatatione alicujus finiti, quod non aliterpotest expandi quam in membranam talis formae, secundumfluxum partium ejus; tortuoso situ, gaudent polaribus cavi­tatibus. Intus sunt activa primi, et membrana ex finitissecundis. 2. Ab una parte sunt non ligati, sed ibi influitthough here, and also in the ex- constitute a single paragraph as inplanation of the delineation, they n. 18.21
  • 41. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.are not attached, and here the first element flows into them and isactuated into a similar motion in accordance with the tremulousmotion of the membranes. Thus the soul can be actuated intomotion by this element, and itself can actuate the latter intomotion. In these operations consists the supremely subtle sym­pathy and communion of souls and angels, and their correspond­ence with our soul.*2. On the other side, a substance consisting of third finites isapplied to the cones, that is to say, to the polar cones of thesespirals; and here also there is a helix-like tortuosity. Thus thissubstance consists of cells not unlike the shells of the snail andof certain kinds of testaceans. Within are actives of the firstand second finite; for the enclosed actives must needs formtheir circumferences into spirals or continuing circles,-to whichoperation they flow of their own accord.3. This part coheres with a highly delicate membrane consist­ing of fourth finites and perhaps also of third. It is a mem­brane which is here and there distended; and it holds the firstelement enclosed within. It is mobile in the same way as thesurface of the ether [bulla]; in which latter also the first ele­ment is enclosed.4. This whole membrane taken together contains within itcavities filled with the second element, which is like the first butgrosser.5. Attached to it is a membrane wherein is enclosed ether,which perhaps has formed for itself rivulets running from theone membrane to the other, in order that it may freely flowthrough them and be evacuated and replenished.6. Then comes a tunic consisting of a kind of subtle liquor.7. And finally a tunic consisting of arteries and veins.The arrangement is shown in the following delineation: t... Cf. Tremulation, p. 6. with the circles RS forming thet It should be noted that in the center. EFG and HIJKL wouldinterpretation of this delineation, the also be continued in the peripheriesthree upper lines have been curved. around this center. Thus the wholeIf continued they would form a would represent a primitive cell.sphere, flattened at the poles, and22
  • 42. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.elementum primum in conos, quod secundum motum tremulummembranae in similem motum agitur; sic potest anima abelemento hoc in motum agi, et potest illud in motum agere ;in his consistit sympathia subtilissima, et communio animarum,angelorum, et illorum correspondentia cum anima nostra.3. Ab altera parte in conis est applicata substantia finitistertiis constans, scilicet in conis illorum polaribus, ubi helicisinstar etiam tortuositas est; et sic constat cellulis non aliterac cochleae et quaedam testarum genera. Intus sunt activaprimi et secundi, nam activa inclusa non possunt aliter quamformare ambientes in spiras seu continue circulares, ad quodetiam suapte fluunt. 4. Haec pars cohaeret cum membranatenuissima constans finitis. quartis, et fortassis simul tertiis,estque membrana quae hic et ibi distenta est et inclusum habetelementum primum; quae non aliter mobilis est ac ipsa super­ficies aetheris, cui etiam inclusum est elementum primum.5. Tota haec membrana simul sumta, intus habet cavitatesrepletas elemento secundo, similis priori sed crassior. 6. Huicvero aligata est membrana cui inclusus est aether, qui fortassisrivulos sibi formaverat ab una in alteram, ut libere possitpercurrere, et evacuari et repleri. 7. Dein tunica subtiliMS., 167. Ph. MS., 108.quodam liquore constans. 8. Tandem arteriis et venis; vel23
  • 43. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.1. RS are the spirals or helices of the supremely subtle[membrane] of the soul. ·Within them are actives of thefirst finite. [la] At T where there is no attachment, is thefirst element.2. QP is the tortuosity with its hollow spirals. Themembrane consists of third finites. Within are enclosedactives of the first and second * finite.3. NO is the membrane adhering to it, in which is en­closed the first element.4. CD is the membrane in which is enclosed the secondelement; yet together with the former it constitutes a singlemembrane; [h, i, k, 1, m, are second elementary particles.]S. ABCD is the membrane where ether is enclosed, whichcan flow like a rivulet [e, g, f}.6. There is a still grosser membrane, where there is asubtle juice.7. And another yet grosser, where is blood with itsarteries. Such is the nature of the membrane foundthroughout the entire head, and over each individual par­ticle or minutest gland.t8. But in a body where there is no rational soul but onlya sensitive, RS are wanting.9. The one RS is entirely similar to the other.*The MS. has" third." tives, elements and membranes int The reference is to the pia their psychological aspect, see Prin­mater, or perhaps to the piissima cipia I, i, pp. 9-10, 39-40, 41; IImater; see Motion of El. 6; Brain, Inf. IV, fi~ and xiii, fin; Mech­411. In further study of the ac- anism, 12, 16,36; Motion of El. 2,24
  • 44. 17PSYCHOLOGICA.secundum delineationem: ut I. RS sunt spirae seu helicessubtilissimae animae in quibus sint activa primi; in Test ele­mentum primum, ubi non alligata est. 2. QP est tortuositascum suis cavis spiralibus; membrana constat finitis tertiis;intus sunt inc1usa activa primi et tertii. 3. NO est mem­brana ei adhaerens, cui inc1usum est elementum primum.4. CD membrana cui inc1usum est elementum secundum; unatamen membrana cum priori. S. ABCD est membrana ubiaether inc1usus, qui rivuli instar fluere possit. 6. Adhuccrassiora sunt, ubi succus subtilis. 7. Adhuc crassiora ubisanguis cum arteriis. Talis membrana est per totum caput,et super quam[li]bet particulam vel glandulam minimam. 8. Atvero in corpore desunt RS ubi non est anima rationalis sedsensitiva. 9. Una RS est plane similis alteri.5, 7, 30. In n. 6 of the last named A subtler membrane investing thework, mention is made of six mem- subtler parts of the pia mater. 6.branes, as follows: 1. The cranium. A still more subtle membrane which2. The tunic investing the arteries issues from the next subtler. Seeand veins, usually consisting in part also n. 228 below, where sevenof nervous ramifications. 3. The tunics are enumerated.dura mater. 4. The pia mater. 5.25
  • 45. 18-19PSYCHOLOGICA.18. THE TREMORS IN THESE TUNICS. 1. In the first is thesupremely distinct tremor of the soul. 2. Likewise in the sec­ond. 3.* In the third is the memory of brutes; but in man thememory is in the second and likewise in the third., 4. In thefourth is the organ of sight. 5. In the fifth is the organ ofhearing, and likewise the other sensations according to the di­versities of the tremulations. In the 6th is implanted sensationwhether evil or good.19. THE FORMATIONS OF THE TREMULATIONS. [1] Theyare effected by use and cultivation, as the membrane is adaptedto one tremor or another. 2. All things tremble harmonically,as for instance at the octave or some similar interval; for allthe membranes differ in their octaves. 3. If something newenters in, which is being affixed to the membrane; or to whosemotion the membrane is being adapted, it places itself, either atan octave with a similar thing, or else within the octave; to theend that the distances or differences may be as extremes fromcenters. It cannot place itself in an intermediate situation, sinceapperception is effected by means of a simile. Then, betweenthese two there is also a harmony; hence when either octave ismoved, this new thing also readily comes into motion; and thusfrom the three come those things which are still harmonicallyjoined together; and so on. From this it follows that whenmen are being cultivated it is necessary, that they use such amethod that similes shall come in with similes. If perchancesome dissimile should harmoniously occupy a place among sim­iles, then its motion t is effected by the motion or tremor that*We understand 3 to be identical "cannot have actives of the firstwith points 3 and 4 of n. 17, and and second kind, although that soul4 to be identical with S, and so also consists of an expanse."forth. Brutes know the four quarters andt Compare n. 17 point 8, and also "therefore something enters intoM echallism, n. 14. In the latter their expanse which is of the qual­reference, the soul of brutes ap­ ity of the second or magnetic ele­pears to be identified with points 3 ment. Therefore we also can haveand 4 of n. 17 of the present work; the soul of brutes; but we havefor it is said that the brute soul also a soul still more subtle." See26
  • 46. 18-19PSYCHOLOGICA.Tremores in his tunicis. I. In prima est ipsa animae, dis­tinctissima. 2. Pariter in altera. 3. In tertia est memoriabrutorum, sed in 2daest memoria hominum pariter in tertia.4. In quarta est organum visus. 5. In quinta est auditus;pariter reliquae sensationes secundum diversitates tremula­In 6tationum. satus est sensus malus vel bonus.Formationes tremulationum. Fit ex usu et cuItu; si aptaturad hunc aut iilum tremorem. 2. Omnia trement harmonice,ut ad octavum, vel simile; nam membranae omnes differuntoctavis. 3. Si novum quid intrat quod affigitur vel cujusmotui aptatur membrana, vel ad octavum se locat cum simili,vel inter octavum, ut distantiae vel differentiae sint ut extremaMS., 168.a centris; intermedie non se locare potest, si per simile fiatapperceptio; dein inter haec duo etiam hamlonia, unde utroquemoto octavo facile etiam hoc in motum venit; et sic a tribusveniunt illa quae adhuc sunt harmonice juncta; et sic porro.Ex his sequitur, quod cum excolantur homines, necessariumsit, ut methodo utantur, ut similia cum similibus veniunt;si dissimile occuparet forte locum inter similia harmonice,tunc a motu vel tremore impresso fit ejus mOtlls, et sic dis­also Mechanism, n. 3, 21; II Inf. :: That is, the motion of the mem­IV, xiii (the Soul of Brutes); brane.Prin. I, pp. 1, 2; I, i, pp. 9-11.274
  • 47. 20-21PSYCHOLOGICA.has been impressed, and thus a dissimile comes forward in thesimile.* Hence either the man reasons absurdly; or else, bymeans of much imagination, [the dissimile] is entirely lost tothe memory and obliterated, and something more similar grad­ually occupies its place. This must be effected by use and culti­vation.20. Therefore according to Volffs rules if a compound beconfused, the soul is in a state of confused perceptions; and thereverse [n. 12, 13, above].[VL][SENSATION.]21. Perceptions of material things in the visible world dependon contingent mutations in our body [no 57]. Thus in the caseof touch, taste, smell, sound, sight, everything must exist frommutations or be dependent thereon. So also the understandingand the many phenomena occurring in the most subtle [senses] ;there must be something that shall do the moving; as, for in­stance, the passions of the animus, bilious ichor.t Thus theimagination itself depends on mutations; it must have an originwhich shall move it; it does not exist from itself. Add to thisthat perception cannot be thought of as being without an originwhich shall bring change or movement; so neither can it be con­ceived of as being without a terminus, in that the motion goesto a definite terminus and, as it were, to a center. Unless therebe a terminus to the motion, there can be no perception. There­fore some motions are terminated in subtle organs, and somein the soul. They cannot all go to the soul itself, except byhelp of the imagination. Thus a tremor in a larger [medium]that is to say, a grosser tremor, moves simultaneously, and inlike manner at the octave, with the differences in smaller[mediums] and thus a tremulation comes into existence.:j: How*C/. Mechanism, 2-6; Prin. 1,4, grosser medium and tends to ap.43. more subtle medium, it sensibly be­t C/. II In/. IV, 3. comes the same motion in things:j: We interpret this in the sense more subtle, and consequently aindicated in II Infinite IV, v fin: more distinct motion. Tremulation"Vhen a motion begins in a in the air may cause undulation in28
  • 48. 20-21PSYCHOLOGICA.simile cum simili prodit; sic vel absurde ratiocinatur, vel exmemoria per multam imaginationem plane perit et obliteratur,et sensim quid similius locum illum occupat, quod fiet ex usuet cultu.Ergo secundum regulas Wollfii si compositum sit confusumest anirila in statu perceptionum confusarum; et contra.Ph. MS., 109.Perceptiones rerum materialium in mundo aspectabili amutationibus in corpore isto contingentibus dependent. Sic intactu, gustu, olfactu, sono, visu, omnia existent vel dependenta mutationibus; sic etiam intellectus et plura in subtilissimis,erit aliquid quod movet, ut si passiones corporis, si aliquidbilosum icor; sic ipsa imaginatio dependet a mutationibus,habebit originem se moventem, ex se non existit. Acceditquod perceptio non considerari possit sine origine quae mutetvel moveat; sic etiam non concipi possit sine termino, quodmoveatur ad certum terminum et quasi ad centrum; nisiterminus sit motus, nulla erit perceptio. Ergo quidam motusterminantur in organis subtilibus, quidam in anima; non omniaad ipsam animam ire possunt,5 nisi adjuvante imaginatione,adeo ut tremor in majori, seu crassiusculus, moveat simulsimiliter ad octavum differentibus in minoribus, adeo utthe ether, and undulation in the trcmulation of a grosser membraneether may cause a still greater un- may bring undulation to a moredulation in a more subtle element. subtle membrane." Compare alsoThis can be ocularly shown by ibid. 12, 3, 32, 3.large and small balls," etc. Sce & possint.also Mot. of Elements 43 : "The29
  • 49. 22-24PSYCHOLOGICA.can we say of touch, smell, and hearing, that they depend onmutations, if we do not say the same thing of sight also, and ofthe passions of the body and of the animus ! * As nature oper­ates in the greater so she operates in the lesser. There is nodifference. Why take refuge in the unknown just because wedo not see? The things which we do not see are infinitely morethan those which we see. If we do not see an insect, are wethen to say it is [non] existent? that it lacks membrane? thatit does not move mechanically, etc.?22. Those bodies are present to us which have such a situationin relation to our body, that they can be perceived by us if therebe no accidental obstacle [n. 60]. They are not present becausethey exist, but they are present in respect of a contiguum.Thus the sun is present by reason of a contiguum, a rose, byreason of its odor. A thing is present to the perception byreason of a contiguum. Otherwise no presence can be thoughtof.23. A body is present in some place, if it is situated withinthe termini by which we define that place [n. 61]. Thereforepresence cannot be thought of unless there be a terminus towhich [it is referred]. If it be presence in the soul, the termi­nus must be there; if elsewhere, the terminus must be there.[The thing present] always goes off to the soul; for the thingsof the memory are ever in motion with all else; hence a subtletremor arises therefrom, and thus passes on to the soul. Ifthere were no tremors of the memory, there would be no per­ception. Through the memory the tremor is led on to the soul.In brutes the motion of the sight, hearing, etc., can be broughtonly to the sensitive soul; and it is brought thither only bymeans of more subtle tremors.24. Sensation is a perception which can be explained in anintelligible way as a mutation effected in some organ of ourbody as such [no 65]. Sensation cannot come to the soul, unlessthere be intermediate membranes tremulous to a more subtlemotion. Since these membranes are instantly moved to tremu­lous motions adapted to them,-and this, either because of some*The MS. has "animae" (of as a slip for animi.the soul) which we have assumed30
  • 50. 22-24PSYCHOLOGICA.tremulatio existat. Quid dicemus de tactu et olfactu, auditu,quod dependeant a mutationibus, nisi etiam idem dicamus devisu, de passionibus corporis et animae; qualiter operaturnatura in majori sic in minori, nulla est differentia. Cur adignotum fugimus ideo quod non videamus; sunt infinite pluraquae non videmus, quam quae videmus; si insectum nonvidemus, ergo dicemus illud [non] esse, carere membris, nonmechani[ce] moveri, etc.MS., 169.Corpora ista nobis praesentia sunt, quae eum ad corpus nos­trum habent situm, ut percipi a nobis possint, nisi accidentaleaUquod obstaculum adsit. Praesentia sunt non quod sint, sedrespectu contigui sunt praesentia, ut sol ratione contigui,rosa ratione odoratus; perceptioni est praesens ratione con­tigui, alias nulla praesentia considerari potest.[Corpus] praesens aliquo in loco si intra terminos consistit,quibus locum istud definimus. Ergo praesentia non potestconsiderari nisi sit tenninus ad quod; si sit anima, erit ibitenninus, si alibi erit ibi tenninus. Abit semper ad animam,quia res memoriae semper moventur cum reliquis; hinc fitinde tremor subtilior sicque vadit ad animam. Nisi tremoresmemoriae sint, nulla perceptio foret, per illam deducitur adanimam; ipse motus visus, auditus etc non ad animam nisisensitivam brutorum perduci potest, nisi ope tremorumsubtiliorum eo deducatur.Sensatio est perceptio per mutationem, quae fit in organoaliquo corporis nostri qua taU, intelligibili modo explicabilis.Sensatio non pervenit ad animam, nisi sint membranae adsubtiliorem motum tremulae intennediae, quae cum ad motustremulos sibi adaequatos illico moventur, vel propter simile,31
  • 51. 25-27PSYCHOLOGICA.simile, or because of a mutation-therefore the motion advancesonwards to the soul, and becomes a rational perception. Butthat motion cannot be brought thither, unless the little mem­branes by cultivation and use ~ave been made accustomed to it,so that they may be moved in some similar way, but more subtly.From undulation comes tremulation; * hence comes rationalperception.25. A sensory organ is an organic part of the body in whosemutations are contained the reason of the perceptions of mate­rial things in the visible world en. 66]. This is true. Percep­tion does indeed come from these mutations; but it comes bymeans of a tremor in more subtle membranes, by whose help itis carried to the soul where is the terminus, and thus becomesperception.26. N. B. The question arises: FOR WHAT REASON HASNATURE FORMED IN OUR SENSES THAT WHICH IS SO DELIGHT­FUL? as for instance in our sight, so many gladsome colors; inour hearing, such great harmony; and so in the other senses;with the result that we are harmonic organs full of delight.The reason is because all the way to the soul, all things mustconspire to the production of harmony; all the membranessimultaneously from the greatest to the least; all the octaveshigher and higher, the grosser and the subtler, even to the soul.And because the harmony of all is so great, it reaches even tothe soul. Hence come such great delights, especially if some­thing intervenes which constitutes an harmonic proportion; asfor instance intermediate delights which thus come to the soulwithout impeding or injuring any organ by tremors which arenot harmonious, etc. On the other hand, if other tremors inter­vene, the undelightful at once arises, and this presents the oppo­site effect. Hence we have undelightful colors, undelightfulsounds, smell, taste, touch, etc.t27. A stronger sensation obscures a weaker, so that presentlywe entirely fail to pe1ceive the weaker [n. 76]. The tremula­tion is the same if only it be of the same celerity, whether it bemore acute or more obtuse, or whether it go to a greater dis­* Cl. Motion of Elements 12,8, t Cf. Mechanism, 2-3.42, 3; Principia I, 1, p. 10.32
  • 52. 25-27PSYCHOLOGICA.vel propter mutationem, hinc pergit motus ad animam fitqueperceptio rationalis; nee illuc perveniri potest, nisi per cultumet usum, membranulae ad illum motum factae sint assuetae,ut moveantur simili quodam modo sed subtilius; ab undula­tione fiat tremulatio, hinc fit perceptio rationalis.Organum sensorium est pars organica corporis, in cujusmutationibus continentur rationes perceptionum rerum materi-Ph. MS., 110.alium in mundo aspectabili. Hoc verum est; ab istis mutation­ibus pervenit quidem perceptio, sed mediante tremore insubtilioribus membranis, cujus ope 6 defertur ad animam ubiterminus, et fit sic perceptio.N. B. Quaeritur quae ratio sit quod tarn deliciosum forma­verit natura in nostribus sensibus, ut in visu tot laetos colores,in auditu tantarn harmoniam, et sic in reliquis sensibus, adeout nos simus organon harmonicum et delitiosum; ratio est,quod omnia conspirent usque ad animam ad harmoniamMS., 170.producendam; omnes membranae simul a maxima ad mini­mam; omnes octavi altiores et altiores usque ad animam,crassiores et subtiliores. Et quia tanta est harmonia omnium,usque dum ad animam pervenit, unde tantae delitiae, praeci­pue si aliquid intervenit, quod constituit proportionem har­monicam, ut intermediae quae sic ad animam perveniunt,sine impedimento et laesione alicujus organi per alios tremoresquam harmonicos, etc.7 Contra vero, si alii intercederent,illico injucundum venit, et contrarium effectum sistit; undecolores injucundi, soni injucundi, odoratus, gustus, tactus, etc.Sensatio fortior obscurat debiliorem, ita ut subinde debilioremprorsus non appercipiamus. Tremulatio eadem est modo sitejusdem celeritatis, si vel sitS acutior vel obtusior, si ad majorem6 opus. 7 et.8 si.33
  • 53. 28PSYCHOLOGICA.tance or to a lesser distance. Innumerable varieties are possi­ble, even though there be but a single tone. But if the tone isto be a single one, then generally there can be but one celerity.A~OC~DE~FC~HThus although (ab) has long tremors, yet they can be of a liketone with the short and brief tremors in (cd), and with thelonger ones in (ef). This may be clearly seen in pendulums,where the oscillation or vibration may be greater or less, andyet may occur in almost the same time.* Therefore when thereis a stronger tremor or a stronger sensation, as in (ef), it ab­sorbs a weaker; for it contains all the weaker, such as (cd) initself; and if the weaker be within it, they create no sensation,since there is no variation in the tremor of the membrane. Onthe other hand, if there be another variation, as in (gh), wheretremors swifter or slower run through the wave of one and thesame tremulous membrane, a difference at once arises, inasmuchas it runs through the membrane not at the same time, but ata different time, so that when it comes to the extremities ortermini, a new motion is sensated. In such case a stronger anda weaker sensation may exist, and this simultaneously. If theycohere harmoniously, the effect is at once delightful; if not, itis undelightful. It should also be borne in mind, that all thesenses, sight, hearing, taste, smell, can perceive at one and thesame time, inasmuch as they differ in the origin, and quality oftheir tremors.28. So also in the imagination; if there be here a tremule,tand it be powerfully tremulous, not only are all other thoughtswont to be impeded, but even the operations of the senses; sothat at that moment we neither see nor hear; or if we see and* Cf. Trl!mulation, p. 49. trl!mor. The latter is used of sen­t Trl!mttlmn, the diminutive of sation, the former of imagination.34
  • 54. 28PSYCHOLOGICA.distantiam vel minorem distantiam abeat; innumerae danturvarietates quamvis unus sit tonus; si tamen unus erit tonus,lA...c~(~?J~generaliter9 erit una celeritas; ut in (ab) quamvis sint! longitremores, possunt esse similes coni cum curtis et brevibus(cd), cum adhuc longioribus ut in (ef), quod in pendulisvidere liquet, ubi oscilatio vel vibratio major vel minor datur,tamen in eodem fere tempore; ergo cum fortior tremor seufortior sensatio ut in (ef), absorbet debiliorem, nam in sehabet omnes debiliores ut etiam (cd); et si inessent debilioresnullum sensum creant, nam nulla est variatio in tremoremembranae. At vero si alia variatio sit ut in (gh), ubitremores citiores vel lentiores pereurrunt undam ejusdemtremulae membranae, turn statim oritur differentia, quia per­currit membranam non eodem tempore, sed diverso, ut dumin extremitates seu terminos sentitur alius motus; tunc fortioret debilior sensatio dari potest, et quidem simul; quae siharmoniee eohaerent est statim delitiosum, si non est injueun­dum. Hoc etiam animadvertendum est,! quod uno temporeomnes sensus possint 2 appereipere, visus, auditus, gustus,oIfaetus, quia differunt origine, et tremorum qualitate.MS.,I7I.Sic etiam si in imaginatione sit tremulum et fortiter tremu­lum, impediri solent non modo aliae eogitationes, sed etiamipsorum sensuum operationes, ut eo momento nee videamus,audiamus, vel quamvis videamus, et audiamus, tamen nulla9 generiliter. 2 possunt.I sit.35
  • 55. 29-31PSYCHOLOGICA.hear, yet there is no apperception, because [the sensation] doesnot come to a terminus and center, but the [tremors] stop mid­way, and therefore do not move the intellectual part. Thus wemay be in a room and hear bells and yet not hear them, or atany rate, not know that we have heard them. So we may be ona street, and see and yet not see, because [the sensations] donot come to the origin [of apperception] and therefore we donot know that we have observed what we have seen. So alsoin many other cases. Therefore sensations are possible withoutperception, and such perhaps are the sensations of worms andimperfect animals.29. A sensible object is thought of in three ways, namely, asconsisting in an object,. * as bringing a mutation to a sensoryorgan,. and as being perceived by the soul. This is from Wolff[in Psychol. Empir. n. 77 note].30. The soul can alter nothing in its sensations,. nor is it ableto substitute one thing for another at will, so long as a sensibleobject acts on a sensory organ [no 78]. We see this in each ofthe senses, sight, hearing, etc.; when one tone strikes theseorgans, the soul cannot substitute another. So also in the moresubtle organs, where, from mutations and tremors, comes inte­rior sensation or thought. As soon as a tremor arises in thesemore subtle organs,-whether from particles in the blood, orfrom some other and more subtle liquor, or, by similitude, froman origin arising from the organs [of the senses], or from anyother source,-the soul cannot substitute another mutation atwill, unless it be such as forms a harmony with the prior muta­tion, and which comes into motion from the same.31. Yet it cannot be therefore denied that a motion in theether, or in the second or first element, from whatsoever causearising, can act immediately upon the organs or proximate mem­branes of the soul, and can thus affect them, and actuate theminto a tremor. Thus if there should be motions in the firstelement, from whatsoever cause arising, then this element canaffect the soul and actuate it into an answering tremor; andconsequently, by means of phantasy or appetite, can produce*So Wolff; the MS. has" organ."36
  • 56. 29-31PSYCHOLOGICA.apperceptio est, quia non venit ad terminum et centrum, sedin media via subsistunt, unde partem intellectualem nonmovent. Sic in aliquo conclavi esse possumus, et campanasPh. MS., II I.audire et non audire, ad minimum nescire quod audiverimus;sic in via videre et non videre, quia ad originem non perveniunt,3adeo ut nesciamus id observasse quod vidimus; sic in multisreliquis; unde sensationes dari possunt sine pereeptione, qualesfortassis sunt in ipsis vermibus, et animalibus imperfectis.Sensibile tripliei modo eonsideratur, quatenus inest organo,quatenus mutationem infert organo sensorio, et quatenus pereipi­tur ab anima, haec Wolf.Anima in senationibus suis nihil immutare potest, nee unumalteri pro arbitrio substituere valet, dum objeetum sensibile inorganum sensorium agit. Hoc videmus in omni sensu, visu,auditu, etc.; non alium tonum potest substituere, quum unuspercellit organa; sic in subtilioribus a mutationibus et tremori­bus pervenit interior sensatio vel cogitatio; quumque ortussit tremor primum in subtilioribus, vel a particulis in sanguinevel alio liquore subtiliori, vel per similitudinem ab origine exorganis, vel aliunde, non potest aliam substituere pro arbitrio,nisi talem quae harmoniam cum priori habet, quae ex eademmutatione venit in motum.Nee tamen inde negari potest, quin motus in aethere, inelemento secundo vel primo, ex quacunque causa, immediatein organa vel membranas animae proximas agere possit, etsie eas afficere, inque tremorem agere; ut si darentur aquavis motus in elemento primo, tune hie 4 animam potestafficere et in tremorem eonvenienter agere, et consequenteraliquid sed pauxillum eorpori per phantasiam, vel appetitum,8 perveniant. 4 hae<:.37
  • 57. 32-33PSYCHOLOGICA.some effect, though very slight, in the body; or, when it hasbeen increased in these,* can come again to the soul, and soenter the will,-a process which may be called fatality. Argu­ment must always be made from the great to the less, from thegross to the subtle. What happens in the gross can happen alsoin the subtle.32. If a sensible object acts upon a sensory organ rightlyconstituted, we sensate necessarily; or, It is not in the sourspower to decide whether it will sensate or not [n. 79]. Thisfollows from the preceding proposition. Hence there is no con­trol over sensations, unless they arise from a cause [over whichthere is control]. And since there are grosser and subtler ele­ments, so that things can be set in motion by all the elements;and since there are always motions in these elements, arisingfrom an infinitude of causes,-of which we shall speak else­where,-therefore if the soul is to perceive anything, a motionmust occur that shall impel and shall create something sensible.tThus what occurs in the ether, occurs also in the lesser elements.33. If the action of a sensible object upon a sensory organ isin any way impeded, the sensation in the soul is also impeded[n. 81]. That after the fall, an impediment may arise fromvitiated states of the body [and] from passions of the animus,:j:so that sensations cannot be terminated in a just manner in thesoul; thus, that all vitiated states and excessive indulgence inthe passions may furnish impediments, and may so fix them inthe membranes that, at the presence of a similar motion, thesoul cannot be moved save agreeably with the origin of thevices-this may be deduced as a remote conclusion from theproposition; and also from innumerable passages in the SacredScriptures. Hence results a kind of callosity or disease. Thecase is not unlike that of the instruments of hearing and sight;these are dulled by excessive sound and excessive light, andbecoming set in that state, can no longer receive an harmonicmutation save agreeably with the structure which they haveacquired by these causes, or by this excess. There are also*That is, as we understand the t Cf. II Infillite IV, iii.author, in the phantasy and appe­ :j: The MS. has "body."tite.38
  • 58. 32-33PSYCHOLOGICA.vel dum in illis auctae rursus ad animam, et sic in voluntatem,quod fatalitas audire potest. Argumentandum semper esta majori ad minus, a crassiore ad subtilius; quod accidit incrassiori, accidere potest in subtiliori.MS., 172.Si objectum sensibile in organum sensorium rite constitutumagit, necessario sentimus, seu in animae potestate non est, utrumvelit sentire necne. Hoc sequens est prioris. Hinc nulla estpotesbls in sensationes nisi a causa oriantur, et quia elementadantur crassiora et subtiliora, ut ab omnibus elementis mobilia,et quia semper in illis sunt motus, ab infinitis causis oriundi,de quibus alias, hinc si aliquid percipiet, accedet motus quiimpellet, et aliquid sensibile creabit, sic quod in aethere, inelementis minoribus.Si actio objecti sensibilis in organum sensorium quocunquemodo impeditur; in anima quoque sensatio impeditur. Quoda vitiis corporis post lapsum, ex passionibus corporis, oriripossit impedimentum, ut non justo modo in anima terminen­tur; sic omnia vitia et nimia in passionibus possunt impedi­menta dare, et figere in membranis, adeo ut ad similem motumnon aliter possit moveri quam convenienter vitiorum origini,hoc longe deduci potest, et quidem ex innumeris scriptissacris; fit inde tanquam callus vel morbus, non aliter ac auriset visus instrumenta a nimio lumine et nimio sono hebebantur,inque statu illo permanent, nee possunt amplius mutationemharmonicam concipere quam convenienter structurae, quamper causas vel nimium illud obtinuerint. Dari etiam aliae39
  • 59. 34-36PSYCHOLOGICA.other possible causes which may produce impediments, so thata more subtle tremulation arising in the first or second elementmay be unable to cause a genuine motion, or to carry a genuinemotion down to the grosser organs, and consequently to beextended to the will.34. N. B. That we can make deduction from the senses tothe soul, from grosser tremors to more subtle, cannot be denied;for nature is [everywhere] like herself. Hence from thesenses, are we best instructed concerning the nature of the soul;or, from the organism of the senses concerning the nature ofthe souls organism. It follows, therefore, according to Wolff,that, If a mutation is produced in a sensory organ by somesensible object; then, coexistent with that mutation, there is asensation in the mind, explicable in an intelligible manner bymeans of it, and acknowledging in it the sufficient reason * forits own existence and for its being what it is [no 8S]. And that,If the mutation is the same and is in the same sensory organ,the sensation in the soul must also be the same [no 86]. Fromwhich it follows that if the organs of sensation have been in­jured by blemishes, or have become coherent in this way,whether by acquisition or congenitally,the same will be the casewith the sensation in the soul.35. N. B. All anatomists declare that nature operates in thisway;t [and that] the sports of nature command our admira­tion; and in the field of anatomy nothing is more common.This is acknowledged by anatomists, and there is not one whodoes [not] inculcate it.36. If it happen that the same mutation is produced in thesame sensory organ by different sensible objects, these objectsmust seem the same [n. 87]. So also, in the understanding,similes acquire the same tenor and tremor as dissimiles; andtherefore such confusion exists, that the one cannot be distin­guished from the other; hence confused ideas. Excessive ten­sions and relaxations might also confuse the ideas, and make• So Wolff; the MS. has "sen­ that nature conveys sensations bysation." means of membranes; see II 11If.t That is, as we understand it, IV, X.40
  • 60. 34-36PSYCHOLOGICA.causae possunt, quae causentur impedimenta: adeo ut sub-Ph. MS., 112.tilior in primo et altere elemento orta tremulatio non genuinumcausari possit motum, vel genuinum deferre ad crassioraorgana, et consequenter involuntatem dispandi.N. B. Quod a sensibus ad animam, a tremoribus crassiori-bus ad subtiliores deducere possimus, non negandum est,quia natura sibi similis est. Hinc ex sensibus optime erudi-mur, qualis anima sit; sive ab illorum organismo qualis animaesit. Ergo sequitur secundum Wollfium, Si in organo aliquosensorio ab objecto aliquo sensibili quaedam producitur mutatio;in mente eadem coexistit sensatio per illam intelligibili modoexplicabilis, rationem3asufficientem, cur sit et talis sit, in illaagnoscens. Dein, Si mutatio in eodem organo eadem est, sen-satio quoque in anima eadem esse debet. Unde sequitur siorgana sensationurn a vitiis laesa sint, vel ita cohaerentia,facta vel nata, quod sensatio in anima eadem esse debeat.N. B. Anatomici omnes dicunt naturam sic operari,naturae mirandi lusus, adeo ut in anatomicis nihil sit com-munius; quod agnoscunt, et nullus [non] hoc inculcat.MS., 173.Si contingat a diversis objectis sensibilibus eandem in eodemorgano sensorio produci mutationem, eadem apparere debent.Sic etiam in intellectu, similia cum dissimilibus eundem teno-rem et tremorem nacta sunt; ergo etiam confusum existit,adeo ut unum non distingui potest ab altero, ergo ideae con-fusae. Etiam nimiae tensiones et laxationes confunderela sensationem.41
  • 61. 37-40PSYCHOLOGICA.those identical which are distinct. Hence is apparent what kindof methodical cultivation should be used.*37. If the mutation in one and the same sensory organ isdifferent, the sensation in the soul is also different [n. 88].This is generally so, yet cases may occur, and do daily occur,when it is not so; as for instance if there be a blemish in themeans. If the means be injured, there may be a diversity ofthings in the eye or ear, and only one and the same thing in thesoul. Thus in excessive anger, in drunkenness, in idiocy, thething in the soul may be one and the same, and yet in the organsthere may be a diversity of things. In such cases the means areso fashioned that they convey the diversity to the soul only ina confused way. It may indeed be said that this result comesalso from [a defect in] the organism of the sense; but in casesof melancholy and phantasy, those who labor under this diseasedo not sensate any defect in the organ, but in the middle path[between the organ and the soul] where the membranes areoccupied with their own tremors and not with those of theorgans of the senses; hence they deflect sensations to the soulin various ways.t38. N. B. Thus from experience in sight we can argue inrespect to hearing, smell, taste, touch; that is to say, experiencein the one sense gives us experience in the other, provided onlywe keep in mind their ratio in respect to degrees and moments.Thus, from the sense we can carry our argument to the soul,the understanding, the imagination, etc.39. If the same object produces a diffelent mutation in thesame organ, it must also seem different [n. 89]. So also in theunderstanding.40. To each possible mutation in the sensory organ, answersa certain sensation and a peculiar idea in the soul. Thus thesensation coexists in the soul [no 90). Such idea can exist onlyin a tremor of the most highly subtle membranes, the idea beingsimilar to the sensation in the organs. Coming from a mutationand tremor in the organs, [the motion] must needs create a* Cf. Prin. I, 3, p. 30; n In/. t Cf. Trcmulation, pp. 7, 45, 74;IV, xiii (The soul is the same, Prin. I, 4, p. 43; Mechan. 4.etc.)42
  • 62. 37-40PSYCHOLOGICA.potuere ideas, et easdem facere, quae sunt distinctae. Undequalis esse debeat methodicus cultus exinde apparet.Si mutatio in organo sensorio eodem diversa est, sensatioquoque in anima diversa est. Hoc fit plerumque; accideretamen potest, et accidit quotidie, quod non talis sit, ut sinaevus sit in mediis; ut diversa sint in oculo aut aure, et eademin anima, si media sint laesa, ut in nimia ira, ebrietate, infatuis, eadem possunt esse in anima, quamvis diversa inorganis; nam media sunt ita aptata ut diversitatem non defe­rant ad animam nisi confusam; quamvis dici possit, hoc etiamprovenire ex ipso organismo sensus; sed in melancholiciset phantasiis, qui ilIo morbo laborant, nullum vitium sentiuntin organo, sed in media via, ubi occupatae sunt membranaetremoribus suis non organorum sensuum, unde deflcctunt variesensationes ad animam.N. B. Sic possumus ab experientia in visu argumentariad auditum, olfactum, gustum, tactum, aut experientia inuno sensu dat nobis experientiam in alio, modo habeaturratio graduum et momentorum; sic ex sensibus ad animam,intellectum, imaginationem, etc.Si idem objectum diversam efficiat mutationem in eodem organo,diversum quoque apparere debet; sic etiam in intellectu.Unicuique mutationi in organo possibili sensatio quaedamet idea peculiaris in anima respondet, adeo ut coexistat in anima,Idea ilia non potest existere in alia re quam in tremore sub­tilissimarum membranarum, quae similis est sensationi inorganis; provenit a mutatione et tremore in organis, ergo nee435
  • 63. 40PSYCHOLOGICA.simile. It cannot create a dissimile; it cannot impress aughtbut what itself possesses; no other effect or mode will result,except what is in exact accordance with its own mode. Hencein most highly subtle membranes a tremor is an idea. And tothe end that it may be the more an idea, it is a simile of sensa­tion both in respect to mode and in respect to existence. That[a tremor] may be an idea, it must have termini to one of whichit may go, and from this to the other extreme. The extremesare the points to which the motion is permitted to go. If themotion be slight, it does not go beyond the soul; * for it cannotcommunicate with what is grosser, save obscurely. If it be agreater motion it can go to some [further] terminus, accordingto the extension of the motion. Therefore an idea must havea terminus. It arises from a greater motion; but then it with­draws, and rests within its own termini; and from these it doesnot communicate anything to the senses unless it be a consider­able motion, so that a phantasy arises which spreads to thesenses; with the result that in wakeful moments we seem to seeand hear this identical thing, exactly as in dreams. Thereforean idea may be in the soul,t as in sleep, in brutes, in noctambu­lists; but usually, as is also the case in dreams, something iswont to come from the soul, which directs ideas to a definiteend, as though they were directed by one of whose origin weare ignorant,-a circumstance which often seems to us a matterof wonder.t In brutes [the tremor or idea] is terminated inthe membrane or spiral which is next to our soul. But whenit comes to the [human] soul, where the very modes of the ideaare examined, it is not an idea, unless you wish to call it a dis­tinct idea; for the gross cannot move the subtle, unless [thesubtle] comprehend its choicest part, and thus involve the manythings which come simultaneously into the motion. The conse­quence is that a more distinct idea results, or a reasoning, orreason, which is merely the modification of an idea into its moredistinct parts.*Reading animam; but the word We have omitted the word" either"can equally well be read animum inasmuch as it is not followed by(the animus). any consequent.t Idea poteS<f esse sive i,~ anima :f;CI. n. 76.(an idea may be either in the soul).44
  • 64. 40PSYCHOLOGICA.potest, quin etiam simile creet; non potest aliquid dissimile,non aliud imprimere quam habet, non alium effecturn autmodus fiet quam prout modus est. Hinc in subtilissimisMS.,174· Ph. MS., II3.membranis tremor est idea; utque eo magis sit idea est sensa­tionis simile tarn qua modum, quam qua existentiam. Utidea sit, habebit terminos ad quem et ab illo ad alterum ex­tremum. Extrema sunt ubi permittit motus ire; si minimussit non ultra animam it, nam non potest communicare cumcrassiore nisi obscure, si major potest ad terminum aliquemire, secundum motus extensionem. Ergo idea habebit ter­minum; oritur a majori motu, sed dein excipit, et subsistitintra suos terminos, a quibus non communicat quid sensibusnisi major sit ut oriatur phantasia, quae se in sensus dissipat,ut videre idem et audire videamus, prout in somnis sic invigiliis. Ergo idea potest esse sive in anima, ut in somno, inbrutis, in noctambulonibus; sed plerumque turn ut in somnisaliquid venire solet ex anima, quod dirigit ideas ad certumfinem, tanquam a quodam, cujus originem nescimus, quodsaepe mirum nobis videtur; in brutis terminatur in membranavel co[c]hlea proxima animae nostrae. At vero quum ad ani­mam venit non est idea, nisi velis dicere distinctam ideam,ubi ipsi modi ideae examinantur; nam crassius non movetsubtilius nisi comprehendat eximiam ejus partem, et sicinvolvat plura, quae simul in motum veniunt, et consequenter,fit distinctior idea, seu ratiocinatio, seu ratio, quae est tantummodificatio ideae in partes distinctiores.45
  • 65. 41-42PSYCHOLOGICA.41. N. B. There can be nothing sensible in a membrane,unless that membrane be divided into its least parts. If it staysin the dura meninx, so as to inhere in its parts,-and this ispossible,-then it is subject to many mutations, and must unfolditself by winding paths. This is less the case in the pia meninx,that is to say, in the ramifications in the second, third and fourthpia meninx, and in the membranes of the liquid [meninx] ofthe cortical and medullary substance.* Nor can [there be any­thing sensible] in the blood vessels, since these are sometimeswide, sometimes narrow; it is indeed there, but it cannot be verysensible. But [the sensible] is in the places where the mem­brane divides into lesser membranes, and these into still lesser,to which latter it adheres. It can also rest in the liquid [mem­branes], that is to say, in a place where it is not rendered sub­ject to mutations as in the grosser membranes; and likewise ina place where the ether and the first and second elements can beenclosed, and which they can permeate, and thus be able widelyto spread the incipient sensation. For every motion from onemedium to another, is effected by aid of the elements; exactlyas in the air, from one string [nervus t] to another; [so in thehighly subtle membranes] where there are almost no veins andarteries, or where no nerves are visible.[VI!.][IMAGINATION. ]42. The mind can reproduce the ideas of absent sensible ob­jects,. or if the soul has perceived things by the senses, it canreproduce the perceptions of these things even though the ob­jects themselves be absent [no 91]. Thus when we have been intemples, we can later reproduce an idea of them. So, in mattersof hearing, we can reproduce a sound and sing it. The same isnot the case in smell and taste, except in an obscure way. There*By the second, third and fourth mater. As to the membrane of thepia meninx we understand our au- liquid, see above, n. 176 ; see alsothor to mean the arachnoid tunic, AIat. of Elements S.the pia mater and the piissima t Nervus = string, or nerve.46
  • 66. 41-42PSYCHOLOGICA.N. B. Quod in membrana sensibile quid esse nequit, illSlsit divisa in partes minimas; si haereret in dura meninge, adeout inhaereat ejus partibus, quod fieri potest, tunc subjecta sitmultis mutationibus, et per ambages se explicabit, minus siin pia meninge; seu3bin ramificationibus in pia meninge 2da3taquarta; inque membranis ipsius liquidi, corticalis et medullarissubstantiae. Nee potest in vasis sanguineis, quia illa jamlatiora jam sunt ar[c]tiora, sed est quidem sed non potest ibitarn sensibilis esse; sed in locis, ubi se membrana in minimasdividit, et haec in min[or]ibus, quibus adhaeret, ut et possitin liquidis subsistere, seu ibi ubi non obnoxia redditur muta­tionibus, ut in crass[ior]ibus; pariter ubi aether et elementumprimum et secundum possint includi et intermeare, et sicsensationem inceptam latius dissipare; nam ope elementorumfit omnis motus ab uno in alterum prout in aere ab uno nervoin alterum, ubi fere nullae venae et arteriae, vel ubi nulli nervisint conspicui.MS., 175.Objectorum sensibilium ideas mens reproducere potest; seu siqua sensus percipit anima, eorum perceptiones reproducere potest,objectis licet absentibus. Ut quum fuimus in templis, deinideam ejus possumus reproducere; sic in auditu possumusreproducere sonurn et cantare, non item in olfactu et gustu,8b sed.47
  • 67. 43PSYCHOLOGICA.are indeed some who are also unable to reproduce in the caseof hearing, although they recognize a tone when sounded byothers. Here we see how sight and hearing concur. By thehearing we can reproduce that which the sight has perceived,provided only some handle be furnished in the way of words.On the other hand, we cannot reproduce by the sight * what hasentered in by the hearing; for a subtle motion, unless it bevehement, will not reproduce a gross, nor a gross, a subtle.But these reproductions would not be possible, were it not thatby use and cultivation [the membranes] have so aptly formedtheir tremors that they are harmonic. Whatever is reproduced,must have a cause and origin of its reproduction, as for instancein the sight or hearing. If I should see a temple, then othertemples by their likeness to it, will reproduce that temple, or ifI hear it named, the hearing will reproduce it. If the sameorgans are moved by a simile, whether through the sight orthrough the hearing,t then the soul goes through a simile to asimile, and this especially if [the simile] be in continuous mo­tion. If it be in the continuous motion of its affair, a simileis moved, and consequently this particular simile. If the mo­tion of this simile has been made stronger by the voice, the sight,or other causes, so that I would wish to linger there in orderthat the will may extend thither, then the motion of this simileand consequently the reproduction, becomes at once stronger.But this is never effected except by means of organs, or of asimile, with the addition of the will, which leads me to stay inthis simile and not to admit any others; that is to say, to shutthe way to tremors leading to other similes. Then the motionof this simile becomes stronger, and so we have a reproduction.43. The Faculty of producing the perception of sensible thingsthat are absent is called the faculty of imagining or imagination[no 92]. As stated above, the cause arises from a simile, com­ing in through the sight or through the hearing; or from asimile which is already in the membranes; and also from avoluntary or involuntary lingering, with the addition of thestimulus of pleasure which is the cau~e of the lingering. Theseare the causes of imagining.*The MS. has" hearing." t The MS. has" sight."48
  • 68. 43PSYCHOLOGICA.nisi obscure; quidam tamen sunt qui nee in auditu reproducerepossunt, quamvis cognoscant ab aliis eundem tonum esse.Hie videmus quomodo visus et auditus concurrant; repro­ducere possumus illud per auditum, quod visus perceperat,modo aliqua ansa per voces detur; non vero per visum 4 repro­ducere quod per auditum intraverat, quia subtilior motus nonreproducit crassiorem, nisi vehemens sit; aut crassior sub­tiliorem. Sed haec non forent nisi per usum et cultum, utita apte forma[ve]rint suos tremores, ut harmonices sint.Quodcunque reproducitur causam et originem reproductionishabebit; ut in visu vel aure; si videam templum vel aliatempla per similitudinem reproducit hoc, si audiam illudPh. MS., II4.templum nominari, reproducit; si per simile per visum autper auditum4amota sint eadem organa, hine per simile it animaad simile; praecipue si in continuo motu sit, si in continuomotu ejus rei, simile movetur, et consequenter hoc; si fortiormotus hujus factus sit per vocem, visum vel alias causas, utibi morari velim, ut voluntas usque extendat, turn fit illicofortior hujus motus, et consequenter reproductio, sed nun­quam nisi per organa, aut per simile, accedente voluntateut haeream in hoc nec admittam plura, seu occludam viam adtremores ad reliqua, fit ejus fortior motus; sic reproducit.Facultas producendi perceptiones rerum sensibilium ab­sentium vocatur facultas imaginandi seu imaginatio. Causa utdictum est, oritur ex simili, vel per visum vel per auditum,vel ex simili jam in membranis, et mora voluntaria vel involun­taria, accedente stimulo voluptatis, quae est causa morae.Hae sunt causae imaginandi.4 auditum. 4a visum.49
  • 69. 44PSYCHOLOGICA.44. N. B. It must be observed, however, that idea and imag­ination can never be said to be in the soul only; they are alsoin the organ proximate to the soul; for there the imagination oridea first rests, and there it becomes a confused imagination oridea. It must always be confused before it can be distinct.Then, when it has come to the soul, it becomes distinct, and wehave the rational. A confused idea or confused imaginationexists also in brutes; but it is found distinct only in men andin their soul. They differ in the matter of coarseness or gross­ness. Subtle tremors therefore, can be received only by thesoul, which is itself subtle and can perceive distinct tremors,though at first only in a confused way. Thus, if [a membrane]should excel in subtlety in a thousand ways, then in the samemeasure it is the more sensible; and it conceives [tremors1firstconfusedly and then distinctly. Thus if it be smaller in theratio of dimension, it may be put as (hi) to (ab) ; but if it be athousand times more subtle in the ratio of grossness, the ratiosmay be set forth either as in (de) and (kl), or as in the circlesZAU :0:"V .LJ,cM(no) and (qr) ; since (the tremorI comes from a grosser mem­brane, which, in the ratio of celerity can be moved only in pro­portion to its grossness. Thus the more subtle motion, suchas that of the soul, may be denoted (on), and the most subtlemotion in (rq). By the help of the intermediate element oractives, this motion induces a similar motion in (on), and hencethe entire membrane (on) of the soul is moved. Therefore aconfused idea is produced in the soul, in like manner as it existsin (rq). But if there be a delay, so that (qr) is in perpetualmotion, and (on) also in perpetual motion, then it passes overharmonically to (z), the place of its mean proportional, andthence to its middle [line] ; and so by modes ever more similar,50
  • 70. 44PSYCHOLOGICA.N. B. Observandum tamen, quod neutiquam did potestin anima esse solummodo idea et imaginatio, sed etiam inorgano proximo animae; ibi enim subsistit primum, et fitconfusa; confusa praecedet semper distinctam,· quum jamvenit ad animam fit distincta, et est rationale. Confusaidea vel imaginatio datur etiam in brutis; sed distincta nonMS., 176.nisi quam in hominibus inque iUorum anima; differunt cras-sitie; ergo non subtiles tremores recipere potest nisi anima,quae subtilis est et distinctos potest percipere, quamvis pri-mum confuse; ut si subtilitate superaret mille modis, tunc eosensibilior est, et primum confuse concipit dein distincte, utsi ratione dimensionis sit minor, sit ut (hi) ad (ab), sed rationecrassitiei millies subtilior, poni possunt ~ationes vel ut in4 e; 4-~V-n,~~(de) et (kl), vel ut in circulis (no) et (qr); si venit a crassiori,quae non moveri potest ratione celeritatis quam in respectuad crassitiem suam, sic subtilior ut animae (on), subtilissimusmotus in (rq) sit notus, ille inducit similem, ope intermediielementi vei activorum, in (on), unde movetur tota (on)animae, ergo fit confusa idea in anima, pariter ac est in (rq),sed si mora sit, ut qr perpetuo moveatur, et perpetuo movetur(on), tunc harmonice transit ad z, ubi est media ejus propor-tionalis, abinde ad suam mediam, et sic per similes et similes5 distincta.51
  • 71. 45-46PSYCHOLOGICA.to modes ever more numerous. The delay cannot be effectedsimultaneously, unless a harmony be also created. Thus dis­tinction is produced, and rational imagination; for between (0)and (n) are many different tremulations which have been im­pressed by use, or to which [the membrane] has been adapted.45. The ratio of grossness as between the membranes, is bestmade clear from pendulums, where the celerities are in theduplicate ratio of the length of the pendulums. Thus if thegross membrane be 9, its celerity can be given as 3; exactly asin the pendulum; for by means of different celerities there re­sults a difference of the tremors. Therefore from pendulumswe can ascertain what should be the various grossnesses ofmembranes.*46. ON THE PIA MENINX AND THE INTELLECT. The piameninx invests the nerves; clings closely and firmly to the brain,except in hydropsical subjects, where it is loosely attached; andis connected with the dura mater by veins. It so abounds inblood vessels, that, according to Ruysch,t it is almost made upof them. It has no nerves. In the neighborhood of the longi­tudinal sinus, it is said to have glands.:j: From these particularsit is evident, why we sensate in the nerves, namely because thepia mater is continuous with the dura. Therefore it invests thecerebrum thus closely, in order that it may bind the interiorpart by membranes still more subtle. It is evident also that thepia mater consists almost entirely of blood-vessels; § thereforethe affections of the body and soul come by means of the emo­tion of the blood, whose parts variously strike upon the mem­brane according as those parts are angular or round, large orsmall, abundant or sparse. Likewise, that in the [pia materand] arachnoid" there are no [nerves]; but yet it is sensiblewhere there are fibrous tendons, or ramifications of nerves. Ifthere were not so great an abundance of vessels in the piameninx, we would not be moved by the blood to so many emo­tions.* Cf. TremulatioJl, p. 49. Allat., p. 169.t See Fibre 53, where the pas- § The MS. has venis (of veins).sages from Ruysch are cited. 11 Heister, 268, 269; see also:j: These anatomical particulars Vieussens and Winslow, quoted inare quoted from Heister, Comp. Fibre 329, 331.52
  • 72. 45-46PSYCHOLOGICA.modos, ad plures et plures, non simul moveri potest mora,nisi etiam harmonia creetur, sic fit distinctum, et imaginatiorationalis; nam intra (0) et (n) sunt plures differentes tremula-tiones ab usu impressae vel ad quas apta reddita est.Qualis sit ratio crassitiei membranarum, hoc aptissime expendulis elucescit, quod celeritates sint in ratione duplicatalongitudinum, adeo ut si crassa membrana sit (9) celeritasPh. MS., lIS.dari potest 3, plane ut pendula: nam per celeritates diversasfit diversitas tremorum: ergo ex pendulis habere possumus,quales esse debeant crassities variae membranarum.N. B. De pia meninge et intellectu. Nervos investit, cere-bro arcta et firma inhaeret, laxa in hydropicis; cum duramatre per venas; copiosissima vasa sangui[ni]fera, adeo utex talibus quasi conflata sit, secundum Ryschium, non veronervi. Glandulae statuuntur circa sinum longitudinalem.MS., 177.Ex his patet, quare sentimus in nervis, quia continua cumdura matre; quare tarn arcta cerebro, ut per subtiliores mem-branas adhuc liget partem interiorem; quod constet fere purevenis, unde affectus corporis et animae, per sanguinis emo-tionem, quae varie percellunt membranam secundum suaspartes angulares, rotundiores, majores, minores, copi[osi]oresaut defectiores; pariter quod in arachnoidea nulli sint, sedtarnen sensibilis, ubi tendines fibrosi, seu ramificationes ner-vorum. Si non tanta vasa forent in pia meninge, nec movere-mur a sanguine in tot motus.53
  • 73. 47-50PSYCHOLOGICA.47. A phantasm is an idea produced by the imagination [no93].48. If we perceive a thing by sense distinctly, we imaginethat thing in ourselves more easily and more clearly than a thingwhich we perceive confusedly [n. 94]. We imagine it MOREEASILY, because many similes are produced, and each one ex­cites its own simile. This occurs more strongly in one place oranother according as the cultivation is stronger. Hence at theterminus of the imagination one simile assists another. Thatwe imagine it MORE CLEARLY is self evident; for when we per­ceive it distinctly, it comes to the soul in clearer form, and forthe purpose of going thither, has no need of delay or of anyother origin. Hence that which at a former time * would cometo the soul confusedly, is in the soul at once, or distinctly.Thus we can clearly imagine the sun, because we see its figure,etc., but not light, because it is confused.49. Sensual ideas are ideas which come to the soul from thesenses, or which are in the soul actually [n. 95].50. Phantasms are less clear than sensual ideas [no 96].Phantasms come from the imagination apart from the sense;sensual ideas come from the senses. The reason why the latterare clearer is because the tremulations from one medium to theother or from one membrane to the other, are so disposed,that 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or more tremors can be present simultaneously,and together can constitute a single tremor in the next mem­brane; for many tremors together present a single one, as inthe case of colors, sight, symphonies, taste and smell. Theycome together as a unit; nor do they produce aught but a unitin the more subtle membrane. Hence, if, by use and cultiva­tion, 2, 3, or 4 tones or even 100, or 1000, though this is im­possible, have constituted a single tone, it follows that the tonescome to the more subtle membrane simultaneously, and consti­tute a single tone. In a phantasm the idea commences fromthe imagination of 1,2, 3, or 4 things exactly as they have beenimpressed; and the first or second of these things together withthe others are conjoined into a simile. Hence the phantasm* P,ius (at a former time); alias (otherwise) seems required by thesense.54
  • 74. 47-50PSYCHOLOGICA.Phantasma est idea ab imaginatione producta.Si quid sensu distincte percipimus, id faCilius et clarius nobisimaginamur quam quod confuse percipimus. Quod faciliusinde provenit, quod plura sint similia quae produeuntur;unum excitat suum simile, quod fortius alieubi sit, ob eultumfortiorem, hine unum juvat alterum ad tenninum imagina­tionis. Quod clarius ex se patet, nam tunc clarius ad ipsamanimam pervenit, nee opus habet mora, et alia origine, uteousque eatur: hine statim in anima seu distinete est, quodprius veniret confuse: ut solem possumus, quia videmusfiguram, etc., at lumen non, quia eonfusum.Ideae sensuales quae veniunt a sensibus, vel actu insunt.Phantasmata minus clara sunt ideis sensualibus. Phantas­mata veniunt ab imaginatione sine sensu; ideae sensuales asensibus; causa est, quod tremulationes ab uno medio inalterum vel ab una membrana in alteram ita sint dispositae,6ut 2, 3, 4, S, 6 vel plures simul esse possint, et haec simuleonstituere unum tremorem in altera membrana; nam piuressimul dant unum, ut in coloribus in visu, in symphonicis, ingustu et olfactu; in unum coeunt, nec causantur nisi unum inmembrana subtiliori. Hinc si per usum et cultum 2, 3 vel4 toni eonstituerint unum, vel 100 vel 1000 unum, quod fierinequit, hinc simul perveniunt ad membranam subtilioremet constituunt unum. In phantasmate incipit idea ab imagi­natione I, 2, 3 vel 4, prout impressa, et eadem prima velsecunda cum reliquis etiam ad simile conjuncta sunt, hinc& sit disposita.ss
  • 75. 51-52PSYCHOLOGICA.takes only such three or four things as have been impressed,and which together excite another tone. But if the sight orhearing be present, which takes three or four objects simul­taneously, the membrane at once relinquishes the other con­junctions, and retains these. Consequently sensual ideas areclearer; for actual objects present simultaneously things whichcan never be presented except from simultaneous causes.51. Acts of the imagination are equivalent to Weak sensations[n. 98]. This is a consequence of the preceding proposition;for in darkness we do not see so distinctly as in light.52. N. B. IN WHAT WAY ATHEISTS FROM IGNORANCE FALLEASILY INTO DOUBT. [1] Ignorance is the shortest path to de­nial. Because we are ignorant of the soul, we doubt its exist­ence; and because we cannot arrive at anything definite bydoubt, we come at once to denial; and then nothing can be con­ceived of distinctly but only confusedly, and if not confusedly,still nothing is produced which men are not most prone to deny.Hence ignorance leads us to doubt, and confused doubt to de­nial; especially if we also doubt concerning things sacred. Andtherefore, I believe that in the absence of Gods help, humanfaith is hardly possible without doubt. 2. Since men know thatthe same thing is found in brutes as in men, they believe thesouls of both will die. They think in this way, because theiridea is confused and not distinct, seeing that they do not knowhow to distinguish between brutes and men, since, never havingbeen brutes, they are unable to speak from experience; also andespecially because in brutes there are quasi signs of intelligence.3. Consequently men doubt concerning God, because they areignorant of the soul and doubt its existence. 4. Moreover·if athing is mechanical, they think that therefore it will perish.The soul is indeed mechanical, but there is a mechanical whichcannot perish; * and if this were shown, I do not think so muchdoubt would arise. S. From preconceived opinions, men thinkthat mechanically, a communion of souls is [not] possible, andthis because they cannot suppose the soul to be mechanical; butif they know, they will think differently. 6. They say thatspirits are not material or mechanical, and that therefore they*Cf. n. 116.56
  • 76. 51-52PSYCHOLOGICA.non sumit nisi talia 3 vel 4 quae impressa sunt, quae simulalium tonum excitant; at si oculus adsit, aut auditus, qui simulsumit 3 vel 4, statim linquit membrana alias conjunctiones,et haec retinet, unde ideae sensuales clariores sunt, quia ipsaobjecta sistunt ilIa simul; quae sisti nequeunt nisi a causissimu!.MS., 178.Actus imaginationis aequipollent sensationibus debilioribus.Consequens prioris, quia in tenebris non tarn distincte videmusut in luce.N. B. Quomodo Atheistae ab ignorantia facile in dubita­tionem prolabuntur. Ignorantia est proxima via ad nega­tionem; quia ignoramus animam, dubitamus, et quia perdubitationem ad certum quid pervenire nequimus, venimusstatim ad negationem: ubi nihil distincte potest concipi sedconfuse, et si non confuse sed nihil fert, quod non pronissimisunt ad negandum.7 Hinc ignorantia ducit nos ad dubita-Ph. MS., rr6.tionem, et dubitatio confusa ad negationem; praecipue sidubitamus etiam de sacris; ut fides humana sine auxilio Deiesse possit sine dubitatione vix credo. 2. Quum sciunt idemesse in brutis quod in hominibus, credunt emori utriusqueanimam, quia confusa est idea, nec distincta, quia distinguerenesciunt, quoniam nunquam fuerant bruta, et ab experientialoqui [non] possunt;8 praecipue quum quasi sint signa intel­ligentiae in brutis. 3. Quod consequenter de Deo dubitent,quia nesciunt animam, et dubitant de illa. 4. Turn etiam simechanicum sit ideo putant periturum esse; sed licet mechanicasit tamen datur mechanicum quod non perire potest;9 quod siostensurn sit, credo non tantarn oriri dubitationem. S. Ani­marum communionem dari [non] posse mechanice ex prae­conceptis opinionibus putant, quia non possunt statuereillam mechanicam; at si sciant aliter sentient. 6. Spiritusdicunt esse non materiales aut mechanicos, ergo dubitare7 negationem. 9 possit.8 possint.57
  • 77. 53-55PSYCHOLOGICA.. ought to doubt concerning their existence,-at which I do notwonder. For spirits are created, and consequently are finiteand not infinite; and therefore, since, according to the commonopinion, spirits are neither finite nor infinite; and since menknow of no third possibility; therefore being unable to haveany conception of them, they come to denial, the refuge and lastboundary of ignorance. 7. Since they do not know that thesoul can enjoy a most subtle sense,-a sense of things deeplyconcealed,-therefore, being ignorant, they deny; if this wereto be shown of the soul, they would not deny. 8. With theopening of the mechanism of the soul, they will come to knowthe nature of the soul in life, its nature as formed in life bymeans of the body, and what its nature, thus formed, will beafter death. 9. They will come to know that the soul can de­rive its origin only from the Infinite, in whom is the cause ofevery finite,-a fact which spirits themselves know and yet do110t know, and which consequently they highly venerate.*53. N. B. If the intellect and memory were not mechanical,how is it that the memory can be excited mechanically? Canbe helped by medicine? Can be destroyed or diminished bydiseases? Can be vivified by odors and frictions? Can bediminished or increased by the condition or health of the body?How could such infinite varieties be possible?54. Sensations t so obscure the acts of the imagination, thatpresently we do not apperceive the latter at all [no 99]. Thisis the case, not only because sensations are stronger [than theacts of the imagination] but also because they are frequentlydissimilar. Thus by their strong motion, sensations obscure allelse. Moreover, sensation more powerfully acquires for itselfsimiles, and of these similes, one part coincides with the tremorsof the imagination, and the other is aberrant. Hence sensationdivides, as it were, the act of the imagination, and renders itconfused and consequently nul; for that which becomes con­fused becomes, as it were, nothing in the imagination.55. Weak sensations become clearer in the absence of strongsensations; as for instance the sensation of the moon in the* Compare with this passage n. 91 below, and 111echanism 23; II Inf. ii(from ignorance, etc.). t So Wo1ff; the MS. has" senses."58
  • 78. 53-55PSYCHOLOGICA.debent de illis, quod non miror, quia creati sunt et conse­quenter finiti, non vero infiniti; ergo cum non sint finiti neeinfiniti secundum opinionem vulgi, tertium nesciunt, ergo cumnon concipiunt, in negationem pervenient, ubi est azylum etterminus ignorantiae. 7. Quum nesciunt animam possegaudere subtilissimo sensu et rerum absconditarum, quianesciunt negant; si ostendatur non negabunt. 8. Animaemechanismo aperto scient, qualis sit in vita, qualis formeturper corpus in vita, qualis sic formata erit post mortem. 9.Scient non aliunde originem trahere posse quam ab infinito,ubi est omnis finiti causa, quod sciunt sed nesciunt ipsi spiritus,et consequenter summe venerantur.N. B. Si intellectus et memoria non forent mechanici,quomodo ex[c]itari potest memoria mechanice, quomodo permedicamenta juvari, quomodo per morbos perire et diminui,quomodo per odores et frictiones vivificari, quomodo pertemperamentum corporis diminui et augeri, quomodo totinfinitae varietates.MS., 179.Sensus obscurant actus imaginationis, ita ut hos prorsus nonappercipiamus, quia sensationes non modo fortiores sunt, sedsunt saepe dissimiles, adeo ut sensationes per fortem motumobscurent reliqua; sed etiam fortius acquirit sibi similia,quorum pars cum tremoribus imaginationis coincidit, parsaberrat; unde quasi dividit imaginationis actum, confusumreddit, et consequenter nullum; quod enim confusum fit, fitquasi in imaginatione nullum.Sensationes debiliores clariores fiunt, absentibus fortioribus;59tl
  • 79. 56-58PSYCHOLOGICA.absence of the sun [n. lOO]. Therefore the imagination be­comes stronger, when strong sensations are absent.56. Acts of the imagination, are clearer when existing alone,than when existing together with sensations [no 1011. This isa consequence of the preceding proposition. It is seen indreams; when we are alone; and when we are in ecstasy.Therefore also, Acts of the imagination are clearer in the dark,and when we shut our eyes, and in the absence of other objectswhich strike the other sensory organs [no 102].57. We imagine visible objects, and likewise words, 1noreeasily and more clearly than inarticulate sounds, odors, tastes,and tactile qualities, etc. [no 103]. There are two reasons forthis, as will be seen if we take words as an example. 1. Anumber of words, though pronounced successively, form to­gether one tremulous tone. In the more subtle membrane thistone concentrates into a similar tone. Thus from being manythey become two. 2. But in every vocal expression there isalso something which goes deeper and even to the very soul;and this at once produces some motion in a higher membrane.For in addition to the impressed tone, there is something of thesoul within it, which is of such a nature that it has occupied aseat in the soul. Thus many vocal expressions make one sen­tence.* At first they all proceed in the ear as successive anddifferent words; then they become more and more concentratedinto a one. But because there is something more within, thisone goes ever more deeply; it cannot stop in the middle. There­fore, it is not the tone, whether deep or slow or sweet, that doesthis, but only the composition. On the other hand, I hardlythink that musical tones, where there is merely tone and nothingdeeper, go to the soul,-except with some persons, in the caseof harmonic composition. Hence they are not apt to remain inthe phantasy. As with hearing so with sight; and thereforethe things that come through these senses are imagined by usmore easily and more clearly.58. If a present perception contains part of a past perception,the whole of the latter recms [no 104]. Thus if we see a place,we at once perceive the man who was in that place; if a house,*Sententia = sentence, opinion, judgment.60
  • 80. 56-58PSYCHOLOGICA.ut luna absente sole. Ergo imaginatio fortior fit, si absintsensationes fortiores.Si actus imaginationis soli sunt, clariores sunt quam sensa­tionibus coexistentes. Hoc consequens est prioris, ut in somnio,si soli sumus, si in exstasi. Ergo etiam, Actus imaginationisclariores sunt in tenebris et quando oculos claudimus, aliisqueobjectis absentibus, quae cetera organa sensoria feriunt.Visibilia objecta itemque verba facilius et clarius imaginamus,quam sonos inarticulatos, odores, sapores, et qualitates tactiles,etc. Causae sunt duae, ut verba exempli gratia: I. Formantplura verba simul unum tremulum tonum, quamvis succes­sive pronuntiata; hoc in subtiliori membrana similem tonumconcentrat, adeo ut ex pluribus fiant duo. 2. Sed etiam inPh. MS., 117.quavis voce est aliquid quod altius [it] et usque ad animam;statim movet quid in altiori membrana; nam praeter tonumimpressum, aliquid inest animae, talis, quod sedem occupaveratin animam. Sic plures voces unam sententiam, haec omnia pro­cedunt primum in aure successiva et diversa, dein magis etmagis concentrata in unum, et quia aliquid inest plus, adaltius semper it, non potest in mediis subsistere. Ergo nonfacit tonus altior, lentior, dulcior, sed tantummodo compositio.At vero toni musici, ubi nihil est nisi tonus, nee altius quid,vix reor ire ad animam, nisi harmonica compositio apudquosdam; hinc nee haeret ita in phantasia. Ut est cum auditusic est cum visu; ergo tarn facilius, quam clarius illa imagina­mur.Perceptio praeterita integra recurrit, cujus praesens continetpartem. Ut si locum videmus, statim hominem percipimus61
  • 81. 59PSYCHOLOGICA.we at once perceive the owner; if an animal, we at once per­ceive its shape; if words, we at once perceive their meaning, andother things, and so forth. This comes from the soul, or, in ageneral way, from the membrane near the soul, which by reasonof use or sense has concentrated this [sensation or phantasm].Thus suppose we saw 10 parts simultaneously; these ten partsfirst go to the soul distinctly, each one having its own tremor;but by delay and cultivation, these tremors unite and concen­trate the parts into one motion or into one place. This is thecase if two parts concentrate harmonically in one place; if threeparts likewise concentrate harmonically; if in like manner tenparts concentrate in one place-which place can be deduced bycalculation; then in that place, a tremor excited in the place byone part, will move also the other parts; for the tremor is com­pounded of these others, and the mode within the tremor is suchthat it moves its component parts, even though it be in oneplace, for, as was said above, many modes of tremulations mayexist in a single place. Therefore after delay, the whole comesfrom the part, and the part from the whole. This is the reasonwhy the memory can be enriched after adolescence and indeedeven to old age, and why a new memory can be infused; for themany things [of the memory] always make for themselves theirown place, and there produce a mixed tremor, as it were. Fromthis it becomes apparent why the memory can be augmented,and why the whole of it can come from a part; and also thatthis concentration comes from the soul; for it cannot be con­centrated save harmonically; hence when one part is moved, theharmony is moved.59. If what is perceived [at the present time] is the same inpa1·ticular or in general as what has been perceived at anothertime and together with other things; the imagination must pro­duce a perception of the latter also [n. 105]. Thus if I see atree, I at once see a garden, and men and boys in the garden,and still more my own thoughts and amusements in the garden.This comes from the cause spoken of above, and likewise fromthe fact that a simile produces a simile. Things which enteredsimultaneously into the perception have formed for themselvesa mixed center as it were, in that they have a mutual similitude62
  • 82. 59PSYCHOLOGICA.qui in loco fuerat; si domum statim possessorem; si animalstatim ejus formam, si voces statim sensum et plura, etc.MS., 180.Hoc venit ab anima vel fere membrana prope animam, quaeex usu vel sensu concentraverat hoc; ut si videmus 10 partessimul, primum eunt 10 partes distincte ad animam, et quaeli­bet pars suum tremorem habet; sed mora et cultu se uniuntet con[c]entrant hae partes in unum motum seu in unumlocum; ut si 2 concentrant se harmonice in loco, si 3 pariterharmonice, si 10 pariter in unum locum, quod per ca1culumlicet subducere ubi, et ibi est locus,! qui tremor in loco excita­tus a parte, movet etiam reliquas partes, quia a reliquis estcompositus, et modus qui inest tremori talis est ut moveatpartes se componentes, quamvis in uno loco sit; nam moditremulationum in uno loco etiam plures dantur, ut supradictum est. Ergo venit totum a parte, et pars a toto postmoram. Haec est ratio quod memoria possit locupletariultra adolescentiam et quidem usque ad senectutem, et novainfundi; nam plura faciunt sibi semper suum locum, et ibiquasi tremorem mixtum. Ex his apparet cur memoria augeripossit et tota veniat a parte; et quod concentratio haec veniatex anima; nam concentrari nequit nisi harmonice, unde motouno harmonia movetur.Si quod [nunc] percipitur specie vel genere idem est cum eo, quodalias cum aliis perceptum juerat, imaginatio etiam horum per­ceptionem producere debet. Ut si arborem, statim hortum, etviros et juvenes in horto,2 et plus meas cogitationes et lusus inhorto, quod ex eadem causa venit, pariter quod simile producatsimile. Quae simul intrara[n]t in perceptionem formaverantsibi quasi centrum mixtum, quod similitudinem et affinitatemI locus est. 2 hortis.63
  • 83. 60-62PSYCHOLOGICA.and affinity with each other. In this way, the similes are moved.60. Without a previous sensation no phantasm can arise inthe soul [n. 106]. This is equivocal and is not true. It is in­deed true that without sensation no phantasm can arise or haveany origin so as afterwards to remain as a phantasm. But thata phantasm can arise, either in part or in whole, without sensa­tion, is evidenced by the fact that we have phantasms in dreamswhen the senses are asleep; that we think when the senses are,as it were, quiescent. It is seen also in affections; * for aphantasm can be aroused within the senses and in the mem­branes themselves by bilious and acid particles, arising from asuperfluity or paucity of liquor; by some distention of thenerves; by a thousand causes; and in this way a phantasm maycome into motion.61. If the imagination reproduces the perception of otherthings, which formerly were perceived simultaneously with thatwhich we now perceive,. then necessarily those other thingshave been perceived simultaneously with it, either frequently, orfor some length of time [n. 107]. Provided the parts be exam­ined with a noting of the similes, so that [the sensation ortremor] goes to the seat of the soul and forms for itself a placeand an agreeable tone, we have a phantasm which recurs on theexcitation of any other simile; but without such a first percep­tion this will not be the case. Hence Wolff adds, Facilit.y t inreproducing the perceptions of things formerly perceived simul­taneously with those that are now perceived, is acquired, whetherthe things perceived simultaneously and frequently or for along time, are perceived by the sense, or by the imagination[11. 108]. This accords with my opinion.62. If many things are percei~ed simultaneously, and the sightof the mind is fixed on one of them; the imagination reproducesthe perception of the things preZJiously perceived with this one[n. 109]. This is a consequence of the preceding propositions;for the part then becomes the whole imagination, and frommany parts, the one has made for itself its own place and*Affectibus = the modes in t So Wolff; the MS. has" fac­which we are affected; e.g., an ulty."affection of the lungs, etc.64
  • 84. 60-62PSYCHOLOGICA.habent 3 inter se, quo modo moventur similia.Sine praevia sensatione nullum in anima phantasma onnpotest. Hoc vacillat nec verum est. Hoc quidem verum est,quod nullum phantasma oriri potest sive originem aliquamducere, ut dein tanquam phantasma insedeat, sine sensatione;sed quod phantasma oriri possit sine sensatione in parte autin toto videtur ex eo, quod in somnis phantasmata habeamusquum sensus dormiunt, quod cogitemus sensibus quasi quietis.In affectibus: nam excitari potest intra sensus in ipsis mem-branis a particulis felinis, acidis, ex superfluo vel pauco li-quore, a distentione ali[qua] nervorum, a mille causis, sicquein motum venire potest phantasma.MS., I8!. Ph. MS., 118.Si imaginatio reproducet perceptiones aliarum rerum anteasimul perceptarum cum ea, quam nunc percipimus; res istae velsaepius vel diu percipiantur necessarium est. Modo examinen-tur partes cum similium nota, ut eat usque ad sedem animae,et formet sibi locum et tonum convenientem, habetur phan-tasma quod recurrit cum alio simili; at sine tali prima per-ceptione frustra erit; hinc addit, Acquiritur facilitas 4 reprodu-cendi, sive res saepius aut diu sensu, sive imaginatione simulpercipiantur; quod est secundum meam sententiam.Si res plures simul percipiuntur, et mentis acies in unamearum intenditur, imaginatio reproducit perceptionem rerumcum hac antea simul perceptarum. Haec praecedentium estconsequens, nam pars fit tunc integra imaginatio et pars sibifecerat a pluribus suum locum et tremorem; hinc etiam illaea habet. 4 facultas.65
  • 85. 63-65PSYCHOLOGICA.tremor; hence the many also recur. For what happens is, thatthis part,-itself compounded and made up of many parts,-isthen joined as a part with others, and so claims this its ownplace, if this place [is shared] with the others; and it does thisinnumerable times.63. If you fix the sight of the mind continuously on a thingwhich the phantasm has in C01mnon with the perception fromwhich it is born, there follmvs a succession of phantasms of thesame kind and species of entities,. but if, in the phantasm, youdirect that sight to other things, the succession of phantasmscontinues in another kind or species of entities,* [n. 110]. Thisis a consequence of the former proposition that a simile seeksa simile. If one thing is composed of many, and we take asingle one of these many, then this one consists of other thingswhich had composed it; and consequently we will go accordingto this series. If you take one of these things, it takes to itselfsimiles, or those things of which itself is composed, leaving allthe others. Thus it changes its place, and with change of placecome other similes.64. If by force of imagination the phantasm of place is pro­duced,. from this is born a further phantasm of the actions doneby us or by others in that place,. and from these again a phan­tasm of other things formerly percetved as coming after suchactions [n. 111]. This is a consequence of the former proposi­tion, and the reason for it can be shown by the same considera­tions.65. N. B. Whatever comes into the memory anew is a com­pound formed from prior things. At first, in infancy, this com­pound comes from very few centers, then from more, and so at• If your attention is fixed say But suppose that in the first phan­on a flower pot in a window, you tasm you fix attention on themay have a phantasm of a court of· judges seat; and then have a phan­justice with flower pots in the win­ tasm of a garden in which thedow. Again fixing attention on the judge walks; and, fixing attentionflower pots the next phantasm may on the flowers, then have a phan­be of a storm blowing the pots off tasm of a florists shop, etc. Herethe window, etc. Here the pots in the succession of phantasms is ofthe window is the constant factor a continually different species ofbecause there the attention is fixed. entities.66
  • 86. 63-65PSYCHOLOGICA.recurrunt. Fit enim quod haec ipsa a pluribus compositaet facta, cum aliis dein jungatur tanquam pars, et sic hoclocum suum vindicat, si hoc cum aliis; et sic innumerae vices.Si mentis aciem continuo intendis in id, quod phantasma cumperceptione, ex qua nascitur, commune habet, successio phantas­matum in eodem genere vel specie entium continuatur; si vero inphantasmate ad alia illorum dirigis, successio phantasmatum inalio genere vel alia specie entium continuatur. Hoc consequensest prioris, quod simile quaerat simile. Si unum compositumsit ex pluribus, etassumumus unum ex pluribus, tunc hoc constataliis quae composuerant, et consequenter ibimus ad illamseriem. Si unum ex his sumis similia sibi assumit, vel ilia exquibus compositum est, rellictis reliquis: sic mutat locum,et cum loci mutatione veniunt alia.Si vi imaginationis producitur phantasma alicujus loci, exeo porro enascitur phantasma actionum a nobis vel ab aliis inisto loco perpetratarum; et ex his porro phantasma aliarum rerumolint post ipsas perceptarum. Est consequens prioris, exeisdem ratio reddi potest.N. B. Quodcunque in memoriam e novo venit, composi­turn est ex prioribus; primum in infantia a paucissimis, dein67
  • 87. 66-71PSYCHOLOGICA.last from a great many. Still it is easy [to form a new com­pound] ; for many things have one center, and from such thingscomes a new center. Unless a new center be acquired, or anew motion in the same center, we can add nothing to ourmemory.66. If there comes to the mind the phantasm of a premedi­tated action; from. this arises the phantasm of the place whereyou premeditated the action, together with the things there pres­ent when you were meditating about it, and even those whichhave been frequently seen there at other times [n. 112]. Forwhen a phantasm takes its origin in the soul, it cannot take thatorigin unless at the same time other things be present to whichit can join itself and which it can mingle into a one. Thereforethe place together with other particulars comes into the phan­tasm. This is a confirmation of my opinion.67. If many things are perceived simultaneously, and thisfrequently or for a long. time,. the perceptions of such thingsare interconnected [n. 113]. This is my opinion.68. Things are not interconnected merely because the percep­tions of them in. the soul are interconnected [n. 114]. For eachof the parts from which the perceptions come has its own con­nection, or its own origin; and from these comes the perception.69. The rules of imagining [or of imagination or phantasms]are the rules by which phantasms can be explained [n. 115].70. The law of imagination is the general principle of therules of imagination or phantasms * [n. 117].71. Frequently all sensations and phantasms are seen to ceasesimultaneously, so that we appe1ceive nothing at all [no 118].This is not the case. When sensations cease, as for instancesight, or hearing, phantasy does indeed often cease, but it alsolives. If it seems to cease there is then a confused phantasm,so that if later, you wish to think [about it] you will come uponsomething alien or strange which was in the confused phantasm.And because it is a confused phantasm, it is accounted as beingno phantasm at all. But since it is living, and since in the bloodand liquids there are so many species of particles, and in theelements so great a motion, it cannot cease entirely, but only in*So Wolff; the MS. has" rules of sensations."68
  • 88. 66-71PSYCHOLOGICA.a pluribus, et sic tandem ab adhuc pluribus, scil: centris; usquetamen facile est, quia plura habent unum centrum, ex talibusnovum; nisi novum centrum acquiratur, vel in eodem centranovus motus, nihil in memoria possumus addere.MS., 182.Si in mentem venit phantasma actionis praemeditatae, ex eooritur phantasma loci, in quo eam praemeditatus es, una cumrebus ibi praesenti.bus, quando de eodem meditatus,5 vel etiamibidem alias saepe visis. Nam quando originem capit in anima,tunc non originem potest capere, nisi alia simul adsint, quibus­cum se jungit et in unum miscet, ergo venit locus et alia.Est confirmatio sententiae.Si res plures vel diu simul perpiciantur, perceptiones earuminter se connectuntur. Est mea sententia.Res ideo inter se non connectuntur, quia perceptiones earum inanima connectuntur; nam quaelibet pars suam habet connex­ionem, seu originem ex quibus.Regulae imaginandi per quas phantasmata possunt explicari.Lex imaginationis e[s]t principium generale regularumimaginationum.6Ph. MS., 119.Saepius sensationes omnes et phantasmata omnia simulcessare videntur, ut nihil prorsus appercipiamus. Hoc nee itase habet; cessantibus sensationibus, ut oculo, auditu, cessatquidem phantasia saepe, vel etiam vivit. Si cessare videtur,est tunc phantasma confusum; ut si velis cogitare postea, tuncincides in aliquid alienum quod in confuso fuerat; et quiaconfusum putatur nullum; quatenus tamen e[s]t vivens, et totin sanguine et liquidis sunt species particularum, et tantus inelementis motus, non potest plane cessare, sed tantum ut non6 rneditatus est. e sensationurn.69
  • 89. 72PSYCHOLOGICA.the sense that it does not go to the soul. Thus the way to thesoul is shut off, as it were. Hence there is not a cessation ofthe phantasm, merely because we remember nothing but what.comes to the soul. Moreover in the soul there is always motion,inasmuch as there is always motion in the most highly subtleelements. According to the kind of motion in the body, suchalso is the motion in the most highly subtle [membranes]. Thesoul sensates all that is in the body, even when it has not beenwont to bring the sensation to the phantasm, or to the body,­as in the case of involuntary motion and motion in the cere,bellum. Hence it cannot communicate these motions * to thebody, partly because they are too subtle, partly because by nowont have such motions ever reached the corporeal parts, andpartly because there is no such bond between the cerebellum andthe cerebrum, as exists between the cerebrum and the organs ofthe senses.[VII!.][SLEEP AND DREAMING.] t72. When [all] clear sensations cease and we are not con­scious of anything present, we are said to sleep. This state ofthe mind is called sleep. Profound sleep is when not only clearsensations, but also clear phantasms cease, so that we apperceivenothing [n. 119]. This also is equivocal. Sleep is only a re­laxation of the nerves and consequently of their offshoots which,in the form of tendinous fibres, are visibly spread around andform tunics. In the daytime these nerves are in tension, whileat night they are in relaxation; and therefore, when relaxed,nothing sensual can run through them ;-that is to say, whenthere is a relaxation of the nerves and tendinous fibres, as forinstance in the dura meninx, and perhaps in those [membranes]which invest the nerves and muscles, and so in the pia meninx*That is, the motions caused by· translator. vVhat follows is stillthe souls sensations. cited from Wolffs chapter on thet This sub-title is added by the Imagination.70
  • 90. 72PSYCHOLOGICA.eat ad animam; adeo ut praeclusa sit via quasi ad animam;unde cessatio non est, quia nihil quod non pervenit ad animam,reminiscimur. In anima etiam semper est motus, quatenusin elementis subtilissimis semper est motus; qualis in corporeetiam in subtilissimis movetur; quicquid est in corpore sentit,quamvis non assuescit referre ad phantasma et ad corpus;ut motus involuntaris,7 ut motus in cerebello. Unde nonpotest communicare cum corpore, partim quod motus sintsubtiliores, partim [quod] tales motus non per ullam assuetu­dinem pervenerant ad corporeas partes, partim quod non tale sitligamen a cerebello ad cerebrum, ut cerebri est cum organissensuum.Quum sensationes dame cessant, nee ullius quod praesensest, nobis conscii sumus, dormire dicimur, status ille mentisvocatur somnus. Somnus proJundior quando simul phantas­mata clam cessant, ut nihil appercipiamus. Hoc etiam vacil­lat. Somnum est modo relaxatio nervorum et consequenterillorum prapaginum quae per fibras tendinosas visibiliter secircumspargunt, et tunicas formant. 4Quam interdiu in ten­MS., 183.sione sunt, noctu vera in relaxatione, inde nec quicquam sen­suale per illas percurrere potest; hoc est, relaxatio nervorumet fibrarum tendinosarum, ut in dura meninge et fortassis inillis quae etiam circumvestiunt nervos, et musculos, et sic7 involutens.71
  • 91. 72PSYCHOLOGICA.which is made up of vessels and fibres. This relaxation of thenerves and fibres, therefore, makes it entirely impossible for anytremule to pervade them and move the membrane. Hence inthis state there is no communication with the more subtle mem­branes which enter the cerebrum and the nerves. Moreover,the effect of the will upon the parts ceases, and with the cessa­tion of all will, the tension of a membrane of this kind alsoceases. Therefore when [the body] is in its relaxation notremula can come over these membranes; but a tremor is presentin the more subtle membranes where is the seat of phantasies,and which are not relaxed. Therefore when [the body] is inits relaxation no tremule can come over these membranes; buta tremor is present in the more subtle membranes where is theseat of phantasies, and which are not relaxed. Therefore phan­tasies are awake, even though the membrane of the senses maybe asleep,-that is to say, that membrane, by the medium ofwhich, sensation travels from the organs of the senses to themembrane of the phantasy. Still phantasies are possible, andthe operation and communication of such phantasies with thesoul. Hence we have dreams. Hence also it follows that phan­tasies do not have their ground in the same sort of membraneas sensations; and that theirs is a more subtle membrane; forthere can be no sense of imagination except in the more subtlemembranes. Such sense does not exist in the tunics or lymphsof· the eye, or in the tympanum of the ear, but only a mediumfor mechanically conveying undulations to ever more subtlemembranes; and when these undulations cease, the communica­tion also ceases. Thus they are deceived who think that sensa­tion resides in the tunics of the eye or ear. If we were to be­come deaf or blind, yet, in the dream of phantasy, [sight] andhearing, as though coming through the ordinary channels, mayremain during the whole course of our life. This is not thecase, however, with those who are born deaf and blind, sincewith them [the membranes] have not been cultivated. Sleeptherefore is a relaxation of the tunics with the nerves of thegrosser membranes, by whose aid sensations are transmitted;together with a tumescence of the veins and a relaxation of thewhole body,-though as to the cause from which this sleep and72
  • 92. 72PSYCHOLOGICA.pia meninge,7a quae constat vasis et fibris; sic omnino relaxatiohaec facit, ut nihil tremulum potest illas pervadere, et moveremembranam; unde in hoc statu nulla est ejus communicatiocum subtilioribus, intrantibus cerebrum et nervos. Cessatetiam voluntatis effectus in partes, cessante voluntate omnicessat etiam tensio talis membranae. Ergo quum est in suarelaxatione nihil tremulum super illas membranas venirepotest; sed in subtilioribus adest, ubi phantasiae, quae nonsunt laxatae; unde phantasiae vigilant, licet dormiat mem­brana sensuum, vel qua mediante ab organis sensuurn per­venit sensatio ad membranam phantasiae. Phantasiae tamenadesse possunt et illarum cum anima operatio, et communi­catio; unde somnia; et quod phantasiae non consistant inejusmodi membrana, in qua sensationes; quod subtilior sit,nam nullus est sensus imaginationis nisi in subtilioribus; nonin oculi tunicis aut lymphis, nee in auris tympano, sed esttantum medium ut deferat mechanice undulationes versussubtiliores et subtiliores; quibus cessantibus cessat modocommunicatio, adeo ut qui putant in tunicis oculi aut aurisconsistere sensationem fallantur. Si surdi deveniamus, sicaeci, potest tamen per totum vitae tempus in somno phan-Ph. MS., 120.tasiae [visus] et auditus tanquam venientes per ordinariamviam remanere; non vero in surdis et caecis natis, quia nonexcultae sunt. Ergo somnus est laxatio tunicarum cumnervis crassiarum, quarum ope deferuntur sensationes; tumes­centibus venis et laxato corpore per totum; sed ex qua causa7a meninx.73
  • 93. 73-74PSYCHOLOGICA.relaxation comes, this is a matter of another * investigation,and, moreover, is a medical and anatomical question; at thesame time the ligations of the dura and pia mater are relaxed.From this cause also the veins tumesce; for the venous mem­branes likewise consist of fibres, or of ramifications of thenerves by which they are bound. Hence there enters into thema juice and liquor which, therefore, is said to be attracted bythe blood, whereas it comes solely from the relaxing of theguiding reins. Other parts, such as the muscles, also tumesce;for [the nerves] are there relaxed, and the soul cannot act intothem, because there is no tension; nor is there such coherenceas to enable the liquor or ether to flash through its accustomedpath.73. With noctambulists, however, although a large part [ofthe body] is relaxed, yet another part is so tense, that there isa communication between the organs and the pia and otherlesser meninges. But this communication is not effected by apath that is sure and everywhere unimpeded; for in one placethere is considerable communication, while in another there isnone. Hence there are no definite reasonings, nor any definitephantasies. It is a kind of apoplexy in the brain.74. SLEEP. Whence comes the blood in a sleepers face? tThe sinuses of the cerebrum are somewhat lax, [as also are thecords] which, according to Willis, run transversely [within thesinuses] and when not relaxed, prevent them from being un­duly extended.t Repose comes, because all tensed parts finallybring pain. Unless the parts be relaxed, they remain tense;therefore lest they be always tense and thus at last unsubmissiveto voluntary motions, they must be unstretched; so likewise inorder that, by dilatation, refuse matters may be discharged, andmay depart from corners where they have been closed up and*The MS. has aUus (another); aware, he rarely, if ever, writesit is highly probably however that alillS investigationis. Comparethis word is a slip for altius Mechan. 31.(deeper). The phrase altius in- t Cf, n. 72, 1598•vestigationis is frequently used by :j: Quoted from Heister, Comp.Swedenborg, but, as far as we are Anat. 207.74
  • 94. 73-74PSYCHOLOGICA.veniat somnus et laxatio illa, alius est indaginis, est etiammedica et anatomica. Ligationes durae matris et piae laxan­MS., 184.tur simul. Unde etiam tument venae, quia membranaeillarum etiam constant fibris seu ramificationibus nervorum,cum quibus ligantur; unde intrat succlls et liquor, quem sicdicitur sanguis attrahere, quum unice veniat a laxatis loris;etiam tument aliae partes ut musculi quia ibi laxantur, neein illas potest agere anima, quia non tensa est, nec illa estcohaerentia, ut liquor aut aether suo tramite permeare potest.Noctambulones vera, quorum multa pars est laxata, parstensa, adeo ut communicatio sit organorum cum meninge piaet minoribus. Sed non via certa et ubivis impedita, sed hicmulta, hic nulla, unde nulla certa ratiocinia, nec ullae certaephantasiae; est species apoplexiae in cerebro.Somnus. Unde sanguis in facie dormientis? Sinus cerebrilaxatiores sunt, quae alias, secundum Willisium, transversaecurrunt, alias nimiam sinus extensionem impedientes. Estquies, quia tensa omnia dolorem tandem pariunt, nisi remit­tantur tensa remanent, hinc ne semper tensa et sic demummotibus voluntariis inobsequiosa, retendi debent. Pariter utper dilatationem sordes se exonerare, et ex angustis 8 clausis8 angustris.757
  • 95. 75PSYCHOLOGICA.pressed in. Therefore, in due manner they must again betensed. Hence from [long continued] wakefulness, when, byreason of the tension, the blood can no longer pass through theextremely subtle ramifications, nor its acridity be diluted bynew and adscititious lymphs, etc., fevers arise. That by exces­sive imagination and thought, the dura mater and the nerves aretensed by reason of the excessive action of the pia meninx, isplain from all the phenomena. Thus from thinking, the craniumgrows warm; the eyes redden and become somewhat dry andimmobile; the nerves of the neck are frequently hardened, andalso the nerves [of the head] so that they may cause apoplexyand convulsions; there is a cohesion of the pia mater with thedura mater brought about by the veins that go to the sinuses.75. N. B. CONCERNING SPIRITS. When they can go no fur­ther into natures work, that is to say, when they can make nofurther advance to indivisible elements, our modern authorstake refuge in spirits, where the ancients betook themselves toatoms. The taking refuge in spirits is the worse course; forwhen the mind is brought to a standstill, it should not takerefuge in something unknown. In this unknown men see some­thing active, and at once they call it spirits. From this we maysee to what point in occult nature our modern writers have nowcome; and whether they have penetrated any deeper than theancients. They have merely clothed the unknown with a newname; and this because they see an active; not indeed an activeper se but an active operating upon a finite.* Thus they callGod a spirit, but infinite; they call angels spirits, but finite; theycall the soul a spirit, and so also its animal spirits; they call thedevil a spirit. They say these spirits are not infinite; that theyare finite; that they are endowed with active force; that theycan act upon the body or upon what is material; that they canbe enclosed in the nerves. And yet, they say that certain spiritsare not capable of extension, and cannot be considered as beingin space. What is all this but mere contradictions in predicates?That which is not infinite, must be finite. If there were amedium, it would partake of something of the infinite; and yet*ef. II Infinite ii (The animal spirits).76
  • 96. 75PSYCHOLOGICA.et compressis jam exire, et iterum tendi debito modo; undeexistunt a vigilia febres, quando sanguis non amplius potestsubtilissimas ramificationes pertransire propter tensionem,nee acredo dilui lymphis novis et ascititiis, etc. A nimiaimaginatione et cogitatione tendi duram meningem et nervos,ob actum nimium piae meningis, patet ab omnibus, adeo utcogitando cranium calescat, oculi rubeant et sicciores etimmobiliores evadant, nervi colli saepe [inchoent] indurari,et nervi, ut possint causari apoplexiam et convulsiones.Cohaesio est piae matris cum dura matre per venas ad sinusabeuntes.N. B. De Spiritibus. Recentiores fugiunt ad spiritus, ubinon amplius in naturale] opusculum venire possunt, vel adelementa indivisibilia; veteres ad atomos; pejus est ad spiritus;non ad aliquod ignotum fugiendum est, ubi mens subsistit;In· quo aliquid activum vident, hoc statim spiritus vocant.Exinde videri potest, quo in occulta natura pervenerintMS., 185.recentiores; num altius quam veteres, tantum alio nomineinvestierunt, quia activum vident, et quidem non activumper se sed in finitum. Sic vacant Deum Spiritum sed in-finiturn; sic angelos spiritus sed finitos; sic animam spiritum;sic spiritus eJus animales; sic diabolum spiritum; dicunt nonesse infinitos, dicunt esse finitos, dicunt vi activa esse praedi-Ph. MS., 12I.tos; dicunt agere posse in corpus seu in materiale; dicuntincludi posse nervis; dicunt tamen quosdam spiritus non esseextensibiles, nee considerari posse in spatio. Quid hoc, annoncontradictiones merae in adjectis. Quod non infinitum est,erit finitum; si medium foret, participaret quid de infinito,i7
  • 97. 76PSYCHOLOGICA.no nexus with the infinite is possible. If the spirit is created,if it is finite, it must certainly have the attributes of the finite,such as figure, space, and in motion, moments and degrees; andtherefore it must be geometrical and mechanical. If it can actupon the finite, then it must be a quality which is not infinitethat acts upon the finite. What does it mean, that the spiritcan be enclosed in a body as its soul, and that the animal spiritsof the body can tense the nerves and act upon them? If thesespirits are not mechanical and geometrical, how shall the soulact upon the material? They can change their place; they canbe enclosed; they can act in a finite way slowly or quickly,weakly or strongly.In a word, everything which we do not see with our senses,and in which nevertheless there is an active something, comesat once under the name spirit; and concerning its extension andessentials men indulge in vain disputes,-the unknowing dis­puting concerning the unknown. They both apply [it to thebody] and do not apply [it]. Nay, because spirit is active inwine, and because the animal spirits are vivified by wine, there­fore wine also comes under this same name spirit,-but r amnot speaking of the saner writers. If we saw a mere mass,which yet through the microscope, appears visibly as consistingof worms, and there were no microscopes at hand, we woulddeclare that these worms also were spirits, since they are activeand since we do not see the legs and bodies. So in the case ofspirits; because we do not see them, therefore we call themspirits.* If we had the microscopes, we might be able to seethe entire structure both of the soul and of the spirit.t76. In sleep we s01netimes have a clear perception of thingsabsent, one set of perceptions succeeding another for somelength of time [no 120]. From this we see the operation ofthe imagination, in that one imagination must needs call forthanother, since, by motion, things are mingled together and con­joined. They proceed in order, one alter another, succeedingeach other according as there is delay. One may frequently*Cf. n. 1. norance of state of soul, etc.).t Cf. II Infinite ii (From jg.78
  • 98. 76PSYCHOLOGICA.cujus nullus mexus dari potest; si creatus si finitus, habebitomnino attributa finitatis, figuram, spatium, in motu momentaet gradus, ergo geometricum et mechanicum; si potest agerein finitum, quale quod non est infinitum aget in finitum, quidhoc; quod inc1udi corpori, ut anima, et animales ejus spiritustendere nervos 9 et agere, si non essent mechanici et geometriciquid in materiale aget; possunt mutare locum, includi; pos­sunt finite agere lentius et citius, remissius et fortius. Verboquicquid sensibus nostris non videmus, cui tamen activumquid inest, iIlico sub nomine spiritus venit, de cujus extensioneet essentialibus inutiliter disputant, ignoti de ignotis, appli­cant et non applicant. Imo quia agit spiritus in vino, etiamhoc venit eodem nomine, et quia inde spiritus animales vivifi­cantur; de sanioribus non loquor. Si videremus congeriemquandam vermium per microscopium tot visibilium, et nullasadessent microscopia, diceremus hos etiam spiritus quia agunt,nec videmus pedes, corpora. Sic etiam est cum spiritus[dicuntur]; quia non videmus, spiritus nominamus; si micro­scopium haberemus possemus videre totam structuram tarnanimae 1 quam spiritus.2MS. 186.In somno interdum res absentes clare percipimus, percep­tionibus aliis per tractum aliquem temporis aliis succedentibus.Hinc videmus operationem imaginationis, quod una imaginationon potest quin aliam educat, quia per motum mixta et con­juncta sunt; procedunt ordine, una post alteram, prout moradatur, sic succedunt. Saepe animadvertere licet ad certum9tensium nervorum or tensire lanimam.nervos. 2spiritum.79
  • 99. 77-82PSYCHOLOGICA.notice that they tend to some definite end,-although we do notknow what that end is, except as we know it afterwards as theend of the dream,-as though all the other appearances had ledto that end,-a sign that it comes thus to the soul,* which sup­plies many additional things and marvellously joins them to­gether. Thus the soul marvellously joins these others together,and so determines them to a definite end as it were.t77. N. B. We can remember a dream if it has come to thesoul, and if it has excited pleasure in the blood; or if the pleas­ure has excited the blood. vVith attention, this pleasure con­tinues in the blood, and consequently, some activity is still inthe nerves when we awake. This activity, together with thepleasure remains. Consequently, since the motions arising fromthese causes continue, we then remember the dream.:j:78. When we dream, we imagine the things which we· per­ceive [n. 122].79. Every dream takes its beginning from sensation, and iscontinued by a succession of phantasms [n. 123]. This accordswith my opinion.80. If during the time that we are dreaming, we do not apper­ceive any new sensation, or do not direct the sight of the mindthereto, the succession of phantasms continues in the sameseries,. but if during this time we apperceive some sensation,and direct the sight of the mind thereto, the dream continues indiffering series of phantasms [n. 124]. Hence come the simpledream and the compound dream [n. 125].81. The sensations from which the dream takes its beginningand which sometimes are interpolated in the phantasms of thedream, are feeble [no 126].82. In dreams things absent seem to us present [no 127].This is also the case in the imagination, unless the things presentbefore us, so argue the contrary, that the soul knows the differ­ence.*The MS. has quod . .• venit,for which we read quod . .. veniat.Otherwise the translation would be,. A sign which thus comes to thesou1."t Cf. n.:j: See n.40.85.80
  • 100. 77-82PSYCHOLOGICA.aliquem finem tendere, quamvis non nescimus finem nisi postut finem somnii, tanquam reliqua duxerint ad ilium finem,indicium quod sic ad animam venit, quae adhuc plura sup­peditat, et conjungit mire, quae sic mire conjungit reliqua,et sic ad certum quasi finem determinat.N. B. Reminisci possumus somnii si ad animam pervenerit,et si excitaverit in sanguine voluptatem, vel voluptas illumexcitaverit, quae continuat cum attentione in sanguine etconsequenter in nervis remanet quid agens dum expergiscimur,et illud agens cum voluptate remanet, tunc enim inde motibusex ilUs causis continuantibus, reminiscimur somnii.Dum somniamus, res quas percipimus imaginamur.Omne somnium initium capit a sensatione et per phantasma­tum successionem continuatur; secundum meam sententiam.Si interea temporis, dum somniamus, novam quandam sensa­tionem non appercipimus, vel in eam mentis aciem [non] dirigi­mus, successio phantasmatum in eadem serie continuatur;Ph. MS., 122.quod si vero sensationem quandam interea appercipimus, et ineam mentis aciem dirigimus, somnium in diversis phantasma­tum seriebus continuatur. Unde somnium simplex et somniumcompositum.Sensationes in quibus somnium initium sumit, et quae phan­tasmatis 3 in eodem interdum interponuntur, debiles sunt.In somnio res absentes nobis videntur praesentes. Sic etiamin imaginatione nisi praesentes res aliter arguunt, et anima sicnoscat differentiam.a Wolff uses this form, as if from phantasmatum-i.81
  • 101. 83-86PSYCHOLOGICA.83. In dreams mtttations occur without a sufficient reason[no 128]. The reason exists in the causes. It comes eitherfrom parts coming from the blood and nerves, etc., which causetremors; or from a series of tremors one succeeding the other.*If a body be at complete rest without any irritation of theliquors, coherence is the result, and this coherence arises fromcompounds. Hence If, in two persons, the dream takes itsbeginning from the same weak sensation, the two dreaJns arenevertheless different [n. 129]. This applies equally to personswho are awake.84. At a different time the same weak sensation will give riseto a different phantasm, provided the weakness varies [no 133].For the phantasm then rests on the weak sensations. H eneedifferent dreams will draw their origin from the same weaksensation, according to the different degrees of the weakness[ibid.] .85. If the clearness of the phantasms be successively weak­ened, the dream is at last extinguished by profound sleep. SolikeuJise it is extinguished if we awake,. and likeurise, if thephantasms have been obscure. Therefore we are aware of aclear dream., and not of an obscure [n. 134-137]. This makesone with our causes, to wit, if the dream penetrate to the soul,it is a clear dream. A dream penetrates to the soul if it con­tinues in the same [motion]; or if additional force come fromparticles of the blood and the nerve, or from some motion ofthe nerves. If the motion remains the same when we awake,and there be something which actuates it; and likewise if therebe a nexus; then we would be aware of the dream.t86. N. B. If the cerebellum were rightly joined with thecerebrum, and if there were a communication between theirsubtle membranes, then we would know all that took place inour body, and would sensate the minutest thing in our body.But the cerebellum does not now cohere with the cerebrum inthis way; it coheres with the nerves, and it is the reciprocalmotion of the latter that goes to the cerebellum. Hence if God*See II Infinite IV, 9. t Cf. n. 76, 77.82
  • 102. 83-86PSYCHOLOGICA.In somnio mutationes contingunt absque ratione sufficiente.Ratio datur in causis partim a partibus causantibus tremores 4ex sanguine, nervis, etc.; vel ex serie tremorum, unus succeditalterum; si quietissimum corpus sine irritatione liquorum sit,fit cohaerentia, et cohaerentia ex compositis oritur. DndeSi in 2 personis somnium initium capit ab eadem sensationedebili, somnia tamen diversa sunt. Pariter hoc in vigilantibus.Phantasma diverso tempore ex eadem sensatione debili diversumoriri debet, si debilitas variat. Nam tunc in debilibus subsistit:Unde ex eadem sensatione debili diversa somnia ortum traheredebere pro diverso debilitatis g~adu.MS., 187.Si phantasmatum claritas successive debilitetur, somniumtandem per somnum profundum exstinguitur; pariter si evigila­mus; pariter si obscura fuerint, ergo clarum agnoscimus, obscu­rum non. Hoc idem est cum nostris causis, scilicet si penetretad animam, clarum est; et penetrat si continuetur in eodem;vel si vis accedat a particulis sanguinis, nervi, vel motuquodam nervorum; si idem motus remanet dum vigilamus,et quid sit quod idem agat; pariter si nexus sit, tunc illudnOVlmus.N. B. Si cerebellum cum cerebro foret rite junctum etcommunicatio inter subtiles membranas, tunc sciremus quic­quid in corpore foret, et nostrum sentiremus minimum incorpore; sed jam non cum cerebro cohaeret ita, sed cum nervis,et reciprocus motus illorum it ad cerebellum. Hinc si DeusI tremoribus.83
  • 103. 87-90PSYCHOLOGICA.had willed so to join the cerebellum and cerebrum, we wouldhave been instructed in all things of our anatomy almost withouta master.[IX.][THE FACULTY OF PICTURING.]87. We can imagine one part of a compound without theother; so we can imagine a subject without a mode, but notwithout [a sensible] attribute. Thus you can imagine to your­self the parts of a tree. You can imagine a flower witllOutcolor, or without the color [which the eye saw] ; that is to say,without a mode. But the attribute must follow. Thus youcan never imagine a mountain without a valley, or a trianglewithout three angles. This is because the attributes of an entityare constantly within that entity, (Wolff [n. 138]). This isa sign that phantasms arise from the senses. That which con­joins the senses, conjoins also the phantasm; that which sep­arates the senses, separates also the phantasm. A phantasm isthe penetration in the finest membranes of a tremor similar tothat which exists in the greatest membranes and thus in theorgans. The eye and the ear can sensate parts such as sylla­bles. They can sensate compounds, such as triangles and fig­ures, and also words; and still further compounds, or the com­pounds of compounds, such as sentences from words, conclu­sions from sentences, etc. It is not the same, however, in thecase of smell and taste. Here we sensate the compounds butnot the parts; for in smell and taste we do not sensate thecomponent parts.88. The division of phantasms consists in the separating ofpartial perceptions from the compound perception [n. 139].89. We are able to divide phantasms [no 140]. This followsfrom the preceding proposition.90. We are able to combine partial perceptions of differententities at will; the imagination can also attribute to a subject,modes never before perceived by us in this sense, but previouslyperceived in other subjects, provided such nwdes are not repug­nant to the subject; there thus results a phantasm of an entity84
  • 104. 87-90PSYCHOLOGICA.voluisset jungere ita cerebellum et cerebrum omnibus nostraeanatomiae fere sine magistro fuissemus docti.Partem entis compositi unam absque altera,S subjectum itemabsque modo, non tamen absque attributo imaginari possumus;ut partes arboris potes tibi imaginari; florem potes sine colore,vel illo, hoc est sine modo; attributum sequitur; montem nun­quam sine valle, triangulum sine tribus angulis, constanterenim insunt. Wolf. Hoc signum est, quod phantasmataoriantur a sensibus. Quod conjungit sensus, hoc conjungitphantasII¥l; quod separat sensus hoc phantasma. Est phan­tasma penetratio similis tremoris in minimis membranis,quae 6 est in maximis, ut in organis; partes potest oculuset auris, ut syllabas; composita potest ut triangula et figuras, etvoces; adhuc magis composita, ut ex compositis composita,ut ex vocibus sententiae, ex sententiis conc1usiones, etc. Inolfactu et gustu non item, composita sentimus sed non partes,quia partes componentes non sentimus.Divisio phantasmatum separare perceptiones partiales a com­positis.Phantasmata dividere valemus. Hoc sequitur a priori.Perceptiones partiales diversorum entium compositorum proarbitrio combinare valemus; subjecto quoque imaginatio tribuerepotest modos in eo sensu nondum a nobis perceptos, perceptostamen antea in aliis subjectis, modo eidem non repugnant; ut6 alteram. 6 quod.85
  • 105. 91PSYCHOLOGICA.never before perceived by the sense [no 141]. We can deducethis in no other way than from the first formation [of theimagination] and its growth from infancy to the age of adoles­cence and beyond. 1. The infant sees only a confused some­thing without any species or part, without attribute, essential,or mode.. This confused something is impressed on it. 2.Later it sees parts, but in a confused way comparable to the firstconfused sight; thus the impression comes into the organs, butnot yet to the soul. 3. It then sees the parts of these parts,and in this way come the attributes. 4. And so it sees theparts and species of these, and thus come essentials. S. Thenit sees the parts of these, and so comes to their modes. In thisway, modes, essentials and attributes are conjoined with the firstconfused vision. Thus, little by little, this vision by cultivationcomes more and more to the soul. 6. When essentials [have]thus [come] into their [attributes] and modes into their modi­fications, and when by a similar coherence they all fix and formthemselves in the soul, then at last by the imagination [the man]can reproduce the things that have tntered 11. bv a similitude ofthis kind; and at the same time can reproduce their predicates;for one thing excites another,~specially when there is suchharmony. If we consider, such also is the state of the imagi­nation; from it we can see what it was in its incipiency. Whathas been said of sight applies also to hearing.91. N. B. AGAINST ATHEISTS. We can see: 1. The mech­anism of the body and its organs, that is to say, that its visibleorgans are mechanical. 2. That there are animal spirits, andwhat they are. 3. That there is a soul; indeed the nature ofthe soul is seen; therefore we no longer doubt concerning it.4. That the soul is immortal; therefore doubt is dispersed. S.That it is different in a vitiated body than in one not vitiated.7. That the soul suffers its own torments; this we do not doubt,because it can be demonstrated mechanically and geometrically.8. That there are angels who can operate upon the soul. 9.That the Sacred Scripture is marvellously consentient [with theabove1; hence all doubt concerning the soul vanishes. 10. Thatall such things, and also nature herself, must have a cause,which neither souls nor angels can penetrate. Therefore we86
  • 106. 91PSYCHOLOGICA.prodeat phantasma entis sensu antea nondum percepti. Hocpossumus non aliter deducere, quam a prima formatione abinfante ad adolescentem aetatem et ultra. I. Videt nihil nisiconfusum quid, sine aliqua specie aut parte, sine attributo,essentiali, modo; hoc imprimitur. 2. Dein videt partes sedconfuse ad similitudinem 7 cum primo confuso; sic venit inorgana, necdum ad animam. 3. Turn ilIarum partes; sicveniunt attributa. 4. Sic illarum partes et species; sic veniuntMS., 188. Ph. MS., 123.essentialia. S. Si[c] illarum partes; sic venit ad modos, undemodi, essentialia et attributa conjunguntur cum prima con­fusa visione; sic sensim sensimque ad animam magis etmagis per cultum. 6. Quum sic essentialia in sua, modi insuas modificationes, et omnes per similem cohaerentiam sefigunt et formant in anima, sic tandem potest per imagina­tionem reproducere ilia, et tandem praedicata quae simul s persimilitudinem talem intraverant. Quum unum excitat alterum,praecipue quum talis harmonia sit, si consideremus talis etiamest imaginationis status, ex illo videre possumus qualis inceptusest: sic in auditu.N. B. Contra Atheistas. I. Mechanismum corporis et or­ganorum videmus, scilicet quod organa visibilia sint mechan­ica. 2. Quod spiritus animales sint, et quales. 3. Quod animasit; quidem videtur qualis sit, ergo non dubitamus amplius deea. 4. Quod immortalis sit, ergo dubium excutitur. S. Quodalia sit in corpore vitioso quam non vitioso. 7. Quod cruciatussuos patiatur, non dubitemus quia demonstrari mechanice etgeometrice potest. 8. Quod angeli sint, qui in animam operaripossunt.sa 9. Quod Scriptura Sacra mire consentiat, hincdubium de illa evanescit. 10. Quod omnia talia causam etiamipsa natura habebunt 9 quam nee anim[ae] nee angeli penetrare7 similationem. written above the line to be inserted8 tandem et praedicata simul after tandem.quae. All but the first word are 8a possint. 9 habebit.87
  • 107. 92-95PSYCHOLOGICA.do not doubt concerning this, but venerate, worship, love, etc.*92. We are able to compound phantasms [n. 143]. This isa consequence of the preceding proposition.93. The soul has the faculty of pictttring, that is to say, ofdividing, compounding, etc. [n. 145].94. If we compound things which are mutually repugnant toeach other, or which, by force of their nature, cannot be con­joined in one and the same subject, the phantasm represents afictitious entity [no 146]. We cannot compound things whichare absolutely repugnant to each other. This the soul cannotdo, unless it is perverted. And yet [things repugnant to each. other] are in a way not repugnant; as for instance, the headof a bull on a human body. These two are repugnant, and yetthey are not; for a head is conjoined to a body, and a part canbe added to a compound. In respect to mode, therefore, theyare not repugnant, but only in respect to existence; as for in­stance wings on fishes. Wolff therefore adds: If by an arbi­trary compounding the imagination produces a certain phantasm,art is able to produce an object like it [no 148]. And hence hefurther adds: From the things which it has seen in many dif­ferent buildings, the imagination can compose the idea of a newbuilding. The same is true of other works of art [no 149].95. If from the things which he has seen in many differentbuildings, an architect composes the idea of a building, doingthis by force of the principle of sufficient reason; the buildingconstructed according to that idea will conform with the rulesof architecture [n. 150]. Wolffs vis principii (force of theprinciple) is no other than the harmony of the motions in theelements, or harmonic proportion; the effect of which is that if[the mind] has two things, a third proportional will run tothem, and between these a third; so that a continuous harmonyarises. In some persons therefore, this is natural as comingfrom the natural motion of the elements. In others it is arti­ficial, so that they make use of rules and not of true imagina­tion. Hence with some, whose souls have not been accustomedto harmonies, a different harmonic [arrangement] results; and*Cf. n. 52 above.88
  • 108. 92-95PSYCHOLOGICA.possunt1; ergo non dubitamus de ilIo; sed veneramur, colimus,amamus, etc.Phantasmata componere possumus. Est consequens prioris.Anima habet facultatem fingendi; scilicet dividendi, compo­nendi, etc.Si ea componimus, quae sibi mutuo repugnant, vel naturae viin eodem subjecto conjungi nequeunt, phantasma ens fictumrepraesentat. Non componere possumus quae sibi repugnantabsolute, hoc nequit anima nisi perversa. Sed aliquo modotamen non repugnant, ut caput bovinum corpori humano;repugnant, sed non repugnant quia caput conjungitur corpori,pars addi composito; ergo qua modum non repugnant, sedqua existentiam; ut alae piscibus. Hine addit Si imaginatioper arbitrariam compositionem phantasma quoddam producit,ars objectum ei simile producere valet. Unde adhuc, Imaginatioex iis quae in pluribus aedificiis diversis vidit, ideam novi aedi­ficii componere valet; sic in aliis operibus artis.MS., 189.Si architectus ex iis, quae in pluribus aedificiis diversis vidit,ideam aedificii componit, vi principii rationis sufficientis, aedi­ficium juxta eam exstructum est regulis architecturae conforme.Vis principii sui non est alia quam harmonia motuum in ele­mentis, seu proportio harmonica; ut si duo habeantur, uttertium proportionale accurrat, et inter ea tertium, ut continuaoriatur harmonia, unde est naturalis in quibusdam, quia venita naturali elementorum motu; in quibusdam est artificialis,ut regulis non imaginatione vera utantur. Hinc quidamquorum animae non assuetae sunt harmonicis, alia harmonica1 penetrari.89
  • 109. 96-97PSYCHOLOGICA.to those whose souls cannot be moved and flexed in their trueplace, nor even well within their termini, there comes anotherand disjointed harmony. Moreover, dissonance also results iftrue termini be lacking; and also from many other causes. Thisthen is the vis principii.96. A hieroglyphic signification is a signification wherein onething is transferred for the denoting of another. As for in­stance sculptured figures for the denoting of sentiments; a tri­angle for the denoting of [the trine in] God [n. 151].97. If a phantasm is so composed that by the similitude whichits constituent parts bear to the intrinsic determinations of somegiven thing, the latter can be inferred from the former, thephantasm has a hieroglyphic signification and is composed byforce of the principle of sufficient reason [n. 152]. Because itis similar, therefore its modes, essentials, and attributes agreewith the subjects as they have entered the imagination. Thingswhich have come forth successively are compounded simul­taneously.The ancients represented dogmas and historical matters byhieroglyphic figures. This was a familiar practice with theEgyptians, and some say the same thing of the Chinese.*Comenius exhibits the human soul hieroglyphically.t*The authority for this statement to denote the fertility of the earthgiven by Wolff (whom Swedenborg when cultivated by art (loc. cit.).here paraphrases) is the Preface t Comenius Orbis Sensuatiumto Tabula ChrOlwlogica Monarchiae Pktus. Of Comenius Wolff saysSinicae, Paris, 1686, where the au- that he impressed ideas on thethor, the Jesuit missionary, Phillip minds of children by means of pic-Couplet, states that Fohi the first tures. Being unable to depict theknown founder of the Chinese Em- soul, he had recourse to the hiero­pire is said to have had a human glyphic art and made a phantasmhead on the body of a serpent to to which he gave an hieroglyphicdenote his prudence and skill; while signification. He represented theFohis successor is said to have had soul by dots or points arranged ina head with the countenance of an the human figure. By the points­ox, because he was zealous in en- which geometrically are withoutcouraging agriculture, and first in- dimensions,-he denoted the sim­troduced the use of yoked oxen. plicity of the soul; and by theirIt is also said of him, that when arrangement into the human figure,he was contemplating this work, its substantiality (so that it canheaven rained down wheat and rice, exist without the body) and its90
  • 110. 96-97PSYCHOLOGICA.prodit, quorum anima non potest moveri et flecti in vero loco,nec Cere bene in terminis, venit alia harmonia, inconcinna.Si cui deficiant termini veri, etiam dissonum prodit, exquepluribus aliis causis, hocque est vis principii.Significatus hieroglyphicus, quo res ad denotandam aliamtransfertur,-figurae ad sententias, triangulum ad Deum.Si phantasma quoddam ita componitur, ut per similitudinempartium constitutivarum cum determinationibus rei cuidamPh. MS., 124.intrinsecis, hae ex istis colligi possint, phantasma significatumhieroglyphicum habet, ac vi principii rationis sufficientis com-ponitur. Quia simile est, hinc modi, essentialia et attributacum subjectis conveniunt, ut intrarant in imaginationem;composita simul sunt, quae successiva prodierant. Veteresdogmata et historica per figuras hieroglyphicas repraesentarant;quod Aegyptiis familiare; de Sinensibus alii. Comeniusexhibet animam Hieroglyphice.union with the body; by this ar- Schoolmen, that the whole soul israngement he also gave expression in the whole body and also in itsto the then received doctrine of the every part (ib.).918
  • 111. 98-101PSYCHOLOGICA.98. N. B. The Schoolmen said that the whole soul is in thewhole body, and that the whole soul is in each part of the body[no 152]. They are mistaken, however, for there are manythings in the body which are not of the soul; but the soul is inthe whole brain, and is grosser in the body; * and the soul con­sists of many parts, though the parts are all similar.t99. That an hieroglyphic signification prevails in the memory,is evident from the fact that the memory supplies many tremorswhich concur together. Therefore Wolff truly observes: If thecase be such that not only do the several parts of which thephantasm is composed, denote the different intrinsic determina­tions of a thing; but that the particulars which can be distin­guished in those parts, denote the particulars which are dis­cerned in the determinations of that thing; the whole phantasmis significative and is a perfect example of the class of hiero­glyphics [n. 153] . Hence one phantasm is more perfect thananother [no 154]. Therefore a kind of writing can be devisedwhich would comprehend almost everything; and in which itwould be possible to write more in a single line than can beunfolded in several pages. But to understand such writing, onemust have knowledge.100. If a hieroglyphic phantasm represents the several notes :j:which enter into the definition of a thing, it serves in place ofa definition [no 155].101. Instruction can be given by means of hieroglyphic fig­ures § [no 158], if only the parts, predicates and modes enter*See Mechanism 13, 32-34; II method. He adds, that while it isInfinite IV, xiii. not useful to hide truths under thet See n. 105 below, and II In- guise of hieroglyphics, yet the lat­finite IV, xiii seq. ter have their use as aids to memo­t I.e., marks, signs, character- rizing. In illustration he instancesistics; thus yellow is a "note" fhe" hieroglyphic way of writingwhich enters into the definition of and teaching" used by the a1chem­gold. ists; and he cites Gaspar Neumann§ In illustrating this proposition, as attributing a hieroglyphic sig­W olff says that the Egyptians used nification to the letters of the He­this means of instruction in order brew language; and as drawingto withhold their truths from those therefrom something essential. Inwho were unworthy; but that we this connection he refers to his owndo not yet well understand their Philosophia Rationalis or Logica n.92
  • 112. 98-101PSYCHOLOGICA.N. B. Scholastici dixerunt animam esse totam in toto corpore,et totam in qualibet ejus parte, sed falluntur, quum multa sintnon animae in corpore; sed est in toto cerebro, crassior incorpore, et quod anima constet pluribus partibus t sed partesomnes similes. Quod tale hieroglyphicum plus valeat inmemoria, patet ex eo quod plures suppeditet tremores, quiconcurrant. Ergo vere, Si non modo partes singulae, ex quibusphantasma componitur, denotent diversas determinationes reiintrinsecas, verum etiam singula, quae in istis partibus distinguipossunt, denotent ea quae in determinationibus rei discernuntur;phantasma totum significativum est, et in genere hieroglyphi­carum perfectum; unde unum perfectius altero. Unde talisscriptura adinveniri potest quae exhauriat fere omnia; et plusscribere liceat in una linea, quam explicari potest per aliquotfolia; sed qui intelliget, erit scius.*Si phantasma hieroglyphicum repraesentet singulas notas,quae definitionem rei alicujus ingrediuntur, loco definitionisinservit.MS., 190.Disciplinae per figuras hieroglyphicas tradi possunt, si modointrent partes, praedicata, modi, ut Aegyptii. Figurae sunt978, where he explains the state­ derstood that which in reason isments in Scripture that .. God re­ proper to Him."pented," as meaning that God de­ t partes.tested. In this explanation he uses * In the MS. this and the preced­the rule that "by what is said of ing paragraph are written as aGod in a human way, must be un- single paragraph.93
  • 113. 102-105PSYCHOLOGICA.[into the figures] as was the case with the Egyptians. Figuresare artificial signs. They are either primitive or derivative.The primitive are such as do not derive their origin from otherand prior figures,. the derivative are such as derive their originfrom other figures [no 159-161].102. Irresolute notes * are such as cannot be resolved,. theyare opposed to resolute notes [no 162].103. The irlesolute notes which enter into the distinct notionsof things, must be represented by primitive figures. Distinctnotions must be represented by derivative figures. In studi!!s,definitions and propositions must be represented by derivativefigures. The resolute notes which enter into the distinct notionof a thing, must be represented in studies by derivative figures.Adequate notions must be represented by derivative figures[n.163-167].104. If we intend to imagine some given thing, it frequentlyhappens that a phantasm is produced which is different fromthe one we intended [n. 172]. A phantasm cannot be continuedwithout pleasure as an accompanying aid. Pleasure is arousedeither by the senses or by the blood.t The former pleasure wecall mediate, the latter spontaneous, although this also is mediate.Thus [a phantasm cannot be continued] except pleasure resultsbecause the saliva is excited from the vessels; thus [by sight]and by hearing; thus if saliva should be excited in the absenceof hearing and sight, pleasure would be aroused spontaneously,as it were, and without the senses. Hence pleasure consists inthe mutation of least parts by liquid parts,-but only by such ascan affect the membranes. If this pleasure is present, there isat once a delay, since such delay is created by these parts.Hence we can continue our imagination even to the end and fora long time. Otherwise, if some other origin enter in, whichcomes under the name of pleasure, and stimulates [the mem­branes] a different phantasm results, inasmuch as the mem­branes are actuated into another motion.105. N. B. That the soul consists of parts which are similarto each other, is evident also from worms, in that from wormsof any given kind none but worms of the same kind can beproduced.:j:94
  • 114. 102-105PSYCHOLOGICA.signa artificialia. Vel sunt primitivae vel derivativae; primi­tivae sunt, quae ab aliis se prioribus ortum non trahunt; deriva­tivae quae ab aliis oriuntur.Notae irresolubiles quae non possunt resolvi; contra, resolu­biles.Notae irresolubiles, quae notiones rerum distinctas ingrediun­tur, repraesentandae sunt per figuras primitivas. Notionesdistinctae per derivativas. In disciplinis, definitiones et pro­positiones per figuras derivativas. Notae resolubiles, quaenotionem rei distinctam ingrediuntur, in disciplinis per deriva­tivas. Notiones adaequatae per derivativas.Si quid imaginari intendimus saepius phantasma proditdiversum ab eo, quod intenderamus. Sine voluptate adjutricephantasma continuari non potest. Voluptas excitatur vela sensibus vel a sanguine; priorem vocamus mediatam, posteri­orem spontaneam, quamvis sit mediata. Sic nisi ubi fit vo­luptas quia excitatur e vasis saliva, sic ex auditu; sic si salivaexcitaretur sine auditu et visu, sine sensibus tanquam sponteexcitaretur voluptas; hinc eonsistit haec in partium minimarummutatione a partibus liquidis, at a talibus quae afficere possunt lamembranas, quae si adsit, statim fit mora, quia ereatur moraper tales partes, hine imaginari possumus usque ad finem etdiu; si non, sed alia origo veniat, quae voluptatis nomine venitet stimulat, prodit phantasma diversum, quia in alium motumaguntur membranae.N. B. Quod anima eonstet partibus similibus, patet etiam exvermibus, quod ex uno genere non nisi ejusdem generis vermespossint prodire.*See n. 100, note. :j: Cl. n. 98 above, and Mecha­t Cl. n. 159, 160. nism, 36, 37.1. potest.95
  • 115. 106-109PSYCHOLOGICA.[X.]THE MEMORY.106. The faculty of recognizing reproduced ideas, is calledmemory [no 175]. Memory is only a variety of the tremorwhich causes sensation; and since innumerable such varietiesare possible, therefore, when the same tone recurs, a sensationis produced and likewise a phantasm. Memory therefore isnothing more than the same tremor recurring. This recur­rence, together with an adequate sensation thereof,-a sensationthat has been learned by cultivation,-is the memory.107. If a reproduced idea is contained in a series of percep­tioM other than that in which it was contained when previouslyperceived, and we are conscious of both series; we recognize it[n. 174]. In this case there are mixed motions or tremors;there is an harmonic series; there is a situation; consequently,various series are produced simultaneously or in concentration.108. The faculty of reproducing the ideas we have formerlyhad, does not pertain to the memory [no 176]. Wolff calls thisfaculty imagination; [for he says: " An idea may be reproducedin us and yet not be recognized as an idea previously possessed;in which case the reproduction cannot be ascribed to the mem­ory" (ib.) ].* In this way, therefore, he distinguishes betweenmemory and imagination.109. N. B. [1]. The soul is so furnished with its mem­branes, that it can receive motions of the utmost diversity, andthis the better in the degree that the differences are more nu­merous; and by cultivation it has been so formed that not onlyhas it received tremors, but, by virtue of the figure obtainedthrough cultivation it is also adapted to the tremors received.This property is called the FACULTY OF IMAGINATION. Hence*We have here substituted tended to paraphrase Wolff, itWolffs words for our authors would seem that reproducitur is abrief paraphrase. The latter reads: slip for recognoscitur. For the.. He says it is imagination; which definition of Imagination, see n. 43frequently is not reproduced." As­ above; and compare n. 106, 109.suming that Swedenborg here in­96
  • 116. 106-109PSYCHOLOGICA.DE MEMORIAFacultas ideas reproductas recognoscendi memoria dicitur.Memoria est tantummodo diversitas tremoris qui sensationemcausatur, quae cum innumerae dari possunt, hinc cum idemtonus recurrit, fit sensatio, et idem phantasma; adeo ut me­moria sit tantummodo idem tremor recurrens, cum sensationeejus adaequata et ex cultu edocta, est memoria.Ph. MS., 125.Si idea reproducta in alia perceptionum serie continetur, quamante percepta continebatur, et utriusque seriei nobis consciisumus, illam recognoscimus. Dantur motus vel tremores mixti,datur series harmonica, datur situs, et consequenter variaeseries simul vel concentrate prodeuntes.Facultas ideas, quas antea habuimus, reproducendi, non per­tinet ad memoriam. Dicit esse imaginatio, quae saepe non rec­ognoscitur 2; ergo sic distinguit inter memoriam et imagina­tionem.MS.,19I.N. B. Quum anima cum suis membranis ita sit instructa utrecipere possit diversissimos motus, et quo plures differentes,eo melior; vel quod ex cultu ita sit formata ut non modo recep­erit, sed etiam ratione figurae per cultum obtentae in receptostremores habilis sit, vocatur hoc facultas imaginationis; uncle2 reproducitur.97
  • 117. 109PSYCHOLOGICA.this faculty may be present, even though [the soul] has not yetbeen so formed into tremulous motions as to have received anygreat diversity of tones. 2. Men come to this, according as theother membranes are likewise so adapted, that they shall conveytremors to the soul; from which these tremors can rebound tothe membranes, and cause different sensations according to thetone. Then, if these mediate membranes conspire together,man has the FACULTY OF REASONING. 3. When, from whatso­ever cause, [a sensation] is reproduced,-[a sensation] namely,which exists either in the organs of the senses, or in the inter­mediate membranes by reason of the incitation of liquors andthe parts in the liquors,--then the same tremor arises, beingmixed, compound, or harmonic according to use, and we havewhat is called IMAGINATION. 4. Vhen the reproduction is fromone of the senses, and continues with the sense, or in the sensa­tion, so that this can be noticed by means of the sense, it iscalled MEMORY. S. And because this motion cannot depart andflow off; but being imprisoned in its place,-whence it is dif­fused to its termini beyond which it cannot gO,-can spread onlythrough the same organs [as those in which it originated],therefore memory comes from sensation as well as from imagi­nation. 6. If the intermediate membrane be injured or in anyway altered so that it cannot receive the reciprocal motions, orcannot diffuse them, the result is a defect of memory. Thismay come in a thousand ways. It is a defect or disease- whichcan often be remedied by certain means; and by certain meansthe memory can be again aroused and vivified. 7. When thememory is a bad one, or is very slight, this has its origin in theorgans; either they have not been properly prepared from in­fancy, or they were defective in the womb; or they have notbeen developed by cultivation, or, if developed, have been alteredby some disease or other accident; or the middle part has beendestroyed; or, undue tension is exercised by the blood or liquors;or, as the result of some disease, the parts have been sundered;or, are lacking; or, because, having been disturbed by muchimagination, the tremors are not adapted to their proper place,the result being that the usual characteristic of the precedingtremors is turned into others which do not have the same con­98
  • 118. 109PSYCHOLOGICA.facultas adesse potest, sed tamen nondum in tremulos motusita formata, ut tarn diversos tonos receperit. 2. Ad hoc veni­unt, ut etiam reliquae membranae sint pariter aptatae, quaetremores illuc ducent, et aqua tremores possint resilire inillas, et causari sensationem differentem secundum tonum.Unde si conspirent mediae membranae, tunc habet facultatemratiocinandi. 3. Quando ex causa quacunque reproducitur,quae existit vel in organis sensuum, vel in membranis inter­mediis ob incitationem liquorum, et partium in liquoribus,unde oritur idem tremor mixtus, compositus, harmonicussecundum usum, tunc vocatur imaginatio. 4. Quando re­producit ex sensu quocunque, et cum sensu continuat, sive insensatione, ut hoc per sensum animadvertere possit, diciturmemoria. S. Et quia motus ille non abire et diffiuere potest,sed se dissipare per similia organa, quia in loco est incarceratus,unde ad terminos se diffundit, extra quos ire nequit, inde fitex ipsa sensatione et imaginatione memoria. 6. Si membranaintermedia sit laesa, vel aliquo modo alterata, ut reciperenequeat motus reciprocos, vel diffundere nequeat, fit memoriaedefectus, quod ex mille modis existere potest, estque defectusaut morbus qui per media reparari saepe potest, et per mediaexcitari et vivificari. 7. Si memoria mala et exigua, exoriturex organis, vel quod non ita sint ab ipso infante parata, vel inutero defectuosa, vel a cultu non efformata, vel efformata permorbum aut alium casum alterata, vel media pars destructa,vel tensio non debita per sanguinem aut liquores vel partesper morbum divulsae aut deficientes, vel a multa imaginationeturbata, adeo ut tremores aptum locum non adepti sunt, undehabitus tremorum praecedentium vertitur in alios, qui non99
  • 119. 110-114PSYCHOLOGICA.nection with the rest j there are also a thousand other causes.Provided only effects and experiences be supplied, together withsome of the circumstances of the case, it is possible to know thecause of defective memory, and to know how much the memorycan be strengthened.110. The notion of the memory as being a receptacle whereinideas are laid up and whence they are drawn out when the useof things demands, is an imaginary one, and far from exact[n. 177]. This is not memory, but the faculty of imagining.Wolff adds, For memory there is required the recognition ofthe ideas reproduced [ib.) j and this recognition does not comewithout an affection and the assistance of the body.11 L We commit to memory those things which, either fre­quently or for a considerable time are perceived simultaneously,whether this be done by help of the senses or of the imagination[n. 179]. It is done first of all by help of the senses, not ofthe imagination, except in the sense that the latter is furnishedby the senses j and this to the end that things which we haveacquired partitive1y by means of the senses, may give rise tocompounds by means of the imagination. Thus their firstorigin is from the senses. In the same way, do we retain themin the memory [n. 180].112. Some acquire facility in reproducing ideas and recog­nizing them when reproduced, by long contemplation of an.,object or by frequent repetitions of actions; others do not needsuch long contemplation or so many repetitions of actions [n.182]. This depends on the organs, either as formed in thewomb or as fashioned by cultivation; they can be varied in athousand ways. From twenty to thirty of these ways can beset down, but thousands and thousands of them are possible.In this consists the variation.113. Some are able to recognize many reproduced ideas, oth­ers fewer [no 183]. In these cases there are innumerable dif­ferences, so that no one case can be like another. It dependson the organs.114. Some are able to reproduce and recognize an idea com­mitted to the memory, even though they have not reproduced itfor a long time,. others become unable to reproduce it, or recog­100
  • 120. 110-114PSYCHOLOGICA.talem nexum cum reliquis habent; sunt mi11e aliae causae.Datis modo effectibus et experimentis cum aliquibus circum-stantiis, scire licet causam defectus memoriae, et quantumilIa polIeat.MS., 192.Notio memoriae, quod sit receptaculum idearum in quo con-duntur, et unde rerum usu exigente denuo promuntur, imaginariaest, eademque minus exacta. Hoc non est memoria sed facultasimaginandi. Addit, quod ad memoriam requiratur idearumreproductarum recognitio, quod non fit sine affectu et adjuvantecorpore.Memoriae mandamus ea, quae saepius vel diu simul percipi-untur, sive id fiat sensuum sive imaginationis ope. Hoc fitPh. MS., 126.omnium primo sensuum, nee imaginationis ope, nisi quatenusa sensibus sit 3 instructa, ut composita oriantur per imagina-tionem, quae habuimus partita per sensus; adeo ut prima origosit a sensibus. Eadem modo retinemus illa.Alii diuturniore objecti contemplatione, vel pluribus actibusreiteratis, facilitatem ideas reproducendi et reproductas recognos-cendi sibi comparant,. alii minus diu [ tu] rna contemplatione etpaucioribus actibus iteratis ad id opus habent. Hoc secundumorgana vel ab utero formata vel ex cultu efficta; quae milIemodis variari potest, quorum 20 ad 30 modo apponi possunt,sed milIe et rnilIe dari. Variatur hoc.Alii plures ideas reproductas recognoscere valent, alii pauciores.Datur in his diversitas innumera, adeo ut unus non dari possitsirnilis alteri, secundum organa.Alii ideam memoriae demandatam reproducere et reco[!.noscerevalent etsi multo tempore eandem non reproduxerint; alii eamnon amplius reproducere, nec reproductam recognoscere valent,3 sunt.101
  • 121. 115-116PSYCHOLOGICA.nize it when reproduced, if they have not reproduced it for sometime [no 185]. It may be gradually obliterated, and fail tomake for itself fit tremors, or to make the middle organs obedi­ent, unless it does this repeatedly. A thousand cases are pos­sible.115. Goodness of memory admits of- divers degrees both asregards the committing of a thing to memory quickly and doingthis with ease, and also as regards its long retention in the mem­ory [no 190]. Here we have "quickly" "with ease" and"long." As regards committing to memory QUICKLY or WITHEASE, in such case the membrane of the soul must be well fig­ured with an exact center, and with its periphery having exactelasticity and tension. The things contained in this membraneare harmonically disposed, that is to say, they have entered itby harmony. Its connection with the intermediate membranesis apt and just, and is brought about by the aid of the blood andof the nervous liquor, and consequently of the nerves. It isnot overwhelmed by various non-harmonic phantasies or mo­tions; and thus it knows how to allot to each mingling [ofmotions] its own proper place. Otherwise a man cannot be­come either facile or quick in memory.If the memory is to be LONG ENDURING, [the membrane ofthe soul] must be always of the same figure and-of like expan­sion; it must not be overwhelmed by other phantasies; theremust be an unvarying connection between it and the membraneof the phantasy. The latter is a somewhat grosser membrane;for it does not at once admit a motion, but when the motion isadmitted, it retains it, becoming versatile to that motion, andadmitting none but similar motions.116. N. B., N. B.* If it is shown in this way that the souland its operations are a mechanism, not only is the doubt re­moved which we entertain concerning the soul and its existenceand immortality, but we shall then be able to make furtherprogress and to learn the nature of the memory, the intellect,the imagination, and the passions of the animus and body, all>I> In the MS. one N. B. is writ- in the right.ten in the left margin and the other102
  • 122. 115-116PSYCHOLOGICA.si aliquo tempore eandem non reproduxerint. Sensim ea oblit­[er]ari potest, nec tremores aptos sibi facere, sive organa mediaobedientia, nisi iterum hoc fiat; mille casus dari possunt.Bonitas memoriae diversos admittit gradus, tum quatenus quidmemoriae cito, tum quatenus facile mandatur, tum quatenus diuretinetur. Est cito, facile, diu; quod cito attinet vel facile,tunc erit animae membrana bene figurata cum exacto centroet sua peripheria, exactae elasticitatis et tensionis, quae inibisunt harmonice disposita sive per harmoniam ingressa; nexuscum mediis membranis aptus et justus, quod fit ope sanguinis,nervosi liquoris, et consequenter nervorum; non obruta variisnon harmonicis phantasiis aut motibus, ut sciat quodlibetmixtum suum locum sortiri; alias non fit facilis aut citus, Sidiu, erit semper ejusdem figurae; expansionis similis; nonobruendi aliis phantasiis; nexus similis illius et membranaephantasiae; aliqualis crassior, nam non statim admittit, sedadmissum tenet, volubilis ad motum illum, non admittensplures nisi similes.MS., 193.N. B. Si sic mechanismum ostenditur anima et ejus opera­tiones, non modo N. B. tollitur dubium quod habemus deanima, ejus existentia et immortalitate, sed sic etiam possumusuIterius progredi et scire qualis sit memoria, intellectus, imagi­natio, et passiones animi et corporis, quae nobis ignotissimae103
  • 123. 117-119PSYCHOLOGICA.which are most utterly unknown to us because we do not knowthe mechanism [of the soul and its operations].N. B. Therefore we doubt concerning the existence of thesoul and its immortality; for we reason so grossly as to supposethat everything which is mechanical will perish; that everythingof this nature will rot away; that everything of this nature issubject to· change ;-as though there were not a mechanicalwhich can never perish, and which is immortal. For how longa time have not the supremely subtle elements and the sun en­dured which were created simultaneously! But if God willsthem to perish, then all things will return to the prime andthere will be nothing, and angels and worlds and souls willperish.*117. The degrees of the goodness of the memory are esti­mated from the time spent in committing a thing to memory;from the number of acts whereby the reproduced ideas are com­mitted to memory; and finally from the number of acts wherebythe infixed ideas are retained [no 191]. If more time must be.spent this arises from various causes. It may arise because themediate membranes are not well tremulous; or because thereare many things which occupy them; because the going andreturning [of the tremors] is impeded; because the soul itselfis not of the duly exact figure and tension. But of these mat­ters we have spoken above; t for a thousand varieties arepossible.118. Memory and imagination admit of degrees, inasmuch aswe are able to reproduce the ideas of many things and to recog­nize them when reproduced [no 193]. This is according to[our] hypothesis, for [the imagination1 cannot [reproduce]more than one mixed idea at a time; from this come similarideas, or ideas that are still further mingled; and so the processneeds time and graduation.119. The size of the memory is estimated from the numberof things, the ideas whereof we are able to reproduce, and torecognize when reproduced; including things perceived sepa­rately at different times, and things perceived simultaneously in• Cf. n. 52, and 11 Infinite 11, iv, 9. t N. 115.104
  • 124. 117-119PSYCHOLOGICA.sunt, quia nescimus mechanismurn. N. B. Ideo dubitamus deanimae existentia et ejus immortalitate quia tarn crasse ratio­cinamur, quod putemus omne quod mechanicum est perire,omne tale putrescere, omne tale mutationi obnoxium, quasinon mechanicum detur quod nusquam perire possit, et im­mortale esse; quantum manent elementa subtilissima et sol;quae simul creata sunt; sed si Deus velit ut ilIa pereunt,redeunt omnia in primum, et fit nihil, et angeli cum mundis etanimis perirent.Gradus bonitatis memoriae aestimantur ex tempore impen­dendo, ut quid memoriae mandatur, ex numero actuum quibusideae reproductae memoriae demandantur, ex numero deniqueactuum quibus infixae retinentur. Quod plus temporis impen-Ph. MS., 127.dendum sit oritur ex variis causis, sive quod mediae membranaenon ita tremulae sunt, sive quod plura sint quae ilIa occupent;quod itum reditumque impediat, quod ipsa anima sit non tarnexactae figurae, tensionis; sed de his prius, nam mille varietatespossunt dari.Memoria et imaginatio admittunt gradus, quatenus rerummultarum ideas reproducere, et reproductas recognoscere valemus.Hoc secundum hypothesin, nam non potest simul nisi unamideam mixtam, ex hac proveniunt vel similes, vel plus mixtae,et sic tempore et gradu opus est.Magnitudo memoriae aestimatur ex numero rerum, quarumideas reproducere et reproductas recognoscere valemus, tum diversotempore singillatim perceptarum, tum eodem tempore continua105
  • 125. 120-124PSYCHOLOGICA.a continued series at one and the same time [n. 194]. Theability to reproduce a number of things, originates in their har­monic situation and influx. [The soul] can recognize themwhen reproduced, if the mediate membranes are in apt condi­tion; for the most part however, one membrane disposes theother. So likewise, as regards the circumstance that they canbe perceived at the same time, provided there be figure andharmony.120. N. B. One membrane disposes the other, because thereis a connection between them. If either one were to becomeflaccid the other would also become flaccid; the one cannot bechanged without the other being also changed in some way.121. Repetition is called exercise,. and this admits of degrees,in proportion to the number of the acts which are repeated, inpart at the same time, and in part at different times [n. 195].122. Exercise is needed if a thing is to be committed to mem­ory and retained therein [no 196]. Nothing comes into thememory without cultivation and exercise. But even with these,•some memories retain the things once committed to them, whileothers retain things only when they have been committed tothem several times.123. N. B. Without cultivation and exercise, there is noth­ing in the imagination or memory beyond what exists in brutes.The reason why men need to be developed and not brutes, isbecause man possesses a soul which, by reason of its subtlety,cannot be opened and be connected [with the body] except byexercise. Men are not so gifted as brutes, because men havea soul which confuses; the path [to the soul] is longer, and doesnot terminate in proximate things; hence comes confusion.Some men however are naturally very apt; they are better con­nected up, and their conducting membranes are more fit andmore like to the paternal [membranes]. Hence we have thereason why men are not so greatly gifted with natural instinctas are brutes; why they have need of cultivation; and why someare naturally quicker and better.124. The result of exercise is, that the imagination reproducesa greater number of ideas simultaneously, and preserves themunchanged for a longer space of time [n. 197]. For exercise106
  • 126. 120-124PSYCHOLOGICA.serie simul perceptarum. Numerus rerum oritur ab harmonicositu et influxu, quos recognoscere potest si membranae mediaesint aptae; ut plerumque tamen una membrana disponitalteram. Pariter quod eodem tempore, modo figura et har­moma.MS., 194.N. B. Una membrana disponit alteram, quia nexus est; siflaccior foret fieret altera etiam flaccior vel alia; non mutaripotest una, nisi aliquo modo mutetur altera.Exercitium dicitur iteratio; quod admittit gradus pro numeroactuum partim eodem, partim diverso tempore repetitorum.Exercitio opus est ut quid memoriae mandetur et eadem retin­eatur. Sine cultu et exercitio nihil venit in memoriam; seddatur dein memoria, quae detineat semel mandata, et quaeteneat non nisi aliquoties mandata.N. B. Sine cultu et exercitio nihil datur in imaginatione autmemoria, nisi quale in brutis. Quod homines excoli debeantet bruta non, est ratio quod anima polleat, quae aperiri etconnecti non potest, propter subtilitatem, nisi per exercitium;nec tantum habent ut bruta, quia est aliqua anima, quaeconfundit, itur longius nec terminatur in proxima, hinc con­fusum fit. Quidam tamen ex natura aptiores, melius ligantur,et membranae ducentes aptiores et similes paternis. Hincratio dari potest, cur homines a naturali instinctu non tantumhabeant quantum bruta; cur cultu opus habeant; cur aliquiproniores et meliores ex natura sint.Exercitio obtinetur, ut imaginatio ideas plures simul repro­ducat, et per longius temporis spatium immutatas conservet;1079
  • 127. 125-130PSYCHOLOGICA.forms the connection [with the soul], and the connection, figureand tension of the membranes; and it applies many [tremors] totheir own proper places and accustoms [the membranes] to thesensations thereof.125. The imagination is said to be extended if it can producemany ideas simultaneously, and when produced can hold themfor a long space of time [n. 198].126. If one wishes to extend his imagination and memory, hemust progress continuously from a lesser degree of extensionto a glcater [no 199]. In this way the connection is formed,and the extension and ngure of the membranes and organs.Unless this be done little by little and by degrees, nothing iseffected. This is true both of the visible and of the invisible.127. Things perceived distinctly are more easily committed tomemory and longer retained than things perceived confusedly[n. 200]. This is because they are in their proper places andare harmoniously joined together and mingled; hence [it be­comes] natural [to remember them].128. An acquired, and in particular an artificial memory isobtained by mnemonic art [n. 206]. This is easy because ofthe harmony and similitude.129. That the 111,emory can fail, is manifest [n. 209]. Thisis the fault of nature or of exercise, or of phantasy.*130. If we are not able to recognize an idea reproduced byaid of the senses, neither will we be able to reproduce it by forceof the imagination [n. 212]. This is true, but not always; fora man may remember a thing at one time, which at another timehe does not remember. The membranes may be so affected thatthey are entirely unable to receive a certain tone,-a conditionwhich may arise owing to some fluid or dryness, or othercause-and yet later that tone may be attained. Thus in sleepI cart frequently remember a thing, which when awake I havecompletely forgotten; as for instance Greek and Hebrew words,which I would never have known although I had read them.A man has heard in his brain the singing of melodies, whichotherwise he would have been entirely unaware of knowing.*Cf. n. 1096• 7•108
  • 128. 125-130PSYCHOLOGICA.quia exercitium format nexum et membranarum nexum,figuram, tensionem, et applicat plures suis locis, adsuescitsensationibus eorum.Imaginationem extendere si plures ideas simul producere,et per longum temporis spatium productas servare possit.Si quis imaginationem et memoriam extendere velit; a graduminori extensionis continuo progrediendum est ad majorem. Sicnexus formatur, extensio et figura membranarum et organorum;nisi sensim et per gradus, nihil fit, tarn in visibili quam ininvisibili.Quae distincte percipiuntur, memoriae facilius mandantur,diutiusque retinentur, quam quae confuse percipiuntur. Insuis locis sunt,4 et harmonice juncta et mixta: hinc naturale.Memoria acquisita, [ac] in specie artificiosa, arte mnemonicaobtinetur. Ob harmoniam et similitudinem facile.Memoriam labi posse manifestum est. Est vitium naturaevel exercitii; vel phantasiae.MS.,195. Ph., MS. 128.Si ideam ope sensuum reproductam non recognoscere valemus,nec eam vi imaginationis reproducere possumus. Hoc verumest, sed non semper; nam potest uno tempore reminisci ejus,cujus non alio tempore. Possunt membranae ita affectaeesse, ut ad ilIum tonum recipiendum nequaquam possint,quod ope alicujus fluidi, siccitatis, aut alius causae oriri potest,dein potest tonum ilIum adipisci; ut in somno possum recordarisaepe quod vigilans plane oblitus sim, Graecas et Hebraeasvoces, quas nequaquam scirem, quamvis legerim. Quidamin cerebra audivit cantantes cantilenas, quas alioquin nesciret4 est.109
  • 129. 131-133PSYCHOLOGICA.Memory comes and goes, and has its alternations. Ordinarily,however, Wolffs proposition is true.131. If we do not reproduce ideas for a long time, we becomeforgetful of the things represented by them [n. 217]. Thereasons are: because other tremors have occupied the place [ofthe tremors belonging to these ideas], or [the latter tremors]have joined themselves to others so that they can no longer beconjoined to these; because the membrane has become so dif­ferently formed that it is unable to give out the same tone,-theconnection being different, and also from other causes; becauselapse of time makes us for!!et, in that other and stronger toneshave occupied the same place. From these causes also it comesabout that we hesitate,-we know as it were, and do not know;for when [an idea] is conjoined with others, it acquires almostthe same tone, and then something else suddenly comes up,which has occupied the place. Therefore, Wo1ff continues, Ifthe idea of a thing, clearly perceived at some former time, hasbecome obscure when reproduced by force of the imagination,the soul has forgotten some of the things, which it had for­merly clearly perceived i1t that idea [n. 220]. Thus one part[of the things contained in an idea] may be lost and anotherremain,-the latter being conjoined with some other [tone ortremor].132. When we remember a thing, we seem to ourselves torecognize that which we had forgotten [no 232] ; because [thething] is mixed, and composed of parts, modes, time, and place.If we remember any part of it, we come also into this by aid ofthe parts of which it consists.[XI.]ATTENTION AND REFLECTION.133. We can bring it about, that in a compound perceptionwe apperceive one partial perception more than the others [no234] . This indeed is hard to explain until we have first seenthe nature of the will, and of the effect produced by the passionsof the body. Our ability to bring about the apperception re­ferred to, depends on the will. For we can move this foot or110
  • 130. 131-133PSYCHOLOGICA.se calluisse; redit et abit memoria, habetque suas vices. Sedordinarie verum est.Si quas ideas longo tempore non reproducimus, rerum perillas repraesentatarum obliviscimur. Causae sunt quod aliitremores occupaverint locum, vel cum aliis se junxerint, utcum illis amplius non conjungi possint; quod aliter formata sitmembrana, quam ut similem tonum edat, alius nexus et plurescausae, quod tempus faciat ut obliviscamur; quod alii tonivalidiores locum eundum occupaverint. Hinc datur etiamquod haereamus, sciamus quasi et non sciamus, quia cumaliis conjuncta fere eundem tonum nacta est, tunc statimsubit aliud quod locum occuparat. Unde etiam, Si rei anteaclare perceptae idea vi imaginationis reproducta fuerit obscura.,anima nonnullorum oblita est, quae in eadem clare perceperat.Sic pars perire potest, pars remanet cum alio juncta.Dum rei reminiscimur, eam recognoscere nobis videmur,quam obliti fueramus. Quia est mixta, composita ex partibus,modis, tempore, loco, si alicujus partis reminiscimur, venimusetiam in illam ope partium ex quibus constat.ATTENTIO ET REFLEXIO.Efficere possumus ut in perceptione composita, partialemunam magis appercipiamus, quam eeteras. Hoc difficile quidemexplicatu est, antequam viderimus qualis sit voluntas, etqualis effectus passionum corporis. Quod efficimus, id depen­det a voluntate, quum possumus hunc vel illum pedem, hunc111
  • 131. 133PSYCHOLOGICA.that, this finger or that; we can move our eyes and look at athing more or less sharply and exactly, or more or less ob­scurely. All these actions belong to the will; and therefore itis the will that must be investigated.THE WILL * originates either mediately from the senses; orfrom the subtle fluids which move the second and third mem­branes; t or from both together. If the body have been af­fected throughout its parts by certain tremors and by no others;if the liquids continually dispose the meninx to this motionrather than to any other; then it follows that the meninx ismore prone to this special tremor than to any other. If someother motive cause be added which arises from the senses, thenstraightway, on account of the similitude, the parts [of the body]are also moved together with their vessels; and consequently,by reason of the tremor, the latter throw off their liquor. Forby the tremor of a membrane, only the similar parts of its liquorare moved; which latter is more adapted to one kind of tremorthan to another. Corporeal things are adapted to a singletremor only; glass vessels are moved by the sound of their ownnote, the pews in a church by theirs, a string by its; thus likeby like. Since such liquors are contained in their vessels andglands, which are everywhere occupied by liquors of divers kind,therefore when a motion is impressed on a membrane, then atonce the liquors:j: contained in glands or vessels which are ofa like motion, are also moved. Consequently they are urgedinto motion, and carried off, and thus are also themselves thecause of a like motion in the membrane. Hence, when the[membrane] is concordant with these [motions] the immediateresult is a delay; and finally, pleasure is experienced or a moredelightful [delay], in that the membrane is moved, with theliquors assisting in the motion. From these causes there atonce arises a delay in that part where the desire is. Therefore[a partial perception] can be separated from a compound. Inthese matters there are infinite degrees. Thus if a delay is due,it must have its cause in the similitude of the liquid which isthe cause of the delay. Pleasure of this kind precedes will;*Cf. n. 100. :t The MS. has membranae (thet See n. 17. membranes).112
  • 132. 133PSYCHOLOGICA.vel ilium digitum movere, possumus oculos movere, et acutiuset exactius videre, obscurius; omnia voluntatis sunt. Hincindaganda est voluntas. Ortus ejus est vel ex sensibus mediate,dam3tiamvel ex fluidis subtilibus quae movent 2 et mem-branam, vel ex utroque simul. Si corpus affectum sit per suaspartes his tremoribus non aliis; si liquida continuo ad huncmotum quam alium disponant meningem; inde sequitur quodpronior ad hunc tremorem sit, quam ad alium. Si accedatcausa alia, quae moveat, a sensibus, ilIico moventur etiampartes propter similitudinem, et illorum vasa, et consequenterex tremore excutiunt suum liquorem; ex tremore enim mem-branae moventur, modo partes similes liquoris ejus qui aptiorMS., 196.est in hunc quam in alium tremorem; corporea non nisi adunum tremorem apta sunt; vitra ex suo sono moventur;scamna ex suo in ecclesia; nervus a suo; sic simile a simili.Quum tales liquores in suis vasis et glandulis sint, quae ubiquesunt liquoribus obsita diversi generis, a motu impresso mem-branae, illico membranae etiam in glandulis vel vasis moventurquae similis motus sunt, et consequenter in motum ciuntur,et excernuntur, et sic causantur etiam per se similem in mem-branam motum, unde statim fit mora, ubi concordat cumillis, et fit tandem voluptas aut jucundior, quia movetur mem-brana etiam illis auxiliantibus, ex his fit statim mora in iliaparte, ubi desiderium est. Ergo a composito separari potest.Dantur in his gradus infiniti; aut ut si mora esse debeat, debetcausam habere in similitudine liquidi, quod causa est morae,voluntatem praecedit talis voluptas, adeo ut quae volunta-113
  • 133. 134-137PSYCHOLOGICA.and so the things which rule the will * are merely pleasures andthe degrees thereof. This is effected in the third meninx; t thesoul remaining ever the same, and likewise the second membrane.Thus, because [the pleasure] comes from the third membrane,there is therefore an immediate emmeshing and separation [ofthe partial perception]. Frequently we do not sensate suchpleasures; frequently they hide themselves under other causeswhich will come out long afterwards. Nevertheless the pleasureis there. It becomes sensible if the fourth meninx also bemoved, and if there be a copious outflow [of liquor]. This isthe cause of attention and reflexion.As to the senses being attentive, this comes partly from theabove causes, and partly from the fact that the senses have beenthus disposed by continual use. But when [sensation] nolonger reaches to the pia mater, and the dura, [the senses]sleep.134. That a partial perception becomes clearer if we give ourattention to it [no 235, 237], is quite evident from the precedingconsideration; and also that In a compound perception we canso bring it about that one partial perceprion nas greater claritythan the others [n. 236].135. [When directed to phantasms] this attention is fre­quently impeded by the senses,. and [when directed to feeblesensations], by stronger sensations [n. 238].136. If we wish to give our attention to phantasms, we musthinder external objects from acting upon the sensory organs:j:[no 239]. This is done spontaneously; for the motions ortremors of the membrane are too strong to allow of dissimilartremors striking the membrane at one and the same time. Inthese matters there are a thousand varieties.137. Some are able to keep their attention on one and thesame object for a long time,. with others, the attention dies outat once [n. 244]. This comes from differences of tempera­ments, ac~ording as one has a large or a small quantity of such*The MS. has voluptatem t See n. 17.(pleasure), but we have assumed :j: As for instance, we close thethat this is a slip for voluntatem eyes when we wish to hold our at­(the will). tention to some imagination (ib.).114
  • 134. 134-137PSYCHOLOGICA.tern 6 regant, sint mere voluptates et illarum gradus; hoc intertia meninge; anima manet semper eadem, et pariter alteraPh. MS., 129.membrana; sic quia venit a membrana 3tiahinc statim irretitioet separatio. Saepe tales voluptates non sentimus, saepe secondunt sub aliis causis longe post derivandis, usque tamenadest; sensibilis fit, si 6 ipsa 4tameninx etiam moveatur, etcopiosum effluvium sit. Hoc est causa attentionis et reflex­ionis. Quod vera sensus attendant, venit partim ab iisdemcausis, partim quod ex continuo usu sic dispositi sint; at veraquum non amplius pertingit ad piam matrem et duram, tuncdormiunt.Quod partialis clarior fiat si attendamus ad illam, ex superi­oribus satis notum est. Et, Efficere possumus ut una partialismajorem claritatem caeteris habeat.Impeditur haec attentio saepe a sensibus et a fortioribus.Si ad phantasmata attenti esse velimus, ne objecta externa inorgana sensoria agant, impedimus. Hoc sponte fit, nam motusvel tremores membranae fortiores sunt, quam ut simul tre­mores dissimiles possint incutere. Dantur in his mille varie­tates.Alii attentionem ad idem objectum diu conservare possunt;oziorum attentio statim expirat. Hoc venit a temperamentis,quodtalium liquorum multam vel exiguam copiam habeat,voluptatem. I sit.115I
  • 135. 138-143PSYCHOLOGICA.liquors; or has more of some other liquor; or as contrary mo­tions exist. [The attention] goes to that [motionJ which isstimulated by these liquid parts. We can experience this on alarger scale when we are affected by something; for then wecan give our attention to it alone, and to nothing else; and cer­tainly, we must make conclusions from the greater to the lesser.138. Some can give attention to many things simultaneously;others to fewer [n. 245] . This is according as the passions aremingled, and the membranes fashioned.139. Degrees of attention are acquired by exercise [n. 248J.The reason is, because in process of time a stimulating liquorof this kind, whether bilious or some other subtle liquor, can beformed by exercise; and so also the excretory vessels whichshall continually afford assistance, and thus produce delay inthe imagination. For in time all things of this kind can beformed and adapted. Hence, In one way or another a personmay be so prepared that at last he can remain attentive in themidst of loud noises [n. 249J. One can acquire this ability invarious ways, according as he commences, continues, and stimu­lates his appetite gradually and little by little.140. By long intermission in its use, each degree of attentionis again lost [n. 254]. The cause is the same.141. We can give our attention to any of the different partsof a total perception, one after the other, exactly as we please[n. 256]. This is the result of delay, and of our appetite forthe whole.142. The faculty of reflecting is the faculty of directing onesattention at will to the things contained within the thing per­ceived [no 257]. This results from our appetite for the whole,and from the organs and the soul, in which latter the mingledmotion is concentrated.[XII.]CONCERNING THE INTELLECT AND COGNITION.143. In discriminating the genera and species of things onefrom the other, it is our wont to indicate them by certain articu­late sounds [n.269J.116
  • 136. 138-143PSYCHOLOGICA.quod plus alius, quod contrarii motus existant, aufert ad quemstimulant partes illae liquidae. Hoc experiri possumus inmajori si veniat affectus quod ei tantum non alio possimusattenti; a majori ad minus omnino concludendum est.Alii ad plura simul possunt esse attenti, alii ad pauciora. Sipassiones mixtae sint; et membranae efformatae.MS., 197.Gradus attentionis exercitatione comparantur. Quia temporistractu potest talis liquor vel felinus vel alius subtilis stimulansper exercitium formari; ita vasa excretoria, ut talem liquoremabundanter recipiant, et illum copia effundant, et semperadjuvent, et moram faciant imaginationis. Omnia enim taliaformari et aptari possunt tempore. Hi[n]c quocunque modopraeparari potest,ut tandem inter strepitus attendat. Variismodis sic potest acquirere, prout successive et sensim incipit,continuat, et appetitum stimulat.Gradus quilibet attentionis diu intermisso ejus usu iterumamittitur. Eadem causa.Attentionem nostram successive ad alias aliasque partes per­ceptionis totalis promovere valemus, prouti visum nobis fuerit.Quod fit ex mora, et appetitu totius.Facultas reflectendi est attentionem suam ad ea quae in repercepta insunt, pro arbitrio dirigendi. Fit ex appetitu totius,et ex organis, et anima, in qua est motus mixtus con[c]entratus.DE INTELLECTU ET COGNITIONE.Rerum genera et species a se invicem discreturi, per sonosquosdam articulatos ea indicare solemus.117
  • 137. 144-148PSYCHOLOGICA.144. The greater the number of the things one can represent[to himself] distinctly,. or can distinguish in one and the samesubject,. the greater is the intellect [n. 276-71.[XII!.][THE THREE OPERATIONS OF THE INTELLECT.]145. There are three operations of the intellect, namely, N 0­tion with simple apprehension, Judgment, and Discourse [no325].146. The first operation of the intellect is the representationof many things; one by one, in a single thing [n. 330]. In suchcase the similes are concurrent. Therefore according as oneexcels another in being able to distinguish more things in anobject, so he is more acute [no 332].147. N. B. That we may know the connection and the non­connection which constitutes JUDGMENT, [we must considerthat] judgment comes from use and exercise in joining manythings together. Thus, as soon as we have joined 2 and 3 to­gether, with the result 5 as a single tone, or as a mixed tone;and also 3 and 6 with the result 9; we then go higher in ourprogressive exercise, and this in the same way, namely by join­ing 5 and 9 so as to obtain 14. We then go on obtaining otherresults of the same kind, using wholes or a part, so that a newresult arises which is a mixed tone; and so on ascending higherand higher. The cause of the one operation, is the same as thatof the next; but the intellect is higher in proportion as thenumber of the things which it can compound and then divide isgreater. Thus as soon as it joins the letters (a) and (d), itthen knows what (ad) is; then (ad) must be added to anothercompound (cum); later it must form sentences, and then theconnections of sentences. Thus results connection and judg­ment. It is the same in music.148. Therefore the intellect is represented more by wordsthan by the eye, for in words is contained this art [of connectingand judging]: If art can represent a sentence by a single hiero­glyphic sign or compound character, what cannot the soul do bya single mixed tone, where parts are as it were confused, butcompounds become clear!118
  • 138. 144-148PSYCHOLOGICA.Quo plum quis distincte repraesentare [potest], vel in eademsubjecto distinguere, eo major est intellectus.Tres sunt inteUectus operationes, notio cum simplici appre­hensione, judicium, et discursus.I. Prima inteUectus operatio est plurium in re una sigiUatimfacta repraesentatio. Ibi similia concurrunt. Quo erga plum inobjecto aliquo distinguere valet, eo acutior est altero.N. B. Ut scire possimus nexum et non nexum, quod estjudicium, venit ex usu et exercitio conjungendi plura, ut quumprimum conjunxerimus 2 et 3, adeo ut sit 5 unus tonus, veltonus mixtus; quoque 3 et 6 quod sit 9, demum altius progredi-Ph. MS., 130.mur exercitio ex eodem modo, scilicet jungendo 5 et 9 ut fiat14, dein alia talia cum totis vel cum parte, ut sit aliud, esttonus mixtus, sic altius et altius, estque eadem causa, uniuset alterius; sed altior intellectus est quo plura componerepotest et dein dividere. Ut primum literas a et d, dein quidsit (ad), dein addendum (ad) ad aliud (cum) dein sententias,dein sententiarum nexus, sic sit nexus et judicium. Sic inmusicis.MS., 198.Ergo intellectus major repraesentatur per verba quam peroculum, quia in verbis est ilia ars. Si ars potest per unumsignum hieroglyphicum aut characterem compositum reprae­sentare unam sententiam, quid non anima per unum tonummixtum; ubi partes tanquam confusae sunt sed composita fiuntc1ara.119
  • 139. 149-156•PSYCHOLOGICA.149. In demonstrations * thoughts proceed in the same wayas that in which series of notions and perceptions generally run;and in the most natural order [n. 395-6].150. N. B. These compounds also have their harmony. [Ademonstration] proceeds from a syllogism and ends in a con­clusion, and this harmonically. This is represented by syllo­gisms; and it may also be represented by letters and by num­bers. There is a similarity in all these cases. Hence comesharmony of tone or non-harmony. Moreover, in this way onecan attain to the unknown. Here may be applied the whole oflogic and of rational philosophy.[XIV.][NATURAL DISPOSITIONS AND HABITS OF THE INTELLECT.]151. Habit is acquired only by exercise; and by means ofexercise disposition is turned to habit [n. 430]. In this waythe organs are formed; and in this way a habit in tone ortremor, is acquired.152. A habit acquired by constant use is both preserved andperfected. A habit may also be lost and an opposite habit takeits place [no 431, 433].153. One is more solid,t in the degree that, in proving prin­ciples, he draws nearer to irresolute notions [n. 442].154. Heuristic *artifices [are rttles] whereby the mind isfitted to elicit an unknown truth by means of principles per­spicuous to it [n.469].155. One who is endowed with a good genius, has also a goodmemory. Discoverers have need of genius [no 480-1].156. One who sees the connection between many universaltruths, has more of reason than one who sees the connectionbetween few [no 488]." Wolff illustrates the proposi­ distinctly, and of concatenating rea­tion by examples of syllogistic sons" (n. 440).demonstrations, :j: From the Greek (~pt(TKW to find,t Wolff defines solidity of the discover.intellect as "the habit of reasoning120
  • 140. 149-156PSYCHOLOGICA.In demonstrationibus cogitationes eodem modo procedunt,quo series notionum ac perceptionum communiter continuantur,et ordine maxime naturali.N. B. Composita haec harmoniam suam etiam habent.Desinit ex syllogismo in conc1usum, et hoc harmonice, quodrepraesentatur per syllogismos; potest etiam per litcras, pernumerOSj est similitudo omnium; hine fit harmonia toni velnon. Perveniri sic etiam potest ad non cognitum. Hie appli­cari potest tota logica et philosophia rationalis. .Habitus non nisi exercitio acquiritur, et dispositio medianteexercitio in habitum convertitur. Sic formantur organa, sicacquiritur habitus in tono et tremore.Habitus acquisitus continuo usu et conservatur et perficitur.Habitus etiam potest amitti et contrarius succedere.Tanto quis solidior est, quo in probandis principiis propiusaccedit ad notiones irresolubiles.Artificia heuristica sunt quibus mens apta eificitur per princi­pia ipsi perspecta veritatem incognitam eruendi.Qui ingenio idem et memoria pollet; inventores ingenio opushabent.Ratio major ei est, qui plurium veritatum universalium nexumperspicit, quam illi qui pauciorum nexum perspicit.121
  • 141. 157-159PSYCHOLOGICA.157. All that is learned by aid of the reason is gathered fromother propositions) or from judgments and definitions previouslyfamiliar to us [n. 494].158. N. B. The sense of touch begins in the nerves andtheir membranes but is sensated in the soul; and this moreacutely in man than in any other animal, inasmuch as mans soulis more subtle. Pain or grief is a sensation in the soul; by itsaid the connection is sundered and an entire part of the soulsmembrane is so moved from its situation by distraction or alter­nation that it is unable to admit tremors. The opposite of painis sweet and gladsome.[XV.]CONCERNING PLEASURE AND WEARINESS.159. N. B. THE ORIGIN OF PLEASURE ex posteriori: * 1.Pleasure originates from the eye, the ear, the taste; in shortfrom the senses, subtle and gross. 2. From the phantasy orimagination. This is the same thing as from the senses; forthe senses are the origin of the imagination. Therefore pleasuremay be created by the imagination without the aid of the senses.3. From highly subtle particles coming in contact with mem­branes. Wherever there are membranes, whether in the brainor elsewhere, there pleasure is seen to arise. Therefore it arisesfrom saline or diversely angular particles whether these be con­tained in liquids or not. This is well known from experience.That such particles excite pleasure is seen from their effects, inthat humors are secreted in the saliva, in the eyes, in the blood,as a result of gladness. That [gladness operates] in this way,may be seen in the face, as a result of the blood. 4. Such pleas­ure is either connate,-when it is regarded as part of the tem­perament; or adscititious,-when it is acquired by practice orexercise. Hence an index of pleasure stands out in the face.tS. Since the membranes are moved in a similar way, and observea harmony with the motion excited by the particles, thereforephantasy and the particles, constitute a single or similar motion.*Cf. n. 104. t Cf. n. 74.122
  • 142. 157-159PSYCHOLOGICA.Quicquid beneficio rationis cognoscitur, id ex aliis proposition-ibus sive judiciis atque definitionibus, quae antea nobis innotuere,colligitur.N. B. Sensus tactus incipit in nervis illorumque membranis,sed sentitur in anima, et eo acutius in homine quam in alioanimali, quia anima est subtilior; dolor est sensus in anima,cujus ope nexus divellitur, et tota membranae animae parsmovetur e situ suo per distractionem vel alterationem ut nonadmittere possit tremores; contra est dulce et laetum.MS., 199.DE VOLUPTATE ET TAEDIO.N. B. Origo voluptatis ex posteriori: 1 Ex oculo, ex aure,ex gustu, verba ex sensibus subtilioribus et crassioribus. 2.Ex phantasia vel imaginatione, quod idem est, quia sensussunt origines imaginationis; ergo imaginatio sola sine sensuumope creare potest voluptatem. 3. Ex particulis subtilissimistangentibus membranas, ubicunque sint membranae in cere-bro, alibi, videmus inde oriri voluptatem; ergo a particulissalinis aut diverse angularibus in liquidis vel sine liquidis;quod ab experientia satis notum, quod tales excitent volup-tatem, ab effectis quod humores secernantur, in saliva, inPh. MS., 13I.oculis ex laetitia, in sanguine, quod taliter videatur in facieex sanguine. 4. Talis est vel connata, et audit ut pars subtemperamentis, vel adscititia per usum vel exercitium, undevoluptatis index est exstasis in facie. S. Quod membranaesimiliter moveantur, et harmoniam habeant cum motu excitatoa particulis, ergo phantasia et particulae unum motum vel12310
  • 143. 160-162PSYCHOLOGICA.6. When there are juices in their vessels, glands, etc., the mem­branes themselves are moved in the same way; therefore theyare excited in this way when a similar tremor comes to themfrom other origins. 7. Thus pleasure originates from phan­tasy; or from sense; or from parts [in contact with membranes).Because of a like motion and its reception in the vessels, onekind of liquor is excerned and no other. Thus the pleasureincreases and is diffused throughout the whole body.160. If the perfection is a true perfection,· and if he who isconscious of it can demonstrate that the thing is perfect; thepleasure is constant [no 513]. There exists a second cause ofpleasure if the thing perceived be harmonious, and if it flowsto the senses or the soul in this way, and not by what is inhar­mo,nious or dissonant. This is true of all the senses; it is trueof the imagination; it is true of simples, of compounds, ofmodes, of logic, of everything; for it is capable of the widestpossible extension. Hence it comes, that harmonies pleasinglydispose all the nerves of the senses; as may be seen in the sight,the hearing, the phantasy, etc. This, therefore, admits of de­grees; the pleasure is greater or less in proportion as the thingperceived is more or less harmonious.161. N. B. The opposite of pleasure is weariness, in that inthe phantasy there is a departure from harmony. In the grosser[membranes) the result is dissonance, undelight, pain, bitter­ness, etc. The cause is the same as with pleasure. Thus weari­ness, being opposite to pleasure, admits of the same degrees.162. If pleasures be so mingled that they are many in num­ber, and if the many be not alike, they come together in a singlepleasure. If there be many wearinesses, and these be great andlittle and of divers kinds, they come together in a single weari­ness. If pleasure and weariness exist together, both are per­ceived; but each according to its own degree; hence the one mayovercome the other. Therefore pleasure may vary according*Wolff defines Perfection as Pleasure he defines as "the intu­"Consensus in variety, or the con- itive knowledge of the perfectionsensus in one, of many things mu- of a thing" (Psy. Emp. 511).tually different from each other." "Thus we perceive pleasure fromHe illustrates this by the eye, a a watch in that we are conscious ofwatch, etc. (Ontologia, 503). its perfection" (ib. 512).124
  • 144. 160-162PSYCHOLOGICA.similem constituunt. 6. Ipsae membranae ubi sunt succi invasis, glandulis, etc., eodem modo moventur, ergo sic excitantur,quum similis tremor occurrit ab aliis originibus. 7. Sic ortusex phantasia, vel sensu, vel partibus; propter motum similemet receptum in vasculis excernitur ille non alius liquor; sicquecrescit voluptas, seque per totum corpus diffundit.Si perfectio fuerit vera et qui ejusdem sibi conscius est, remesse perfectam demonstrare possit, voluptas constans est. Alteravoluptatis causa est si harmonicum sit et sic fluat ad sensusvel animam, non per dishannonicum et dissonum; hoc inomnibus sensibus, hoc in imaginatione, in simplicibus, incompositis, in modis, in logicis, in omni re, quod extendi potest,quam amplissime. Hinc fit quod hannoniae disponant beneomnes sensuum nervos; quod videre licet in visu, auditu,phantasia, etc. Ergo gradus hie admittit; major vel minorvoluptas, quo m[a]gis et minus est hannonicum.N. B. Contrarium est taedium quatenus in phantasia abhannonia recedit; in crassioribus fit dissonum, injucundum,dolorificum, amarum, etc. Eadem causa. Admittit sic hosgradus, quia oppositum est priori.MS., 200.Si voluptates misceantur ut plures sint, si plures nee similes,coeunt in unam. Si taedia plura, si majora minorave, etdiversa, coeunt in unum. Si voluptas et taedium simul,utrumque percipitur, sed secundum gradum cujusvis. Hincunum potest superare alterum. Hinc variare potest voluptas125
  • 145. 163-170PSYCHOLOGICA.to the [receptive] organs, according to the differences in cultiva­tion, and so forth.163. Pain is a species of weariness [no 541].164. If a thing is good we receive pleasure from it * [n. 558].This is true because good involves the element of harmony.The opposite is the case with evil [n. 569].[XV!.][SENSITIVE ApPETITE AND SENSITIVE AVERSION.]165. N. B. Appetite comes after pleasure. If pleasure pre­cedes, appetite follows; and it arises from the lingering of pleas­ure. Pleasure and appetite are given different names accordingto the modes of the sensations; as for instance, in the varioussenses, in the imagination, in the reason. The opposite of appe­tite is aversion and hatred. In every appetite there are degrees,mixtures and varieties, just as in pleasure.t[XVII.][AFFECTIONS. ]166. Affections are acts of the soul whereby the soul shows·vehement appetite for a thing, or vehement aversion [no 603].In what respect this is of the soul, is a matter we shall demon­strate.167. Pleasure and weariness are not affections [n. 607].168. N. B. Pleasure exists from perfection even in touch;for it exists from the harmonic undulation of an element; asfor instance the pleasure of the body in its grosser particles;for the [undulations of the elements and the membranes of thebody] unite together, by reason of their similitude.169. Joy [is the predomination of pleasures (n. 614)]. Itarises from pleasure and [is shared] with the body. Sorrowis the opposite of joy [n. 619].170. Love is the disposition of the soul to perceive pleasure[in the happiness of another (n. 633)]. Not so. Love is the*Wolffs words are: If we are t Cf. Wolff, Psychol. Emp., n.cognizant of good, we perceive 599.pleasure from it.126
  • 146. 163-170PSYCHOLOGICA.secundum organa, secundum diversitatem cultu[s], etc.Dolor taedii species est.Si bonum est, voluptatem ex 7 eo concipimus. Quia bonuminvolvit harmonicum. Contra est malum.N. B. Appetitussequiturvoluptatem. Sivoluptaspraecedit,sequitur appetitus, oriturque ex mora voluptatis. Voluptas etappetitus varia nomina sortitur secundum sensationurn modos,ut in variis sensibus, in imaginatione, in ratione. Contrariumest aversatio et odium. Dantur gradus, mixtiones et varie­tates in quovis appetitu prout in voluptate.Affectus sunt actus animae quibus quid vehementer appetivel aversatur. Quatenus animae sit demonstrabimus.Voluptas et taedium non sunt affectus.N. B. Voluptas ex perfectione consistit etiam in tactu, namin undulatione elementi harmonica, ut voluptas corporis inparticulis crassioribus, sed se uniunt, ob similitudinem.Gaudiumoritur a voluptate et cum corpore. Tristitia veracontra.Amor est dispositio animae ad percipiendum voluptatem.7 id.127
  • 147. 171-184PSYCHOLOGICA.effect of pleasure, or its inseparable companion. Like all otheraffections, it differs in degrees and in names. It arises frompleasure, thus from harmony.171. H atrcd is the opposite of love [n. 661].172. Pity (commiseratio) [is sorrow mising from the per­ception of anothers unhappiness (n. 687)].173. Envy [is sorrow arising from the perception of anothershappiness (n. 70S)]. What is envied is the happiness of aperson whom one hates.174. Derision [is joy perceived from what one thinks can bettwned to anothers injury (n. 730)] . What laughter is[namely, it arises from things which in our opinion are absurd(n. 743)].175. Acquiescence [in onesclf,*is joy on account of the goodwhich we have done (n. 749)].176. Repentance [is sorrow arising from the thought that wehave done ill (n. 755)].177. Glory [is jO)1 perceived from the kindly judgment byothers concerning us and ours (n. 765)].178. Shame [is sorrow perceived from the sinister judgmentby others concerning us and ours (n. 774)].179. A grateful mi1td [or gratitude, is love of a benefactorbecause of his benefits (n. 784)].180. Favor [is love of another because of a good which weconsider as peculiar to him (n. 791)].181. Hope [is pleasure perceived from a good to be obtained.If this hope predominates, it becomes] Joy. [Joy arising fromthe good to be obtained is called] Trust [no 796].182. Cupidity [is the foretaste of pleasure from an absentgood, which we would prefer to be present (n. 80S)].183. Flight [or flight from evil, is a foretaste of the sorrowperceived as coming from an absent evil if it were present (n.813)] .184. Dread [is the weariness perceived from an evil which isabout to come upon us. If this evil is perceived as intolerable,we have] Despair [no 820].*I.e., Self-satisfaction.128
  • 148. 171-184PSYCHOLOGICA.Ph., MS. 132.Non, sed est effectus voluptatis seu comes individuus. Dif­fert ut omnia, gradibus et nominibus. Oritur a voluptate sicab harmonia.Odium est contra.Commiseratio. Pusillanimitas. Animositas.Invidia, felicitas ejus Desiderium. Hilaritas. Fasti­quem odit. dium. Pudor, ira. Vin­Irrisio. Risus quid. dicta. Indignatio.Acquiescentia.Paenitentia.Gloria. Pudor. Animus gratus. Favor. Spes, gaudium,fiducia. Cupiditas. Fuga. Metus, desperatio. Fluctuatioanimi. Terror, horror.129
  • 149. 185-198PSYCHOLOGICA.185. Fluctuation [or vacillation] of mind (animus) [is analternation of pleasure and weariness in regard to some good,the possibility of securing which, is uncertain (n. 831)].186. Terror [arises from the coming of an unforeseen evil;]Horror [from a conception of its immensity (n. 839)].187. Pusillanimity [is sorrow arising from the difficulty ofobtaining a desired good (n. 841)].188. Courage (aniwwsitas) [is the predominance of a cupidityand hope, that overcome the dread arising from the difficulty ofobtaining a good (n. 847)].189. Desire [is weariness arising from the delay of a cominggood which is hoped for (n. 852) ].190. Hilarity [is joy because an evil is past (n. 855)].191. Fastidiousness [is weariness arising from that in whichformerly we had perceived pleasure (n. 858)].192. Shame [is mingled with] Anger [when an injury doneto us hurts, or when we think it hurts our reputation (n. 863)].193. [The desire of] revenge [is the desiring evil to anotherwhom we consider the cause of a present evil to ourselves (n.871)] .194.* Indignation [arises when we perceive weariness becauseof an injury done to us, but with a mind alien to the desire ofrevenge (n. 873)].[XVII!.]CONCERNING THE WILL.195. The will is defined as be.ing rational aPPetite [n.880].V olition is the act of willing [n. 882].196. Without 11wtilJes there can be no volition in the soul, norany nolition [no 889].197. Whenever we will anything, tve represent it as good;and the reverse [n. 892].198. If one would learn distinctly how appetite or aversion 1Sborn, he must give his attention to those cases where we appetizeor are averse to a thing for the first time [n. 924].*The words in nos. 187-194 are margin of the MS.written at a later time in the right130
  • 150. 185-198PSYCHOLOGICA.[Pusillanimitas. A nimositas.Desiderium. Hilaritas. Fasti­dium. Pudor, ira. Vin­dicta. Indignatio.]MS., 201.De Voluntate.Definitur voluntas quod sit appetitus rationalis. VoUtio actus.Sine motivis nulla datur in anima volitio aut nolitio.Quoties quid volumus, repraesentamus tanquam bonum; etcontra.Distincte cogniturus quo modo appetitus vel aversatio nascatur,ad eos casus attendere debet, ubi aliquid prima vice appetimusvel aversamur.131
  • 151. 199-200PSYCHOLOGICA.199. W olff illustrates appetite and aversion by a balance orscale [n.92S].[XIX.][THE WILL AND ITS DETERMINATIONS.]200. N. B. THE WILL. As regards its origin,* it is known:1. That there is a certain natural something; that there is acertain natural aptitude; a certain self in all natural acts. Inbrutes, such as horses, fowl, serpents, we have the natural actof walking immediately after their exclusion from the womb;and consequently it is connate with brutes to move their legs,eyes, ears, neck, tail, and with some to move also their wingsand skin; that is to say, to move all the membranes that havebecome solid. Thus brutes grow not only into an ,aptitude forthese acts but also into the acts themselves. In man there arenot many such acts. Man can hardly draw breath except bythe force of the air; he can hardly move his eyes; and he moveshis feet, arms and fingers only after some time. That which ismoved first, is the first to grow hard; but even while it is grow­ing, the aptitude is within it. This aptitude is natural. Thusin the case of man, as he grows, he grows in accordance withthe aptitude within. In some features he grows to solidity inorder that the aptitude may come into act, which happens withina few days. In others this happens within a few years, in some,within eight years, and in others within twenty, thirty, fortyand fifty years. Thus some persons, when they have arrived ata certain age, develop a likeness to some ancestor when he hadcome to the same age five generations back.2. [Will arises] from custom and habit, and therefore thingsmust be formed by habit; as for instance, in man, by the habitof walking, or moving himself this way or that, of applying hisfingers to musical instruments and strings, of speaking articu­lately, of putting things together, of reasoning, etc. By customan action passes into habit, so that the parts flow into such actionas it were involuntarily,-as we see in the turning of the eyes,* Cf. n. 133.132
  • 152. 199-200PSYCHOLOGICA.Illustrat appetitum et aversationem ex libra.N. B. Voluntas. Quaortumnotum est, I. Quod quiddamsitnaturale, quiddam sit aptitudo naturalis, quiddam est ipsein actu naturali, ut sit naturale ut in brutis statim eundi postprimam exclusionem ex alvo, ut in equis, in pullis, in serpenti-bus, et consequenter sit conp-atum pedes, oculos, aures, collum,caudam, aliqui etiam alas, cutem, hoc est, omnes membranassolidas factas, adeo ut creverint non modo in aptitudinem sedetiam in ipsum actum, in homine non multa, vix auram trahit,nisi vi aeris, vix oculos, post multum temporis pedes, brachia,digitos; quodcumque primo movetur, hoc primum indurescit;sed tamen inest aptitudo dum crescat. Aptitudo naturalisest ut in homine, ubi dum crescit secundum aptitudinem cres-cit, in quibusdam rebus ad soliditatem ut in actum venirepossit, fit intra aliquot dies, in quibusdam rebus intra annos,in quibusdam intra 8 annos, et intra 20, 30, 40 et S0, adeo utin quibusdam oriantur similes parentibus quinquogenariis,quum illi ad eandem aetatem pervenerint. 2. Ex consuetu-dine et habitu, adeo ut formanda sint per habitum, ut inhomine eundi, se sic et sic movendi, digitos applicandi adMS., 202.instrumenta et nervos, loquendi articulate, componendi,ratiocinandi, etc. Ex consuetudine transit in [h]abitum, adeout sic quasi involuntarie fluant; quod videmus in oculorum133
  • 153. 201-202PSYCHOLOGICA.in the movements of the fingers over strings, in the motions ofthe tongue and throat in the utterance of words, [of the hands]in the acts of writing, [of the brain] in the forming of judg­ments, and so on, from the grossest region to the finest,-andthen the action flows spontaneously.*3. [Will arises] from appetite which directs the will; thusappetite or pleasure precedes will.We observe these three points in respect to the will. Thuswe may now see the causes of actions in the will.201. The question arises, WHAT IS THE PROXIMATE CAUSE?This also is known and is indubitable, namely, that it lies in themotion of the parts; for without a primitive motion as a cause,there can be no derivative. That there is motion in the musclesand motion in their tendons; and that this motion is a kind oftraction, and relaxation, is manifest to the sight. And so alsoit cannot be denied that there is motion in the tendinous andmembranous fibres, and that this motion is a compression anda loosening of the parts.202. The question now arises: WHAT IS THE Nf>.TURE OF THEMOTION IN THESE FIBRES? I say that it is an undulation inmost highly subtle parts, such as membranes; a motion whichwhen once begun will continue to the extreme terminus. Andsince this motion proceeds, not at first through the fibres, butthrough their membranes, or perhaps through most highly subtle[fibres] from one extremity to the other, the result is compres­sion and relaxation. That larger and smaller wavelets (un­dttlae) can be formed and maintained, has been shown clearlyenough; t but they are too gross for the soul to sensate them.It can be seen from undulating threads that an entire threadhas an aptitude to the same kind of undulation; and that thisundulation can proceed only to a definite terminus, and cannotstop even there. That a greater or lesser motion of this kindcan exist, may be seen ocularly; and that it contracts andloosens. Like an undulating or waving rope, it has its maxi­mum force in its extremity. Hence small threads are moved* Cf. Principia I, 4, p. 41. tN.27.134
  • 154. 201-202PSYCHOLOGICA.Ph. MS., 133.conversione, in digitorum in nervis, in linguae et gutturis, inverbis, in scribendis, in judicandis et sic a crassissimo adminimum, ut dein sponte fluat. 3. Ex appetitu, qui dirigitvoluntatem, adeo ut voluntatem praecedet appetitus vel volup­tas. Haec tria observamus circa voluntatem. Sic videmuscausas actorum in voluntate.Quaeritur causa proxima; hoc etiam notum et indubiumest, quod sit motus partium; sine mote primitivo, derivativumnon oritur; esse motum in musculis, esse in illorum tendinibus,esse quasi tractionem et relaxationem, hoc oculariter patet,esse in fibris tendineis, et membranaceis, hoc nee negari potest;sit compressio et laxatio partium.Quaeritur jam qualis sit motus in illis fibris. Dico esse undu­lationem in subtilissimis, ut membranis, qui inceptus con­tinuabit ad extremum, quod cum fit non primum per fibrassed earum membranas vel fortassis subtilissimas, ab unoextremo ad alterum, hinc fit compressio et relaxatio. Quodundulae majores et minores formari possunt et dari satis estostensum, sed crassiores sunt,S ut illas non sentiat anima; exfilis undulantibus videri potest aptitudo totius fili in eandemundulationem, nee nisi ad certum terminum pergit, nee desi­nere potest in illo, quod major et minor hie motus existerepossit, oculariter videmus, quod contrahatur, laxetur, utfunis undulans in extremitate maximum vim habet. Hinc8 est.135
  • 155. 203-204PSYCHOLOGICA.[by this undulatory motion] more rapidly than large; shortmuscles than long, and so forth. Stout muscles are moved morepowerfully than thin.203. And now the question is: How CAN THE SOUL DETER­MINE SUCH MOTION INTO ACT? That this is done from desire,and imagination, and habit is well known. Since every motionin the soul itself must recognize such desire, therefore thetremor will proceed in the most highly subtle membrane, andwith the spreading of thi~ tremor, there will come at last anundulation in the grosser membranes.* If this undulation beother than natural, the result is pain. All pain consists in thefact that the most highly subtle membranes cannot be movedlike the grosser. It also follows that larger motions are merelylarger wavelets (undulae) , inasmuch as they are reciprocations.Take for instance the leg or arm; when the leg or arm is moved,and until it comes into its natural state, [the motion] describesan equal amount of space and often of the same figure, until itwithdraws or yields. So likewise in the eyes, the neck, etc.204. But it is asked: How CAN IT BE TERMINATED INTO ONEPART AND NOT INTO ANOTHER? IF IT ARISE IN A HIGHLYSUBTLE TUNIC, AND THUS TREMBLES FROM ITS FIRST ORIGIN,WHY DOES IT NOT SPREAD MORE WIDELY THROUGH SIMILAR MEM­BRANES AND INDEED TO A GREATER MOTION? No muscle ornone of the fibres in the different muscles has the like tone withany other muscle or fibre. There are as many variations asthere are muscles, and as many are possible as there are fibres.I f you took a hundred or ten thousand nerves, you would neverfind them alike. There is not a single thing in them that isalike. They differ in length, in thickness, in composition; andif there is the least difference in these, then a minute discrimi­nation will arise in the motion. Thus there is a different tremorin the subtle [membrane] of the cerebrum, when one membranetrembles, than when another. If there is a tremor in the subtlemembrane, nothing but what is similar thereto can be moved inthe grosser membranes, in that the tremor flows harmonically.And since membranes are spread throughout the whole body,• Cf. Mat. of Elements, 4.136
  • 156. 203-204PSYCHOLOGICA.parvi citius moventur quam magni, et musculi breviores quamlongiores, etc. Crassiores validius quam tenuiores.Quaeritur jam quomodo anima talem in actum determinarepotest. Quod ex desiderio et imaginatione et habitu sit notumest. Quum omnis motus in ipsa anima agnoscet tale, praecedettremor in membrana subtilissima, quae se dissipans tandemin crassioribus existit undulatio; si alia undulatio quam natu­ralis fit dolor. Omnis dolor in eo consistit, quod subtilissi­MS., 203.mae non moveri possint ut crassiores 9 sequitur etiam quodipsi motus majores sint tantum undulae majores, quia suntreciprocationes, ut in pede, in brachio, dum movetur et usquedum venit in statum naturalem tantum spatii et saepe similisfigurae facit, usque dum redit, sic in oculis, collo, etc.Sed quaeritur quomodo terminari possit in hanc non in illampartem, cur non per similes membranas se dissipet, si oriatur intunica subtilissima et sic tremit ex prima origine major;et quidem ad majorem motum: Nullus musculus vel nullaefibrae in diversis musculis similem tonum cum altero habet;variationes sunt quot musculi, dari possunt,lO quot fibrae.Si centum et myriades nervos haberes, nunquam similes adin­venies; nusquam datur in his similare; differunt tarn longitu­dine, crassitie, compositione; si minima differentia, minimumoritur in motu discrimen, sic alius tremor in subtili cerebri,Ph. MS., 134.si haec membrana, quam si ilIa; si hujus tremor, non aliudmoveri potest quam simile in crassioribus, quod harmonicefluit; et quia membranae per totum corpus se distendunt,8 crassiorem. 10 potest.137
  • 157. 205-206PSYCHOLOGICA.therefore we have a determination of the will from the tremorsof the imagination, and from the tremors of the soul itself. Ifin addition there be habit, then the tremor will go off to itssimile so much the more easily.205. When considering the muscles we are not to think ofthe tremor or undulation as being in those fibres which wesee,-in them is only tension and remission; but as being inthose membranes which we do not see,-membranes by whichthe proximate [fibres of the muscles] are covered, and withwhich they are combined, far beyond our sight. It is the undu­lation of these membranes that gives rise to the contraction orremission of the parts contained within them. For that whichis to undulate must be tense; that which is remiss is eithertensed by this undulation, or remitted. It would take too longto demonstrate all these points; moreover, in the cares of a for­eign journey, no aids are at hand, there is no time or oppor­tunity, nor [do] other cares and pleasures [permit]. Thetremor also comes to the muscles,-where many fibres are gath­ered together,-according to their thickness. Thus a thick andshort nerve cannot tremulate like a nerve which is less thick,*etc. All [the tremors] together make one body, if not [in thebody itself] at least in the head as a terminus; and [the tremor]will fall at least as a mean proportional between the thicknesses.206. A TREMOR FROM A TREMOR IN DIFFERENT MEMBRANES.If there be wavelets in a more subtle membrane, so that thehypothenuse is halved, there is at once a contraction in the en­closed [fibre]; and that to which [the membrane] adheres ismade shorter and briefer by half, and this, consequently, inproportion [to the wavelet]. If (ab) or the enclosed [fibre]A )00000000 Bbe either many or a single one, and if it have its termini on eachside, then if the wavelets are very short the result of all theseminute wavelets is a wave in the larger [fibre1 (ab). If [thetermini] are connected as in the figure, a larger wave then arises.Thus if these waves have their ligaments or fibres bound to­*Cf. n. 202.138
  • 158. 205-206PSYCHOLOGICA.ergo habemus determinationem voluntatis a tremoribusimaginationis, et ipsius animae. Si jam habitus a[c]cedit,eo facilius abit in simile.Dum circa musculos versemur, non putandum est quodtremor vel undulatio sit in ipsis fibris quas videmus, in illistantum est tensio et remissio, sed in il1is membranis quas nonvidemus, quibus induuntur proximae, quibus combinantur,maxime ultra visum. Ex illarum undulatione sequitur partiumcontentarum contractio vel remissio, nam tensum erit quodundulabit, quod remissum est, ab illa undulatione vel tenditurvel remittitur. Prolixum foret omnia demonstrare, nee incuris his peregrinis subsidia adsunt, nee tempus, nee locus,nee aliae curae et voluptates. Etiam pervenit ex crassitiemusculorum, si plures simul sint, ut nervus crassus nequelongus non potest tremulare ut minus crassus, etc. Omnessimul faciunt unum corpus, si non ad minimum in terminocapitis etiam cadeat ad minimum media proportionalis intercrassit[ies].MS., 204.Tremor a tremore in diversis membranis. Si in subtilioriundulae sint, ut hypothenusa re[d]datur dimidia, fit statimcontractio in inclusa et cui adhaeret dimidio curtior et brevioret sic consequenter. in proportione. Si (ab) vel inclusa sintA~plura vel unum et suos terminos habeat utrinque si breviores,tunc fit ex omnibus his minimis undulis unde unda in (ab)majori, si sic connexi sint, fit sic major unda sic hae undae sisua ligamenta vel fibras habeant ligatas dant majores undas.139II
  • 159. 207-209PSYCHOLOGICA.gether, they produce larger waves; and so from a primitive andtiny beginning results a great undulation or attraction. Thusthere is a resemblance to muscles in all the lesser [muscles],albeit they are not fully formed as such. From a larger [orcompound] an undulation results in the lesser [parts] only bymeans of the enclosed elements and of the similitude [betweenthem]. For lesser [wavelets] cannot be formed by grosserexcept by the aid of elements; since there must be an elementenclosed between the little membrane and the fibre.* In thisway therefore we obtain the ratio of the senses towards theimagination and the soul.207. In the most subtle elements and membranes, large andsmall wavelets may be present and in motion simultaneously,because they differ in celerity; and over them can come otherwavelets, and so on,-the wavelets being smaller according asthe elements are more subtle. If however wavelets come withthe same celerity, they run together and finally unite. Thusthere will be a dissimilarity, and yet mixed motions are possiblewhich in part run together, and in part do not.t208. In the human soul are actives of the first and secondfinite,-the finites namely, which are contained within the sec­ond element. In brutes the soul is the first element containedwithin the ether.t[XX.]209. N. B. CONCERNING TIlE VARIED CONSTITUTION OF THESOUL, AND CONCERNING THE SOUL AFTER DEATH. If the soul.be configured in this way, the question arises, How can it liveafter death? The answer is, 1. That it cannot be dissolved,not even by any element; whether we consider the first, second,third, or fourth element, all their undulatory motions can donothing in the way of dissolving it. 2. That it lives ~~fterdeath, is clear from our whole philosophy and-nrechanical[theory] . It has a center; if has peripheries; and at every tonethere is a difference [of distances] from the center.§ That*Cf. Motion of Elemen4s 32• 8, :t: Cf. Mechanism 21; II Infinite7; M(!chat~ism, 1. IV (How the actuality, etc.).t Cf. n. 156• § Cf. n. 15.140
  • 160. 207-209PSYCHOLOGICA.Sic a primo et exiguo principio fit maxima undulatio vel attrac­tio; adeo ut similitudo sit musculorum in omnibus minoribus,sed non ita formati plane. A majore fit undulatio in minoribustanturn per elementa inclusa et similitudinem; nam minoresnon possunt aliter a crassioribus formari quam per elemento­rum ope[mJ, nam elementum erit inclusum inter membranulamet fibram. Ergo sic habetur ratio sensuum versus imagina­tionem et animam.In subtilissimis elementis et membranis possunt undulaemajores et minores simul esse et moveri, quia differunt celeri­tate, et super his aliae; et sic quo subtiliora elementa eo minora;at vero si eadem celeritas veniat, tunc se confundunt, ettandem coeunt; adeo ut dissimilitas erit usque tamen daripossunt mixti qui partim confundunt,l partim vero non.In anima sunt activa primi et secundi, finita quae in secundoelemento, in brutis est primum elementum ut in aethere.N. B. De animae varia constitutione et post mortem. Sianima sit ita figurata quaeritur: I. Quomodo vivere possitPh. MS., 135.post mortem. Respondetur, quod non dissolvi possit nec abullo elemento, eatur ad primum, alterum, 3tiumet quartumelementum, omnes motus undulatorii nihil possunt efficere,ut dissolvatur. 2. Quod vivat post mortem patet ex totaMS., 205.nostra philosophia et mechanica, habet centrum, habet peri­pherias, et in quovis tono differentia a centro, quod habet1 confundit.141
  • 161. 210PSYCHOLOGICA.which has these termini, and in which consequently there aredifferent termini at every distance from the center, must needsbe living. It variously receives all the tremulations of the ele­ments, and holds them within its termini,*-reciprocates them,if you please; therefore it is living. In like manner as, in thebody, it depends on life alone that the soul can receive variousmotions and convey them to its own center, and [produce] evervarying tones, so that all differences in the elements can be sen·sated from terminus to terminus,-whence comes its life; soalso in the soul after death. It has the same property, but, afterdeath, it receives the impressions of the elements in a differentway than in the body. Of its quality we shall speak elsewhere.3. There is a difference in a vitiated body; for vices have occu­pied only the body, and [tremors] have not gone to the soul andcultivated it; therefore the soul has not been made sensible ofdifferent and more subtle tremors. 4. Thus it is small andgross; or of an even thickness from periphery to center; orglobular in the center and thus small. Such a soul has notreceived many impressions, and is not developed. Thereforethe first element-the element of angels and the like,-makesno impression upon it; an impression is made upon it by thesecond ele~ent, but only in a gross way; and also by &ethereal and aerial elements, likewise in a gross way. It is notflexible to-;lfmanner-of tones. It is not finely elastic, but issomewhat hard. Hence it suffers ineffable torments. But thesubtle soul, because it receives tones from all the elements, andis elastic, [receives also] the larger tones or those of fire andair; this torments the vicious soul, inasmuch as it is not elastic;and it suffers in this way every moment to eternity.t210. N. B. The soul of brutes is similar; but brutes areendowed interiorly, not with actives but with the first element.tHence also their soul consists in the fact that they know thequarters, the south and the north; for it is the magnetic elementthat is their most subtle endowment. - This-ls-perish;:ble, b~t~tiii--it-lives-for -;;: long ti;-;­*Cf. Principia I, 4, p. 40; II :j: Cf. the figure in n. 17 point 3;111fi/lite IV, xi. also n. 208 and II Infinite ad fin.t Cf. Mechanism 16-20, 48-51.142
  • 162. 210PSYCHOLOGICA.terminos illos, et consequenter diversi termini in quavis dis-tantia a centro, non potest quin vivum sit, recipit varie omneselementorum tremulationes, et intra terminos habet, reciprocatsi velis, ergo vivum est, ut in corpore, dependet nude vitaquod recipere possit motus varios et ad centrum suum deferre,et semper varios tonos, ut omnes differentiae in elementissentiri possint a termino ad terminum, hinc est vita; sic etiamin anima habet idem, sed aliter recipit elementorum impres-siones, post mortem, quam in corpore, de qualitate alias. 3.Quod differentia in vitioso corpore sit, quod vitia tantumcorpus occupaverint n~c iverint et coluerint animam, ergonec sensibilis reddita ad diversos et subtiliores tremores.4. Est itaque vel minor et crassior, vel aequalis crassitiei aperipheria ad centrum, vel globulus in centro, et sic minor;haec nec receperat multas impressiones et exculta est, ergonec Imumelementum ullam habet in illam impressionem, ange-lorum et talium, elementum secundum crasse, et elementumaethereum, et aereum, etiam crasse, non flexilis ad quemvistonum; nec elastica bene sed durior, unde tormina ineffabiliapatitur; at subtilis quia tonos accipit ab omni elemento, etelastica est, majores tonos seu ignis et aeris, torquet illam, quianec elastica est, et hoc patitur quovis momento in aeternum.MS., 206.N. B. Quod brutorum anima sit similis, et gaudeat intus nonactivis sed elemento primo, unde etiam anima illorum consistitin eo ut sciant plagas, austrum et boream, quum est elementummagneticum, hoc est illorum subtilissimum; hoc perire potestsed tamen diu vivit.143
  • 163. 211-217PSYCHOLOGICA.211. N. B. Angels still more subtle may exist, who, inte­riorly, have only actives of the first finite with their surfaceoccupied by the second finite,-like the first element. Thesefinites are more subtle and therefore all the motions they observeare supremely subtle.212. N. B. There are still grosser beings who consist offifth finites and of the first and second elements. Such are thespirits of the devil, who continually suffer from fire and themotion of the aerial element. They receive no sensation fromthe more subtle motions.C 213. N. B. THE COMMUNION OF SOULS. It cannot be other­~~ than that one soul sensates another, inasmuch as there isan undulation between them. Since there is an undulation wemust needs sensate it. What is it that the body sees when etheris present and recipient organs? The motion in one body issensated in another, even though the distance between them beas from star to star. And if we are able to sensate in this way,why not the soul, when a like motion moves two souls? Forthe similitude causes the two to be carried simultaneously intoone and the same motion. Therefore there is a harmony be­tween them by means of the element.214. DELAY. WILL. If the cause of will be a tremulationof the ether or other element, there can be no other [will] ; themotion is terminated which may be called will, but a will whichcomes not from many and extremely diverse causes, but fromcauses supremely pure; hence it can be no other than pure will.215. Other affections and their nature.216. N. B. That [the will] is not in the elements becausethere is no center there, but the motion spreads itself around.[XX!.]CONCERNING THE PHILOSOPHY OF PARTICLES.217. 1. Concerning God.2. That we are finite and mechanical,-various argu­ments; also angels.3. That men become atheists from having a differentnotion. They should be refuted.g4.
  • 164. 2211-217PSYCHOLOGICA.N. B. Angeli dari possunt adhuc subtiliores, qui intus modohabent activa primi, et iIlorum superficiem teneatlafinitumdumut elementum primum; subtiliora, et sic motus omnessubtilissimos tenent.Ph. MS., 136.N. B. Crassiores adhuc quae constant ex finitis stis etelemento primo et secundo; quales sunt spiritus diaboli; quicontinuo patiuntur ab igne, et motu elementi aerei, a subtili­oribus nullum habent sensum.N. B. Communio animarum. Non dari potestquin una animasentiat alteram, quum undulatio intercedat, non potest quinsentimus earn, quum undulatio est, quid videat corpus quumaether sit et organa ; motus in uno sentietur in altero, quamvisdistantia sit a stella ad stellam, quum nos sentire possumusquid non anima, si similis motus movet binas, quia similitudofacit ut binae simul in eundem motum ferantur ergo estharmonia per elementa.}.flora Voluntas. Si causa sit voluntatis aetheris tremulatioaut alius elementi alia dari nequit, terminatur motus, quivocari potest voluntas, sed voluntas quae non a pluribus etdiversissimis causis sed purissimis, hinc alia non dari potest,quam voluntas pura.Alii affectus quales.N. B. Quod in elementis non sit quia nullum centrum, sedmotus dissipat se in circum.MS., 207.DE PHILOSOPHIA PARTICULARUM.*I. De Deo.2. Quod simus finiti et mechanici varia argumenta; etiamangeli.3. Quod atheistae fiant ex alia notione; refutantur.la teneant. * or per articulos; preface, p. xx.145
  • 165. 218PSYCHOLOGICA.4. That the soul, angels, the body, immortality, lifeafter death can all be demonstrated geometrically.5. Generally concerning tremor and musical harmony.That all bodies tend to such motion.6. Generally concerning the elements; the opinions ofcertain authors, and our own opinion.7. That tremulation thus goes from the grosser to themore subtle by contiguity.8. That life rests in the termini of such tremors.9. The nature of the soul. It is said that it is similar,not as an opinion that this is so, but because inthis way all things can be explained; that thustremulation goes from thetop to the bottom. Solikewise the other membranes, as to how they arepictured; also the regula falsi.10. What is the nature of the various senses [explained]mechanically by tremulations, and so again to thesenses.11. The nature of imagination, memory, judgment, per­ception.12. The nature of affections of the utmost diversity.13. The nature of will.14. What the state of the soul is in the body.15. What its state after death. It is immortal.16. What its state in respect to its previously enactedlife; its blessedness and its torments.17. Again concerning God, Christ and the Holy Spirit.*[XXII.]218. N. B. In the MEMBRANES over the fibres there must be:1. The membrane. 2. Between the membrane and the tendonthere must be an element which is in motion. 3. In some placesthe membrane must be attached to the tendon at equal distances,*NOTE BY THE AUTHOR: All the motions and tremors. 3. Fromthese points must be deduced: 1. anatomy. 4. From experience inFrom reason. 2. From geometry, the elements.as for instance the mechanism of146
  • 166. 218PSYCHOLOGICA.4. Quod anima, angeli, corpus, immortalitas, vita post mor­tern geometrice possit demonstrari.S. Generaliter de tremore et harmonia musica.-quod omnia corpora in talem motum velint.6. Generaliter de elementis; et quorundam opiniones etnostra.7. Quod sic a crassiore in subtilius eat tremulatio per conti­guum.8. Quod vita consistat in terminis talium tremorum.9. Qualis sit anima. Dicitur quod simiJis sit, nec opinio utsic sit, sed quod omnia sic explicari possint; quod sic eaturtremulatio a summo ad imum.-Pariter reliquae membranae quales fingantur; et regulafalsi.10. Quales sint varii sensus, mechanice per tremulationessic iterum ad sensus.Ph., MS. 137.11. Qualis sit imaginatio, memoria, judicium, perceptio.12. Quales sint affectus diversis­oslmL ....r :>. S S.o.~13. Qualis voluntas. c ~.~ ::l <t:: i::~ . @ .... ..,i- Cl)14. Qualis status animae in corpore. (l...c: 0 Scd U S Cl)Cl)IS. Qualis status post mortem, im- "C:l Cl) . ­5 Q) S .b.~ Cl)mortalis. ~ c.... S.5... 0 ::l .... 016. Qualis in respectu ad vitam ante­ "C:l .- Cl) .... cdCl) .... cd cd .­"C:l ~.~ S c i::actam beatitudo et tormenta. cd t::l cd.~17. Item de Deo, Christo, et Spiritu .- :>. S ::l :>. ....c~Ob~g,Sancto. S . Cl) ~ • ><:O .... b.C~""Cl)MS., 208.N. B. In membranis super fibras erit: 1. Membrana. 2.Inter membranam et tendinem erit elementum quod movetur.3. Membrana erit aliquibus locis alligata tendini, aequis dis­147
  • 167. 219-222PSYCHOLOGICA.as at (b, c). 4. There must be a communication of the ele­ment between the membrane and the tendon.* 5. From whichf./. A D-I"/ /..c AA~ B t 1)considerations it follows that the membrane can tremulate me­chanically, and that the tendon must follow the tremulation bycontracting and dilating.219. N. B. The [membranes] do not tremulate the wholebrain; but since the same membrane has various lengths. thick­nesses and spaces, therefore that membrane tremulates which isapt thereto; still, by reason of mere similitude a membrane of adifferent length may tremulate. As for instance the [mem­brane of the] sight,t hearing, taste, smell.220. N. B. Philosophers see that [sensation] consists intremors,t and they smile with favor upon those who assert this,hoping that it may be demonstrated; which is a sign that hereinlies the truth. Therefore if the tremor be fittingly deduced,the world will at once smile assent.§221. N. B. That there is no necessity of having a tremor inthe least [membranes], it needs only that they have a nisus totremor, from which results a tremor in the larger membrane.Consequently a nisus in the larger makes a tremor in the lesser.Thus it is not necessary that they shall all tremble continuously,but only that one which produces the effect. The nisus totremor produces the same result.222. N. B. Nerves or strings can tremble only to one toneand can run out only at one celerity. But membranes, being ofdifferent lengths, can tremble to various tones and can run outat various celerities; and especially if there be an angular orother figure the effect of which is that the membrane is boundalong various termini. Hence it is able to run out at [variouscelerities and to tremble to] various tones, according to theappellant air,-provided only there be termini. If there bevarious termini, then also the membrane runs out in various*Cf. n. 206. med.t The MS. has auris (the ear). § ef. 11 I1tfmite IV, xi2•. :j: Cf. 11 Infinite IV, xi, circa148
  • 168. 219-222PSYCHOLOGICA.tantiis, ut Cb, c). 4. Erit communicatio elementi ab uno adalterum. 5. Ex his sequitur quod possit mechanice tremulare,~/r""LiJet quod tendo sequi debeat tremulationem se contrahendo etdilatando.N. B. Non totum cerebrum tremulant, sed quia eademmembrana habet varias longitudines, crassities, et spatia,hinc illa tremulat quae apta est; quamvis eadem tremularepotest, quae diversae est longitudinis a pura similitudine; utvisus,2a auditus, gustus, olfactus.N. B. Vident philosophi quod consistat in tremoribus, etarrident iis qui dicunt, optantes ut demonstrari possit; quodsignum est, veritatem inesse; adeo ut si apte tremor deducatur,inde statim arridebit orbis.N. B. Quod non opus sit ut tremor sit in minimis,2 modonisus ad tremorem, inde sequitur tremor majoris; et conse­quenter nisus in majori facit tremorem in minore, ut non opussit ut continuo trement omnes, sed modo ille qui effectum edit;nisus ad tremorem facit idem.N. B. Nervi non modo ad unum tonum tremulare possunt,nee nisi in unam celeritatem excurrere; at membranae in varios,utramvis, quia diversae sunt longitudines, praecipue si figurasit angularis vel alia unde secundum varios terminos ligata,hinc excurrere potest in varios tonos, secundum appellentemaerem, modo termini sint, si varii sint, etiam varie excurrit,2 minimus. 2. auris.149
  • 169. 223-225PSYCHOLOGICA.ways; but yet it is the termini, or the line of the termini thatgives the tone.From Anatomy.223. In man the common coverings or integuments are threein number; but they are more in brutes in order that the lattermay be covered against the winter; these coverings being theirclothing. In man we have: 1. The cuticle or epidermis whichinvests and encloses the whole man. It is easily separated fromthe cutis * and according to microscopical observations, consistsof minute lamellae and little scales as it were, which are like­wise elastic, as is evident from the fact that they contain pores.t[2. The cutis containing miliary glands and papillae. 3. Theadipose membrane.]224. N. B. The glands are for the most part hard and nothollow; no liquid is apparent in them nor can be expressed fromthem; nor anything of a tendinous character. As to the glandsthat have been seen distended, no liquid could be forced fromthem by pressure, though on cutting them considerable liquidappeared. These glands therefore seem to consist of almost thesame sort of matter as the nerves with their membranes insertedbetween them or investing them, and consequently distended bya liquid, which has a communication, like the enclosed elemen­tary; which can have an exit; and which has free passage.Hence they can narrow up and compress. Thus they are fibresand so there is a secretion of humors.t225. N. B. That nerves consist of an infinitude of littlemembranes, becomes apparent when they are divided length­wise. If the division is made lengthwise there will be foundthreads, gross and subtle, running lengthwise, and· all investedalong the path of their duct. 2. If we stretch them, or separatethem by stretching them lengthwise, the extended membranescome to view. 3. In their ramifications they all cohere withtheir membranes,-which could not be done unless they drew*The MS. has cuticula. mind the subcutaneous glands ast Cl. Heister Comp. Anat. 195, the origins of the corporeal fibre.196. See Fibre 123, 183-4; Anim. King.:I: The author seems to have in 500.150
  • 170. 223-225PSYCHOLOGICA.sed tamen tennini vel linea tenninorum dat tonum.MS., 209.Ex ANATOM1A.Tegumenta communia sunt in homine tria, in brutis veroplura, ut tegantur contra hyemem quia investita; penes homi­nem est, I. cuticula seu epidennis totum hominem investienset includens; separabilis facile a cute 3 ; ex minutissimisPh. MS., 138.lamellis et quasi squamulis secundum microscopia, quaepariter elasticae; quod apparet ex eo quod in illis pori sint.N. B. Glandulae sunt plerumque durae nec cavae, necliquidum apparet aut exprimi potest, aut tendinosum, inglandulis distentis inventis nihil per pressionem liquidi exivit,sed per sectionem plus liquidi; hinc videntur constare eademfere materia qua nervi, intersertis vel involutis membranis, etconsequenter liquido distentis, quod communicationem habet,prout elementum inclusum, quod exire potest et liberum habetmeatum, unde se coarctare et comprimere possunt, adeo utsint fibrae, et sic fit secretio humorum.N. B. Quod nervi constent infinitis membranulis, ex divi­sione illorum secundum longitudinem apparet, si fiat secundumlongitudinem erunt crassiora et subtiliora fila secundum longi­tudinem et investita secundum eorum ductum. 2. Si traha­mus illos vel partiamur trahendo in longitudinem videnturmembranae extensae.t 3. In ramificationibus omnes suismembranis cohaerere, quod fieri non potest nisi trahant inde3 cuticula. t a doubtful reading.•151
  • 171. 226-227PSYCHOLOGICA.their origin therefrom. 4. When a number of nerves come to­gether to form a single nerve, they are likewise invested with acommon little membrane. From the most subtle [nerves] andfrom their extremities, one can see that there are little lamellae.So also in the veins.226. The papillae are what originate from the nerves [intheir extremities]; as in the tongue; see p. 149.*[XXII!.][NATURE IS MECHANICAL.]227. N. B. We are just like the simple men of pnmltlvetimes, who thought that the boundary of the earth was theboundary of their sight, or the furthest bound to which ourknowledge extends; and that at this boundary was a falling offplace. Their posterity declared that here was not yet the lastboundary, for they saw beyond. And when, with the still fur­ther extension of their sight, men yet found no end, then theysaw that the earth is round. And then at once came a rush ofother experiments or observations to which previously men couldnot have been turned. They saw that the earth goes round thesun, and additional observations confirmed this position.So is it with nature. In the mineral kingdom we see that theearth is round in shape; that its parts are of divers forms, suchas valleys, mountains, plains; that there are stony parts; thatthere is sand, dust; that in the earth is contained sulphur, metals,and all that can be smelted therefrom. We declare this king­dom to be geometrical, because we see it as such. So in thevegetable kingdom. There we find trees, branches, leaves,fibres, excretory ducts through the fibres, etc. In the elemen­tary kingdom we find rain, snow, heat [&c.] which in large partwe recognize as arising from natural causes and from the sacredthrong itself. In the animal kingdom we acknowledge that*The reference is presumably to manuscript and these do not in­p. 149 of the MS. (Codex 88). clude p. 149, which seems to con­Only portions of this MS. are in­ tain extracts from Schurig on thecluded in the photolithographed subject of generation.152
  • 172. 226-227PSYCHOLOGICA.ongmem. 4. Cum plures in unum coeunt pariter membranulacommuni investiuntur. Ex subtilissimis et ipsis extremitati-bus videre licet esse lamellulas. Sic etiam in venis.Papillaesunt quae enervis oriuntur, ut in lingua. Vide p. 149.Jl1S.,210.N. B. Nos sumus prout primi simplices, qui putarunt ter-minum terrae esse ubi visus, vel ubi nos novimus, et ibi prae-cipitium; posteriores dixerunt nondum esse terminum quiaplus viderunt; sic magis et magis dum finem 4 nullum inveni-rent; statim viderunt illam rotundam esse; accesserunt statimturn cohortim alia experimenta vel observationes ad quae in-flecti nequierant, solem circumambire, dein plus et plus idemconfirmans. Sic est cum natura; in minerali videmus telluremesse formae rotundae, dad partes diversae formae, vallesmontes, planit[i]es; dad partes saxeas 5, dad arenas, daripollinem, dad inibi sulphur, metalla, quod inde conflari potest;hoc dicimus esse geometricum quia videmus. Sic in vegetabili,dari arbores, ramos, folia, fibras, ductus excretorios per fibras,etc.; in elementari dari pluvias, dad nevem, dari calorem; mul-tarn partem agnoscimus oriri a causis naturalibus, ipsaque, finum. 6 saxa.153
  • 173. 228PSYCHOLOGICA.sensation is mechanical,* etc., etc. But because we do not callthat mechanical and natural of which we are ignorant,-andthis because we do not see it to be such,-therefore we are notunlike that stranger who did not see the land.tBut the literary world is daily taking increase and ever ad­vancing onwards. How great has been its advance in the com­mencement of the present century! And in the century that ispast! So that now, from reasons and experiments we seem atlast on the point of coming to causes t~~es, and of seeingthat all things are done mechanically. Seeing this, why shouldwe not anticipate them! Why should we not reach forward,and establish that which surely our posterity will establish!­the truth namely, that this body of ours is mechanical! that itsorgans are mechanical! that its senses are mechanical! the intel­lect, the reason, and the soul itself ! Yet in course of time thelearned world will come to this position. If the great body ismechanical, why not the small? There is no new reason, nonew nature; in a word, two natures are impossible.:j:[XXIV.]228. N. B. The MEMBRANES are: 1. The membrane of thesoul; 2, of the imagination and memory; 3, of the senses; 4, ofthe touch. 5. The pia mater. 6. The dura mater. 7. The[membrane of] the tunic § and thus the cranium. 1. Withinthe membrane of the soul are the first and second actives as aparticle of the second elementary, and in fact in the medullarypart. 2. The membrane of the imagination is principally in thecortical part, consisting of the same substance as ether. 3. Themembrane of the senses is under the pia mater, being interiorly*The idea here summarized is t There seems to be here an al­set forth more fully in the IN­ lusion to some story or tradition;FINITE, to the effect that while our it is possible however that the au­ancestors thought that the ear thor is referring to the "simpleheard and the eye saw in some un­ men" spoken of in the beginningknown way, investigation has now of n. 227.shown that sensation is mechanical. t Cf· II 1nl. II (MechanicalSee II Infinite II (Mechanical laws, etc.).laws, etc.). § See n. 171 note.154
  • 174. 228PSYCHOLOGICA.turba sacra: In animali, sensum mechanicum, etc., etc. Sedquia hoc quod nescimus non dicimus nechanicum et naturale,ideo quod non videmus, non alius est ac peregrinus ille quiPh. MS., 139.terram non vidit. At orbis literatus quotidie incrementa capit;ulterius et ulterius it. Quantum non in initio hujus saeculi,in priori; adeo ut videmus ex ratiociniis et experimentis tandemventurum esse ad ipsas causas, et visurum quod omnia me­chanice fiant. Quum hoc videmus, cur non illos praevertamus,cur non eousque nos eamus, et statuamus quod statuentMS,,21I.posteri, scilicet corpus nostrum mechanicum esse, organa essemechanica, sensus esse mechanicos, intellectum, rationem etipsam animam, eo usque tamen temporis tractu venit orbiseruditus. Si majus quid non minus; non alia ratio, non alianatura, vel binae naturae nequaquam.N. B. Membranae. I. Animae. 2. Imaginationisetmemo­riae. 3. Sensuum. 4. Tactus. S. Pia mater. 6. Dura mater.dum7. Tunicae et sic cranium. I. Animae intus 1 et 2 activumut particula elementi secundi, et quidem in medullari parte.2. Imaginationis in corticali, praecipue ex substantia quaaether. 3. Sensuum, sub pia meninge ei adhaerens intus.15512
  • 175. 229-231PSYCHOLOGICA.adherent thereto. 4. The membrane of touch is the other andmore subtle part of the pia meninx, and so forth.*229. N. B. Membranes are always attached;-not at allpoints, but at some; as for instance the dura mater is attachedto the bone in the sutures, etc.; to the pia mater by tendons.Thus all membranes are attached not only to each other, butalso separately. Hence sensation is not lost if a part lof themembrane] is destroyed; and the whole membrane is not at oncetorn when a part is torn.t230. N. B. We -must penetrate to that which is finally reso­lute, than which there can be nothing but the Infinite-irre­solvable by angels and to eternity; for we are finite. There isno connection between the infinite and the finite, except byreason of existence, like the connection between a primitivecause and its effect; and not even so, because the [finite] is adifferent and immediate effect.t There is no ratio between theinfinite and the finite; and where there is no ratio, there is nonexus. There is no nexus by any intermediate except by suchas partakes of both the infinite and the finite. This cannot besaid of the simple, but only of His Son. Time must not beconsidered in the infinite. If the infinite is an ens the finitebecomes a non-ens; and the reverse.[XXV.][CONCERNING PHILOSOPHY.]231. 1. Concerning the infinite a~d God.2. Concerning nature and created things, that they areall geometrical and mechanical. Concerning cor­puscular philosophy.3. That the soul, angels, and man with his senses bothinternal and external, are mechanical and natural.4. That any other cognition leads directly to atheism.5. A refutation of the arguments of atheists.6. That the essence of the soul can be demonstrated,and all its acts, the communion of souls, the im­* Cf. n. 17 and figure, and Mech- Elements, 10; II Inf. IV, x fin.allism 24. :j: Cf. n. 1.t Cf. Mechanism, 30; Mot. of156
  • 176. 229-231PSYCHOLOGICA.4. Tactus pars alia subtilior piae meningis, etc.N. B. Membranae sunt semper ligatae non in locis omnibussed in quibusdam, ut dura mater cum osse in suturis, etc.,cum pia meninge, cum tendinibus. Sic omnes membranae nonmodo invicem sed separatim sunt ligatae; unde non perit sen­sus si pereat pars, nee laceratur illico tota membrana quumlaceratur pars.N. B. Eundum ad tantum resolubile, nee datur aliud quaminfinitum, irresolubile ab angelis et in aeternum, quia sumusfiniti. Nulla est connexio finiti et infiniti nisi ratione exis­tentia[e], ut causa primitiva et effeetus, nee sic quia effeetusaiius, immediatus, non est ratio infiniti et finiti, cujus nullaest ratio, nullus est nexus; nee per intermedium nisi quodpartieiparet de utroque; de simplice non, sed de filio ejus; nontempus considerari in Infinito. Si infinitum est ens, fit finitumnon ens, et contra.MS., 212.1. De infinito et Deo.2. De Natura et rebus creatis quod omnes geometricae etmechanieae sint. De philosophia corpusculari.3. Quod anima, angeli, homo cum sensibus suis internis etexternis sit mechanicus et naturalis.Ph. MS., 140.4. Quod alia cognitio directe ducit ad Atheismum.S. Argumenta atheistarum refelluntur.6. Quod demonstrari possit ejus essentia, et omnes actus,157
  • 177. 232PSYCHOLOGICA.mortality of the soul, its state after death accord­ing to its previously enacted life, its state whendefiled by vices. That the Scripture is in fullagreement with these [positions].7. Generally concerning the elements and their motion;concerning tremulation or undulation; concerningthe membranes and the tremulation therein, run­ning from what is grosser to what is more subtle.Concerning life in general.8. And then the senses and the other subjects in theirorder.[XXV!.]FAITH IN CHRIST.232. 1. It is clear that no one can be saved except by faithin God. 2. That no one can be saved except through Christ.3. The question is asked, whether we are saved solely by faithin Christ. 4. The answer is, that a distinction must be madebetween those who know of Christ, and those who do not knowof Him. Those who know of Christ, or who are Christians, can­not make any distinction between Christ and God or the Father;hence they cannot be saved except by f3.ith in Christ, since thisfaith is the same as fa~th in th~_~~E:~~e~--S()"trueis this, thatthey who do not have faith in Christ, or, what is the same thing,who deny Christ, cannot be saved; for faith cannot be separatedand be faith in God and not at the same time in Christ. Butthey who do not know that Christ came into the world, canstill believe i~God or in the I~te, and hence not deny Christ.Hence also they can be saved; for their faith is faith both inGod and in Christ, since they do not deny, because they do notknow. But their salvation cannot be effected save throughChrist; for He suffered for the whole world,-both for thosewho know Him not, and for those who know Him. Thereforesalvation is wrought through Christ alone. S. B...!fore ~J1rist,not one thousandth part of the Jews believed that such a Mes­siah w~s ~t~ come,-a Messiah who wouldh~;~e- solely forso~ls; but (they expected a Messiah] bY iYF6ri1,=-they-;"C;uTd158
  • 178. 232PSYCHOLOGICA.communio, immortalitas, status post mortem ex vita anteacta,ejus status vitiis inquinatus; quod Scriptura cum illis planecoincidat.7. Generaliter de elementis illorumque motu, de tremula­tione aut undulatione, de membranis et tremulatione in illis acrassiore ad subtilius; de vita in communi.8. Sic sensus et reliqua ordine.MS., 213.De Fide in Christum. I. Clarum est quod nullus nisi perfidem in Deum possit salvari. 2. Quod nullus salvari possitnisi per Christum. 3. Quaeritur an unice per fidem in Chris­turn salvemur. 4. Respondetur, quod distinguendum sitinter i1los qui sciunt Christum et qui non sciunt; qui sciuntChristum vel qui sunt Christiani, non possunt distinguereChristum a Deo vel Patre; hinc non possunt salvari nisi perfidem in Christum, quia fides illa eadem est cum fide in infi­nitum; adeo ut qui non fidem habeant in Christum, sive, quodidem est, qui negant Christum, illi non possunt salvari; quiafides non potest separari et esse in Deum et non simul in Chris­turn. At qui non sciunt Christum in mundum venisse, possuntnihilominus credere in Deum sive in infinitum, nee inde negareChristum; unde etiam salvari possunt, quia fides est in utrum­que, quia non negant quia non seiunt; sed salvatio illorum nonpotest esse nisi per Christum, nam passus est pro toto orbi,tarn iBis qui nesciunt illum quam qui seiunt ilium, adeo utsalvatio unica sit per Christum. 5. Ante Christum non milles­ima pars Judaeorum crediderunt talem Messiam venturumqui unice animarum curam haberet,6 sed per quem toti orbis6 haberent.159
  • 179. APPENDIX.obtain empire over t~e whole world. Therefore, they could notbe saved; for salvation is not wrought save through Christ. 6.Had Christ been born in some corner of the world, and beenknown to none, men could nevertheless have been saved by faithin God; but there is no salvation save through Christ. 7. Itpleased Him to show Himself, that He might tell and declarethat He came for the sake of souls and not-for thesake-of~ldly enlpire; ~~d tEat in~Jlim_we. n:ighL~~e~n imag~...9f. ~ewor?hip and life we mu~t..~obse!.ve, if we are to come to thereception of faith, and to be rendered fit therefor.[APPENDIX.]EMINENT GENERATION.*Eminent generation cannot be understood except by meansof reflection and similitude; and unless also we know how everyactive force can be represented in the aura, just as every imageis represented in the ether according to the image impressed.And since this aura is capable of implanting all unities, hencefrom the representation of one aura, there is actually formed,as in a mirror, a second and similar aura; it at once takes thesame form which is most exactly similar to the aura whicheffects the representation. But there is required reflection andconcentration and this upon the cortical substance. We are notpermitted to go further without a mathematical philosophy ofseries and degrees.This also is the reason why all that enters by means of theexternal senses will remain as though formed, and, as it were,born in the memory; and if it were possible for the organ ofsight to reflect its own image, and if when reflected this imagecould be taken up by some susceptible matter, then would arisethe same image as that which had been the cause of the imagein the eye; but this latter is taken up in the internal organs.Thus from one given individual of the spirituous fluid, orfrom as many as are necessary to furnish the origin, comes thefirst composition, cortical spherule and little cerebrum. Fromthis is born all else that is similar to it. The first thing, there­fore, could never exist without creation bytheSupreme De"fty,after whose image it is prod~ced; and from it then-~;-me allother things in the universe.*The original title was "Emi- was altered by the author to " Emi­nent Generation, or the Generation nent Generation."of the Spirituous Fluid," but this160
  • 180. APPENDIX.imperararent, ideo non potuerunt salvari; sed salvatio nonfit nisi per Christum. 6. Si natus fuisset Christus in angulomundi ut a nullo sciretur, tamen usque per fidem in Deumpotuerant salvari, sed nulla salus nisi per Christum. 6[a).Quod placuit ei se monstrare ut indicaret et ostenderet iliumpropter animas venisse et non propter imperium mundi, utvideremus ilia imaginem cultus et vitae quam duceremus, utperveniri et apti reddi possimus ad recipiendum fidem.[ApPE:r-,TDIX][Codex 57, p. 24a.] [VI Ph. MS., p. 3II.]Generatio eminens*Generatio eminens non intelligitur nisi per reflexionem etsimilitudinem, nec nisi sciamus quomodo omnis vis activarepraesentari possit in aura, ut in aethere omnis imago secun­dum impressam: et quia aura ista est omnium unitatum inden­dorum potens, hinc ex repraesentatione unius similis alteraactualiter formatur, ut in specula, illico sumit eandem formamet repraesentanti simillimam: sed reflexio et concentratiorequiritur; idque in substantiis corticalibus: ulterius non licetexire, sine philosophia mathematica serierum et graduum.Haec etiam est ratio quod quicquid per sensus externos intratremanebit tanquam formatum in memoria, et quasi natum.Sique organum visus potuisset suam imaginem reflectere etreflexem excipi a susceptibili materia, eadem imago nasceretur,quae causa ejus fuit in oculo: sed haec suscipitur in organisinternis.Sic ex dato uno individuo fluidi spirituosi, aut ex totidemut inde enasci queat prima compositio, sphaerula corticea etcerebellulum, inde enascatur reliquum simile: primum itaquenequaquam existere potuit, sine creatione summi numiniscujus ad imaginem sit productum; ex quo dein reliqua inuniverso.* The date of this writing is Jan., 1740.161
  • 181. SUBJECT-INDEX.NOTE: Words are arranged under general subjects; thus under DIS­EASES are put Apoplexy, Comllllsiolf.s, &c.; under MIND, memory, imagi­nation, thOltglzt, &c. Cross references are indicated by italics.The following abbreviations are used:c. Cause.d. Defined.dist. Distinguished.ill. Illustrated.ACTIVES. Elements.AFFECTIONS. Mind.ANATOMY, 217 n. Anatomists, 35.ANCIENTS, 75, 97.ANGELS. Spirits.ANIMAL KINGDOM is mechanical,227.ANIMAL SPIRITS, 91.ANIMALS. Brutes.ARCHITECT, 95.ATHEISM, c. of, 2178, 2314• Re­futed, 52, 91, 2315•ATOMS, 75.ATTENTION. Mind (Will).BILIOUS ICHOR, 21.BLIND,72.BLOOD. Liquors. Affected bygladness, 1593• Why B. in faceof sleeper, 74. Parts in. Areorig. of tremors and sensations,3D, 33; are causes of affections,46; of imagination, 71; of pleas­ure, 1593• Effect of, on memory,77, 1097 , 115, 130; on dreams, 85;on will, 133. B-Vessels. Noth­ing sensible in, 41. Veins tu­mesce when body relaxes, why,72. Sinuses, 74. Why so manyB. V. in pia mater, 46.BODY. All Bs tend to tremulate,2175• Human B. Effect ofhealth on attention, 137; on in­tellect, 53; effect of vitiatedimago Imagination.n. Note.orig. Origin.W. Wolff.states, 33. Relaxation of, descr.,72; Sleep.BRAIN. Soul in, 98. Cerebrumand cerebellum, bond between, 71 ;effect, if rightly joined, 86.Membranes do not tremulatewhole B., 219. Pia and DuraMaters, 228; attachments of, 229;relaxed in sleep, 72; effect ofexcessive imago on d. m., 74;sinuses of d. m., 74. Arachnoid,no nerves in, yet sensible, why,46. Pia Mater and intellect, 46;blood. Effect of excessive actionof p. m., 74; 2nd, 3rd and 4thp. m., 41. Piisima Mater, 177•BRUTES. Lack supreme membraneof soul, 178, 18 n; s. of is firstelement, 210. Inmost of is mag­netic element, 210. Tremors goto sensitive soul, how, 23; andterminate there, 40. B. soul livesfor a long time, 210. Orig. ofwill in Bs, ZOO. Have confusedideas and imag., 40, 44; thoughtand imagination in, 3. Knowquarters, why, 210. Have imper­fect sensation, 28. B. and Mencompared as to soul, 5, 123, 158;consciousness, 6, 123; seat ofmemory, 18; perception and ap­perception, 4--<i; instinct, 123,200; touch, 158; skin, 223. Simi­162
  • 182. INDEX.larities between, 2, lead men todenial, 52.CARES, 205.CHINESE, 97.CHRIST. God.COGNITION d. W., 14.COMENIUS, 97.CONSCIOUSNESS. Mind.CORPUSCULAR philosophy, 2312.CRANIUM, 228.CULTIVATION. Learning, Whyneeded, 122-3. True method of,19; effect on membranes, 36.Blemish in, 12; effect, 33. C.and tremulation, 19. C. andsimile and dissimile, 19. C. is ofmembranes, 24, 1092• Effect onimag., 42; and memory, 122-3;on pleasure, 162; on attention,138-9. C. of imagination. Ex-ercises, d. W., 121; e. and judg-ment, ill., 147; habit and e., effectof, 151, 204; may be lost, 152;h. is an origin of will, 200.DEAF, 72.DEFINITIONS, 100.DELAY. Mind (Will, imagination).DELIGHT and undelight, orig., 26.DEMONSTRATIONS, W., 149; d., 150.DEVIL, 75, 212.DISCOVERERS, 155.DISEASES, 33, 1096• Effect onmemory, 1097• Apoplexy, con-vulsions, fever, c. of, 74. Melan-cholia, sensation in, 37.DISSONANCE, 161; c., 95.DOUBT. Not possible of things thatexist, 2. Men D. existence ofsoul, why, 116; which proves itsexistence, 26 ; W., 2. Atheism.DREAMS, 60; W. 72 s. Simple andcompound, 80; c. of, 72. Cometo soul, 76. End in, 40, 76.Imag. in, 56; imago and D. dist.,82. Thought in, 2. Successionof perceptions in, 76. Effect ofpleasure in, 77. When clear, 85.When remembered, 77. Whenforgotten, 85. Begin from weaksensations, 77, 81. Why differentDs from same sensations, 83.Similarity of state in Ds andwakefulness, when and why, 40.Mutations in, why, 83; C. of, 85.DRUNKENNESS, 37.ECSTASY, 56.EGYPTIANS, 97, 101.ELEMENTS. Experience in, neces-sary to philosophy, 217n. Opin-ions concerning, 2176• Are me-chanical, 116; and natural, 95.Motion of, 2317; always m. in,32; effect, 31; e. on soul, 32, 95.Are necessary for undulations,206; for communication of mo-tions, 41, 44; for sensation, 32.Es in membranes; harmonic un-dulations unite with rns andcause pleasure, 168. Actives andEs in soul and mind, and inangels and spirits. 1st, 2nd, 3rdand 4th E. cannot dissolve soul,209. 1st E. is E. of angels andspirits, 209; makes no impress onvitiated soul, 209; 2nd E., 208;makes i. on v. s., 209. MagneticE. soul of brutes, 210. 1st and2nd K, and ether, 41. Ether 31-2; mind (imagination); e. andair impress vitiated soul, 209;liquor or e., 72; e. bulla, 174,:;;effect of motion in e., 31. Ap-pellant air, 222.EXERCISE. Cultivation.EVIL, 164.FACE. Index of pleasure, 1594 •163
  • 183. INDEX.Blood in, c. of, 1593 ; b. in F. ofsleeper, 74.FACULTY. Mind.FAITH. Not possible without Godshelp, 52. Faith in God.FALL, THE, 33.FATALITY, 31.FIBRES. Motion in, 202. F. andmuscle have different tone, 204.Corporeal F., 224n. Membranes,Nerves.FIGURES. Primitive and derivative,101, 103.FINITE AND INFINITE. God, me­chanical.FOREIGN JOURNEY, 205.GENIUS, 155.GENTILES, 232.GEOMETRICAL Mechanical.GLASS, 133.GOD, 2171,11; the Infinite, 2311; notime, or resolution in Infinite,230; nor anything geometrical, 1;not a Spirit, 1. Salvation byfaith in G., and in Christ, 232.His Son, 230; Christ, 21711 ; theonly nexus between finite and in­finite, 21717, 230; no n. betweenfinite and infinite, 1, 75; the sim­ple not an., 230; the finite anon-entity, 230. Why Christ in­carnated, 232.GOOD, 164, 197.GREEK, 130.HABIT. Natural H. of intellect, W.151s. Cultivation.HARMONY. All things in man con­spire to, 26. H. of tone in mem­branes, orig. of, 150. Effect ofH. on nerves, ill., 160. H. isnatural with some, effect, 95.Harmonic Proportion, 26; is thevis principii, 95. H. P. in soul,ill., 16.HEBREW, lOIn, 130.HEISTER, 46, 223.HELL FIRE, 209, 212,21716• Spirits.HEREDITY, 200.HEURISTIC ARTIFICES, d. W., 154.HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNIFICATION, lOIn;d., 96; in phantasy, 97; prevailsin memory, 99. H. writing, ill.,99; advantage of, 148; Soul. H.phantasm, 100.HOLY SPIRIT, 1, 21711• God.IDEA. Mind.IDIOCY. Sensation in, 37; thoughtin, 3.IGNORANCE. Leads to denial, 52.INFINITE. God.INSECTS,21. Worms.INSTINCT. Brutes.INSTRUCTION. Learning.IRRESOLUTE NOTES, 153.JEWS AND MESSIAH, 232.LAUGHTER d. W., 174.LEARNING. W. 157; by hiero­glyphic figures, 101. Learnedworld has not penetrated deeplyinto occult nature, 75. Advanceof, 227; Cultivation. Will assentto doctrine of tremors, 220.LIFE, 2317. Rests in termini oftremors, 2176• L. after death,Spirits. L. of soul.LIQUORS. Blood. Excitation of, ac. of pleasure, 159. Abundanceof, effect on attention, 137, 139;variety of, e. on will, 133.LOGIC, 150.LOVE, 170.MAN. Growth of, 200. Naturalaptness in some, 123. M. com­pared with brutes.164
  • 184. INDEX.MECHANICAL AND GEOMETRICAL.Men believe the invisible cannotbe M. 227; and that the M. willperish; refuted, 52, 116. All cre­ation M. and G., 227, 2312 ; alsospirits, 1, 75; souls, &c., 227,2318 ; the senses, 21710 ; but notthe infinite, 1.MEMBRANES IN MAN. Enumerated,17, 177n, 218, 228. How pictured,2179 • 2nd M., 133. M. of liquid,17, 41. The 3rd M. the seat ofpleasure, 133, 1598 ; which is sen­sible in 4th M., 133. Must beelement between M. and fibre,206, or tendon, 218. M. of sen­sation, 219, 228. Sensitive M.must be subtle, 44, and distinct,41; highly s. Ms have no bloodvessels, 41; have no tremor, butonly continuous motions, 221.Tremor of Ms and nerves com­pared, 222. Varieties in Ms,219; ratios in, iIIo, 44--5. Must beattached, 218, 222; why, 229.Tremulation of. Effect of ten­sion and relaxation of, 36; ofinjury of, on memory, 1096, 130­1; on will, 133; e. of grief orpain on, 158. M. of touch, 228;of phantasy, 115; of soul; ofmemory and imagination, mind.MIND. Figure of, 117. Growth of,200. Consciousness, d. 6; c. 107.Reflection. Actives and elementin, 17. Is mechanical, 53. Mem­ory, d., 106, 109. orig. of, 1095,111. Ever in subtle motion, 23,99, 123. Hieroglyphic significa­tion prevails in, 99. Can grow,how, 58. Centers and compoundsin, 65. Degrees of, d. 117-8.Size of, Co, 119. Length of, c.,115. Quick Memo, c. of, 115.Facility in, c. of, 112-5. Somenaturally retentive, 122. Effectof parts of blood on Mem., 1097,115, 130; and recollection, 77; e.of health on, 53. Distinct per­ceptions more easily remembered,why, 127. Mem. in sleep. Com­mitting to Mem., how, 111. In­jured by disease, 1096,1, 130-1;and cured by medicine, 53. Lossof Memo, Co, 19, 71. Bad Mem.,c., 1096 , 1. Failing Memo, c., 129.C. of remembrance, 130; of for­getfulness, 131; Mem., remem­brance and recognition, 119, 130,132. Mem. can be restored andcultivated, 1096, 122-3. Geniusand Mem., 155. Artificial Mem.,128. Mem. of men and brutes.Mem. and Imagination, disto,108; orig. in senses, 1095, 111;have degrees, 118; terminus of,48; seat and membrane of, 72,228; m. of, is of same substanceas ether, 228; Mem., 1. judg­ment, perception, 21711• 1., Wo,42ss.; d. 109; c. of, 42, 43-4, 159.Rational 1., orig. 44. Faculty of1., d. and c. 43, 109. Rules of 1.,W. 69; law of, W. 70; cs of, 43;effects of parts of blood on, 71.Origin of 1. in soul, 66; in proxi­mate organs, 43-4; in senses, 87,159. No 1. without sensation, 60;how aroused, 60, 71; not in thesame ground as s., 72; is strongerin absence of So, why, 54--6; actsof 1. are weak ss, 51; 1. maycreate pleasure without s., 1592•1. reproduces words and sightsmore easily than other sensations,42; why, 57; cf. 148. Dependson mutations, 21. Never ceases,71. Formation of, 90. Needscultivation, 42, 48, 90. How pro­cured, Wo 126, and extended, Wo165
  • 185. INDEX.125. One thing in, excites an­other, 90. Delay in 1., 139; noneed of d. in clear 1., 48; see be­low (Will). When 1. prevailsand why, 28. When possible tocontinue 1. 104. ;Effect of exces­sive 1., 74, 1097• 1. comprehendsa part without its compound, 87.1. and similes, 42, 48. C. of re­production in 1. 62-4, 66. When1. more quick and clear, 46, 61.Confused 1. 71; must be confusedbefore clear, 44. 1. with blindand deaf, 72. 1. and Phantasmdist., 43, 47. P. d. W. 47; d. andill., 87; orig. 40, 61. Why onemore perfect than another, 99.Why P. sometimes differs fromwhat was intended, 104. P. re­quires pleasure for its continu­ance, 104. P. and particles, 159G•Sensations in P. 37. P. and sen­sual ideas, dist., 50. Division, 88­9, and combination of Ps, 90.Can be compounded, 92; ill., 94.Intellect is mechanical, 53, 227.Injured by disease and healed bymedicine, 53. When greater, W.144. Orig. of confusion in, 36.1. and cognition, W. 143-4. Op­erations of 1., W. 145s. 1. repre­sented better by words than byvisions, 148; cf. 42, 57. Naturaldisposition of, W. 151ss. 1. andsensory organs, 39. The rational,orig. 44; how formed, 3. Fac­ulty of reasoning, d. 109.Thought, d. and orig., 30, brutes;proves existence of soul, 8 ;spontaneous ts, 3; effect of t. onbody, 74. Judgment, orig., ill.,147. Reason, d., 7, 40, W. 156;orig. of bad reasoning, 19. Rea­son and Idea, dist., 40, 46. 1.,14; d., 46; c. of, in soul, 40; and166proximate organ, 43-4; 1. from s.118; s. recognizes Is, when, 119.1. in sleep, &c., 40; in brutes, 40,44. Must have terminus, 40. Iscommunicated to senses, when, 40.Sensual Is, 49, SO. Confused Is,44. Will, 33, 21713 ; d., 195;orig., 200; proximate c., 201.Pure W., 43, 214. W. is not inelement, 216. W. and volition,dist., 195; v. and nolition, 196.Effect of liquors of body on, 133.What man wills is to him good,197. W. causes tension, 72. Ef­fect of injured membrane on, 133.W. and Delay, 42-3, 58. Use ofD. 44. (See above Imag.) D.d., 214; c. of, 133. D. and Pleas­ure precede will, 133. P. a stim­ulus, 43; and c. of D., 104. P. d.,104; orig., 104, 159, 168; 2nd c.of, 160; varied according to or­gan, &c., 162. Why ~ood ~ivesP., 164. Seat of P. membrane.P. not always sensated, 133.Orig. of P. from phantasy, orsense, 1597• Connate and adsciti­tious P. 1594• P. is constant, W.160. Effect of P. is love, 170; e.on blood, in dream, 77; mingledes of, 162. P. and Weariness,W. 15, 90; are not affections, W.167; effect of when together, 162.Delay of P. a c. of appetite, 165;a. an orig. of will, 200. Attention,c. of, 137-8; degrees of, 139; c.of loss of, 140; c. of election in,141; c. of a. and reflection, 133;a. and perception, 134. Attentionis impeded by senses, why, 135-6;a. and aversion, 99, 108. Aver­sion, 165. Weariness, c. and ef­fect, 161; orig. 46; e. of mingledws, 162. Perception, motion nec­essary to, 21. Classes of Ps, 10.
  • 186. INDEX.Present Ps contain past, why, 58.Have mixed center, 59. Law ofincrease of, 12; ill., 13. Con­nected Ps of things unconnected,67-8. Similes in, 59. P. of ma­terial things, law of, 21. RationalPs, orig., 24. P. and appercep­tion inseparable,S, 6; terminusnecessary to, 21, 25, 28. A. iselective, why, 13. Affections,215, 21712 ; d. 166. Passions ofAnimus, 21, 33. Anger, 192;sensation in, 37. Courage, 188.Cupidity, 182. Desire, 189. De­spair, 184. Derision, 174. Dread,184. Envy, 173. Fastidiousness,191. Favor, 180. Flight fromevil, 183. Gladness, 1593• Glory,177. Gratitude, 179. Grief, 158.Hatred, 165, 171. Hesitation, c.of 131. Hilarity, 190. Hope,181. Horror, 186. Indignation,194. Joy, 181; orig., 169. Pity,172. Pusilanimity, 187. Revenge,193. Shame, 178, 192. Self sat­isfaction, 175. Sorrow, d. 169.Terror, 186. Trust, 181. Unde­light, 161. Vacillation, 185.MINERAL KINGDOM, 227.MOTION, Tremulation of lVfuscles.MUSCLES. Motion of, descr., 201­2. Orig. of tremors in, 205,Fibre,. c. of contraction, 205.Tumesce when body relaxed,why, 72.MUSIC, 41, 50, 133. Tremors instrings, 3, 13, 15, 222. Octaves,19, 21, 26. Harmonies in, 147.M. without words, effect, 57.Tremors and M. harmony, 217°.Tone, 42, 204, 222; and har­monies, 15. TIemulation. Tone.NATURE. Is geometrical and Me­chollical, 227, 2312• The same ingreatests and leasts, 21, 31, 34,227. Forms delights in senses,why, 26. Law of operation, 34.NERVES. Consist of membranes,225; are lamellas, 225. Tremorin Ns and membranes compared,222, Fibre. N. liquid, effect onmemory, 115 (mind). Sensationin, why, 46.NOCTAMBULIST. Sleep.NOTES, d. lOOn. Irresolute N. 102­3.NOTION d., W. 14.OCTAVE. Music.ODORS, use of, 53.PAIN, 161; d., 163, 203; effect of,158. C. of, 74, 203.PARTICLES. Saline, 1598 • Blood.Philosophy of, 217.PENDULUMS, 27, 45.PERFECTION d., W. 160n.PEWS, 133.PHILOSOPHY, 231. Lea r n i H g.Anatomy needed in, 217n. Cor­puscular P. 2312. P. of particles,217. Rational P., 150.PLEASURE. Mind.PRESENCE, d., 22-3.PRINCIPIA, 7, 8, 17.REFLECTION. Faculty of, d. and c.,142.REPENTANCE, 176.REPETITION, 121.RUYSCH,46.SACRED SCRIPTURE, 33, 91, 231G.Wolff on, lOIn.SALINE PARTS, 1593• Blood.SALIVA, 104, 1593•SALVATION. God.SCHOOLMEN, 98.SENSATION. W., 21ss.; d., 220; c.167
  • 187. INDEX.of, 15. Is mechanical, 227. Seatof, 72. Attachment of membranesnecessary for, 229. Why innerves, 46. S. in soul, 52, 158.Comes to soul, how, 24; coexistsin s. 40; how impeded, 33; anddeflected, 37. Membrane of S.without perception, when, 28.Weak and strong Ss, 27, 55. S.in anger, 37; in sleep and wake­fulness, 83. Sensitive appetiteand aversion, 165. S. in brutes.Ss, similes and imagination, 54(Mind). S. in soul, not alwayssame as mutations in Sensory or­gans, ill., 37. S.O.s, d., 25; ef­fect of injury to, on will, 133;understanding and, 39. Senses,2318 ; from ss can argue to soul,38; to be explained mechanically,21710 ; c. of attention in, 133.How all senses can perceive si­multaneously, 27; ss not inter­changeable in imagination, 42.Hearing, tremors in, 15; h. andsight, excite saliva, 104, 1593 ;how h. and s. dulled, 33. Experi­ence in sight, a guide to othersenses, 38. Pleasure exciteshumors in eyes, 1593• Parts notsensated in smell and taste, 87.Touch, membrane of, 228; wheret. begins, 158; brutes,. t. andpleasure, 168.SENSIBLE OBJECT, 29.SENSUAL IDEAS, 49. Mind.SENTENCES, 57, 147.SIMILE, 24, 43, 61, 204. Ss, howmoved, 59. S. seeks S., 63; pro­duces S., 59. Concurrent Ss,effect, 146. S., sensation andimagination, 54; S. and imag., 42,48. S. and dissimile, 36, c. of,40; effect, 12, 13; cultivation and,19.SIMPLE. The S. not a nexus offinite and infinite, 230. S. men,227.SKIN, 23355. In men and brutes.Miliary glands, 224. Papillae,226.SLEEP, d., 72; c. 83. Is c. of re­pose, why, 74. Why blood inface, in S., 74. Memory in S.,130, dreams. S. and wakefulnesscompared, 72; difference of sen­sation in, 83; fever from w.,why, 74. Noctambulism, 40; c.,73; a kind of apoplexy, 73.SOLID, 153.SOUL, d., W. 2. Exists, 91. Isfrom infinite alone, 52. Why liv­ing, 209. Can be demonstratedgeometrically, 2174 ; also its es­sence, 2316• Rules for provingexistence of, 26, W. 2; notproved, 3, but only indicated bymere fact of thought, 8. Organ­ism to be learned from senses, 34.Immortal, 91, 209, 21715 ; geo­metrically demonstrable, 2174•Has faculty of picturing, 148. S.and hieroglyphic writing, 148.Constitution of, 208-9. Parts of,similar, 179, 98, 21719, ill., 105.Is a mechanism. Might be visi­ble, 75. Figure of, 14, 117, 209;f. of vitiated S., 209. Spiralcurvature in, 15, 16, ill. 17.When well figured has goodmemory, 115. Furnished withmembranes, 115; why, 109; rnsof, include 1st and 2nd actives,208, 228, and element, 17. Canact and be acted on, 17; acted onby 1st element, 31, 209. How S.determines its motions, 203-4.Place in body, 98; different invitiated body, 91; effect, 209.Ideas from, 118; recognizes is168
  • 188. INDEX.reproduced, when, 119. Is orig.of imag., 66 (Mind). Light anddarkness of, 9. Confuses, 123;confused perception of, c. 20;confused ideas in, why, 44. En­joys subtle sensation, 52; evenwhen not sensible to body, 71;cannot alter s., 30-1. S. and 2ndmembrane remains the same inpleasure, 133. S. of men andbrutes. State after death, 21714­ 15•Receives impress of elements dif­ferently, 209, 212, according tolife in body, 21716• Vitiated Sstormented, 91, 209. Communionof Ss, how effected, 17, 213.Deemed impossible, 52. Can bedemonstrated, 2316•SPIRITS. Notions, 1,75, and doubtsconcerning, 52. Must be mechan­ical and geometrical, 1, 75; canbe demonstrated, 2174 ; mighteven be visible, 75. Angels, 75,2172, 4; have more subtle consti­tution, descr., 211; as and Sscannot penetrate to causes ofsoul, 52, 91; nor resolve the in­finite, 230; as operate on Ss, 91.Evil Ss have no sensation fromsubtle motions, 212. Ss of devil,75; constitution of, descr., 212;Hell fire.STRANGER, 227.STUDIES, W. 103. Cultivation.TENDON. How contracted, 218.Muscle.TERMINUS, 27, 205, 209; ill. 206.Termini necessary to confine mo­tions, 1095 ; to give perception,mind,. to give tone, 222; to pro­duce presence, 23. Effect of vari­ous T., 222; result, if lacking, 95.Life rests in T. of tremors, 2178 ;T. of ts necessary for existenceof idea, 40. Terminus of imag.,48.TREMULATION. Orig., 21. Forma­tion of Ts in man, 19; are fromtop to bottom, 2179• Varieties of,15; ill. 27. Are cs of sensation,15. Ts of soul, ill. in strings, 3,music. Ts go from gross tosubtle membranes, 2177, 2317; g.cannot move s., 40; and viceversa, 42, 203. Subtle T. frommemory, 23, 99. All bodies tendto T., 2175• T. and undulation,dist., 21n, 2317; u. is orig., of T.,24; u. causes contraction, 205;us may be simultaneous and min­gled, 207. Membranes undulatemechanically, 218. Undulatingthreads, 202. A tremor is anidea, 46. Tremors in membranes,18; not necessary in subtlest ms,221; t. produces contraction, ill.,206; muscle, t. in membrane,from at., 206; t. and music,. tsin glass, etc., 133.TRINITY, 97.UNIVERSE. Is mechanical and willnot perish, 116.UNKNOWN, 75. No refuge in, 21.USE. Cultivation.VEGETABLE KINGDOM, 227.VENERATION, 52.VIS PRINCIPII, d., 95.VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE, 26.WINE, 75.WEARINESS. Mind (Pleasure).WORDs. Use of, W. 143. Vs andmusic. New Ws for the un­known, 75.WORLD. Learning, universe.WORMS, 75, 105. Insects, 21.169