History of Criminology


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History of Criminology

  1. 1. Brief History of Criminology 1. Criminology 2. Brief History of Criminology 3. Quiz # 1
  2. 2. Social ScienceNot too long ago, criminology separatedfrom its mother discipline, sociologyIt has since developed habits and methodsof thinking about crime and criminalbehavior that are uniquely its own
  3. 3. Criminology is …The scientific approach to studyingcriminal behaviorInterdisciplinary discipline: politicalscience, psychology, economics, naturalsciences, and biology
  4. 4. Edwin Sutherland and Donald Gressey Scope of criminology includes:1. Processes of making laws2. Processes of breaking laws3. Processes of reacting toward the breaking the laws
  5. 5. The main questionCAUSE CRIME
  6. 6. Brief History of CriminologyDemonic Perspective (Middle Ages, 1200-1600)Classical School (the late 1700s and the early1800s )Neo-classical school (emerged between 1880 and1920 and is still with us today)Positivism (the mid 1800s and early 1900s)Sociological Criminology (mid 1800s till now)
  7. 7. Demonic PerspectiveIt is not surprising that any discussion of theexistence of evil behavior in the worldwould begin with religious explanations
  8. 8. Demonic PerspectiveTemptation ModelPossession Model
  9. 9. Temptation ModelMat 26:41 (NIV) "Watch and pray so thatyou will not fall into temptation. The spiritis willing, but the body is weak."
  10. 10. Temptation Model People are weak …temptations to sin are impossible to avoid. (Matt. 18:7) No matter how tempting the devils offers might be, the individual always retains the ability to refuse to sin "good force" offers rewards and frequently promises spiritual aid to help the beleaguered individual resist the devils temptations
  11. 11. Temptation Model This model has a deterrent component The threat of hellfire or other eternal punishment for those who chose to do evil
  12. 12. Temptation Model-how to treat criminals? Other PunishmentPublic humiliation and banishment werefrequently used by religious societies as waysof controlling their deviant populationsFor serious deviants,capital punishment wouldbe a final solution
  13. 13. Possession ModelOnce possessed by an evil spirit the personis no longer responsible for his/her actionsThe devil now has taken control of theindividuals mind and body resulting in evilbehavior
  14. 14. Possession Model-how to treat criminals?One way of "curing" the individual isthrough exorcism-a religious ritual aimed atjettisoning the unclean spirit from the body
  15. 15. Exorcism today Mario Garcia ended up in jail on charges of puncturing his mother- in-laws esophagus with a pair of crucifixes Prior prior to the incident, the mother-in-law display of erratic behavior. The hospital had suggested psychiatric treatment for her
  16. 16. Exorcism todayGarcia had the woman lie down on a bed, while the womans son, herhusband, Garcias wife, and three young children contributed prayersfor support Garcia shoved not one but two 8-inch steel crucifixes intohis mother-in-laws mouthThe crosses went deep enough down her throat to pierce heresophagusPolice who were called to the scene found the woman bleedingprofusely from the mouth on Garcias front porch, with Garciashouting, "The devil is inside her!"Garcia was arrested for assault with a dangerous weapon and takenunder psychiatric observation.Police are in agreement with Garcias family that he did not act withintent to harm“Ive seen suspects who thought they had psychic powers, but neverone that had a family who believed it, too.”
  17. 17. Is There a Place for a Demonic Perspective in Contemporary Criminology? Surprisingly religious models are adhered to by many Criminal justice officials in the U.S. have paid satanism little mind until the mid- 1980s This was the case in the 1980s and 1990s as a satanic panic swept the US
  18. 18. SatanistsAt that point the country was swept by anepidemic of allegations that murders, sexualor ritual abuse of children, and ritualsacrifice of animals were commonplaceactivities among satanists
  19. 19. The origin of classical schoolStarted in Europe (the late 1700s and the early1800s)Criminal justice needed to be updatedThroughout Europe the use of torture to secureconfessions and force self-incriminatingtestimony had been widespreadClassical school was against tortures
  20. 20. Physical TortureInfliction of bodily pain to extort evidence orconfessionTorture employed devices such as the rack (tostretch the victims joints to breaking point), thethumbscrew, the boot (which crushed the foot),heavy weights that crushed the whole body, the ironmaiden (cage shaped like a human being withinterior spikes to spear the occupant)
  21. 21. Classical SchoolThe Classical School was not interested instudying criminals, but rather law-making andlegal processingCrime, they believed, was activity engaged in outof total free will and that individuals weighed theconsequences of their actions. Punishment is madein order to deter people from committing crimeand it should be greater than the pleasure ofcriminal gains.
  22. 22. Classical SchoolThe Classical "School" of Criminology is a broadlabel for a group of thinkers of crime andpunishment in the 18th and early 19th centuriesTwo famous writers during this classical periodwere Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) and JeremyBentham (1748-1832)
  23. 23. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) People should be presumed innocent until proven guilty (no torture) The law should be codified (written) with punishments prescribed in advance Punishment should be limited (less harsher) to only that necessary to deter people from ever committing it again (no capital punishment)
  24. 24. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)Punishment should be severe, certain, andswiftSeverity is the least important, certaintythe next in importance, and celerity, orswiftness, is about as equal in importanceas certainty)The criminal justice system should beorganized around crime prevention
  25. 25. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)Believed that individuals weigh theprobabilities of present and future pleasuresagainst those of present and future painPeople act as human calculators, they put allfactors into a sort of mathematicalequation to decide whether or notto commit an illegal act
  26. 26. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)Punishment should be just a bit in excess ofthe pleasures derived from an act and notany higher than thatSince punishment creates unhappiness itcan be justified if it prevents greater evil than it produces
  27. 27. Does punishment deter?What do you think?
  28. 28. The Neo-classical SchoolA form of revisionismNeo-classical criminologists recognized thatthe free will approach had a number ofshortcomingsLeading proponents were Gabriel Tarde(1843-1904) and his student RaymondSaleilles (1898)
  29. 29. The Neo-classical SchoolSome behaviors are very irrationalSelf-defense or mistake of factSo, not all persons were completely responsiblefor their own actionsPositive treatment toward "mental illness" typeexplanations
  30. 30. Categorization of MotivesUnderstanding homicideThe accurate determination of motive in anycrime is highly subjectiveSocial scientists have used severalapproaches to categorize motivesOne strategy is to distinguish b/winstrumental and expressive motivation
  31. 31. Instrumental Motivation Violent acts with instrumental motivations are directed at some valued goal beyond the act itself (Menendez brothers may have killed their parents for the instrumental goal of protecting themselves or collecting the insurance payment)
  32. 32. Instrumental MotivationEric and Lyle Menendez were convicted of first-degree murder for the brutal shotgun slaying of theirparents in Beverly Hills. Their defense was based onthe “abuse excuse”The apparent motives ranged from the brothers’ fearof their father’s abuse to their desire to collect $11million in insurance
  33. 33. Expressive MotivationExpressive actions are those motivatedexclusively by rage, anger, frustration, ormore generally, the heat of passion (self-defense, accidental homicides)
  34. 34. UCR Supplementary HomicideReports classification of motivesArguments (53%)Participation in other felony crimes, especiallyrobbery and drug offenses (32%)Youth gang activity (8%)Brawls under the influence of drugs or alcohol(4%)Miscellaneous situations such as killings bybabysitters, gangland slaying, and sniper attacks(1%)
  35. 35. The Victim-Offender Relationship Three types of relationships are often identified:A. Familial (especially spouses and siblings)(22%)B. Acquaintances (including friends, girlfriends, boyfriends, neighbors, and coworkers)(57%)C. Strangers (21%)
  36. 36. Positivist School in CriminologyThe demand for facts, for scientific proof(determinism)There are body and mind differences between peoplePunishment should fit the individual criminal, notthe crime (indeterminate sentencing, disparatesentencing, parole)Criminals can be treated, rehabilitated, or corrected(if not, then they are incurable and should be put todeath)
  37. 37. Fundamental assumptionsThe basic determinants of humanbehavior are genetically basedObserved gender and racial differences inrates and types of criminality may be atleast partially the result of biologicaldifferences b/w the sexes and raciallydistinct groups
  38. 38. Positivist School in CriminologyMost people believe the leading figure ofpositivist criminology (often called thefather of criminology) was Lombroso(1835-1909).On Criminal Man, was first put together in1861, and made the following points:
  39. 39. The Underlying LogicAtavism Inability to Mental and Learn and Criminal Physical Follow legal Behavior Inferiority rulesDefective genes
  40. 40. Sociological Theories of CrimeSearch for factors outside the individual -socialization, subcultural membership,social classExplains crime by reference to theinstitutional structure of society