O leary2011 comp_ppt_ch06

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  • Also known as the system cabinet is a container that houses most of the electrical components that make up a computer system.
  • Six basic types of system units Desktop – electronic components and selected secondary storage Horizontal models Vertical models or tower models Media center – use powerful desktop system hardware with specialized graphic cards Notebook – components, secondary devices, and input devices – often called laptop computers (Key Term) Netbook – like notebooks, but less powerful and less expensive Tablet PC (Key Term) – supports the use of a stylus or pen to input commands and data Convertible tablet PC (Key Term) – notebook computer with monitor that swivels/folds Slate tablet PC– similar to notebook but monitor is attached to the system unit and does not have an integrated keyboard Hand-held computer systems Personal digital assistant (Key Term) (PDA) – electronic components, secondary storage, input/output devices Palm computers - contain an entire computer system System unit is also referred to as the system cabinet (Key Term)
  • Our voices recognize analog (Key Term) signals Continuous signals Computers only recognize digital (Key Term) signals Electrical On/off state The binary system consists of two digits – 0 and 1 Each 0 or 1 is called a bit – short for binary digit Bits are combined into groups of eight bits called bytes Smallest character = bit; eight bits = 1 byte or one character
  • Knowing this information helps understand what takes place when data entered into computer – why it takes “so long” for the data to get transformed Three basic schemes of coding ASCII – primarily desktop EBCDIC – primarily mainframe and super Unicode – to handle languages with large numbers of characters
  • Connects all system components and allows input and output devices to communicate with system unit Other names: main board; motherboard Located in the system unit, consists of a large flat circuit board with sockets and chips (Key Term) Chips contain numerous circuits etched on a small wafer of layers of silicon and other materials Chips are mounted on carrier packages (Key Term) Chips are also referred to as a silicon chip (Key Term), semiconductor (Key Term), or integrated circuit (Key Term)
  • Located on the microprocessor chip and has two components - the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit Control Unit Program instructions Directs flow between memory and Arithmetic-Logic Unit Directs flow between CPU and I/O devices Arithmetic-Logic Unit - ALU Two types of operations Arithmetic operation (Key Term) Logical operation (Key Term) Microprocessor Chips Word size Smart Card (Key Term)
  • A word (Key Term) is the number of bits that can be accessed at one time by the CPU Older computers process data and instructions in millionths of a second – microseconds Newer computers Nanoseconds– microcomputers Picoseconds– supercomputers
  • Specialty processors are designed to handle special functions Graphics Displaying and manipulating 2-D and 3-D graphics images Smart cards (and readers) Plastic cards that have an embedded chip Can store 80 times the information stored on the magnetic strip of a regular credit card RFID tags Used by luxury car manufacturers for fuel efficiency, tracking, and satellite entertainment
  • RAM (Random-access memory) (Key Term) Frequently accessed Acts as high-speed, temporary holding area Faster processing results Temporarily holds data and programs being processed by the CPU Volatile - when power shuts off, contents of RAM are emptied Exception - flash RAM can retain data when power disrupted, used in high end portable computers Cache (pronounced: “cash”) Area in RAM set aside to store information frequently accessed Acts as a high-speed, temporary holding area for parts of programs and data Results in faster processing results for the user ROM (Read-only memory) (Key Term) Nonvolatile; CPU retrieves programs written on the ROM chip Typical user does not go in and change information on ROM Also called firmware Flash Flash (Key Term) memory offers a combination of the features of RAM and ROM. Like RAM, it can be updated to store new information. Like ROM, it does not lose that information when power to the computer system is turned off.
  • Cache memory – improves processing by acting as a temporary high-speed holding area between the memory and CPU Flash memory – can retain data even if the power is disrupted Most expensive type of RAM Used for digital telephones, digital video cameras, and portable computers Virtual Memory (Key Term) – large programs are divided into parts and the parts are stored on a secondary device, usually a hard disk. Each part is then read into RAM only when needed RAM is also referred to as temporary or volatile storage It is a good idea to save your work in progress to a second a secondary storage device. which is permanent or nonvolatile storage
  • ROMs are also called firmware
  • Expansion slots provide an open architecture Expansion cards provide network connections, PC/TV combinations, and more This open architecture allows users to expand and update their systems Devices to meet these needs, expansion cards, are inserted into the expansion slots A closed architecture card relies on a proprietary add-on, often at more expensive prices
  • Graphics cards - connect the system board to the monitor; convert internal electronic signals to video signals Sound cards – convert electronic signals to audio signals and accept audio input from microphones Modem cards – allow distant computers to communicate with each other by converting computer electronic signals to travel over phone lines Network adapter cards (Key Term) (NICs or Network Interface Cards) - connect system unit to a cable (Key Term) attached to a network TV turner cards (Key Term) - PC/TV combination cards led to high audio quality systems called home PCs TV tuner converts video signal for viewing on computer monitor PC cards - credit card-sized expansion cards for portable computers, also known as PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards
  • Factors that could limit the performance Speed of the processor Amount of memory Secondary storage capacity
  • Not all computer systems and expansion cards have Plug and Play (Key Term) capabilities
  • Bus lines provide data pathways that connect various system components A bus line is also called a bus (Key Term) It is a pathway for bits representing data and instructions Every computer has two basic categories of buses System – connects the CPU to memory on the system board Expansion – connects the CPU to slots on the system board
  • Remember that architecture determines whether or not new devices can be easily added Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) – developed for IBM PC 8 bits then expanded to 16 bits, although slow, still widely used Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) – originally for video demands of GUI (graphical user interfaces); widely used to connect CPU, memory, and expansion boards; either 32 or 64 bit, more than twenty times faster than an ISA Universal serial bus (USB) – gradually replacing serial and parallel ports (Key Term) Faster than AGP bus New version is USB 2.0 FireWire buses – High-performance serial bus (HPSB) – operate much like the USB buses and perform at speeds comparable to USB 2.0 Used with digital camcorders Used with video editing software SATA - - newest bus; It is much faster than USB 2.0 and FireWire buses and is now widely used to connect high-speed storage devices to the system board. PCI Express – widely used I many of today’s most powerful computers; provides a single dedicated path for each connected device; now replacing the PCI bus.
  • Ports are connecting sockets on the outside of a system unit Ports are often standard features of computer systems and others are more specialized
  • Four common ports USB ports (universal serial bus) – gradually replacing serial and parallel ports; can connect multiple devices; faster than parallel FireWire ports also known as high performance serial bus (HPSB) ports – for high-speed printers and video cameras; as fast as USB 2.0
  • Serial ports – data transported one bit at a time; mouse, keyboard, modem, etc. Parallel ports – for external devices needing lots of data over short distances, like printers, scanners, external Zip drives Keyboard and mouse IrDA – were used to provide wireless mechanisms for transferring data between devices; for example, transferring data from a handheld to a desktop
  • MIDI – special type of serial port for connecting musical instruments S/PDIF – also known as optical audio connections; these ports are used to integrate computers into high-end audio and hone theatre systems HDIM – provide high definition video and audio
  • Cables are used to connect exterior devices to the system unit via the ports Direct current (DC) powers computers Desktop computers have a power supply unit located within the system unit Notebook computers use AC adapters that are located outside the system unit
  • Opportunities for advancement typically come in the form of work on more advanced computer systems Some computer technicians move into customer service positions or go into sales
  • Wearable computers already exist for the military In the future, will be used by surgeons in operating rooms

Transcript

  • 1. The System Unit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2.
    • Speed, capacity, and flexibility determine the power of microcomputers.
    • Knowledge of a computer’s power allows you to make good buying decisions and to determine if your current system will run new applications.
    • Competent end users need to understand the basic principles of how microcomputers are put together. These principles will be covered in this chapter.
    Introduction 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. System Unit 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4.
    • Desktop System Units
    • Media Center System Units
    • Notebook System Units
    • Tablet PC System Units
    • Handheld Computer
    • System Units
    System Unit Types 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5.
    • Data and instructions are represented electronically
    • Two-state system or Binary System
      • Off/on electrical states
      • Characters represented by 0s (off) and 1s (on)
      • Bits
      • Bytes
    Electronic Data and Instructions 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6.
    • Three types of binary coding schemes
      • ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Exchange
      • EBCDIC - Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
      • Unicode – handles languages with large numbers of characters
    Character Coding Schemes 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7.
    • Connects all components
    • Allows communication between devices
    • Main board or motherboard
    • Circuit board electronic components
      • Sockets
      • Slots
      • Bus lines
    System Board 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8.
    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Two Basic Components
      • Control unit
      • Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU)
    Microprocessor Chips 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9.
    • Chip capacities are expressed in word sizes
    • Two Recent Significant Developments
      • 64-bit processors
        • Have become standard for most of
        • today’s desktop and laptop computers
      • Multi-Core Chips
        • Can provide two separate and independent CPUs
        • Parallel processing
    Microprocessor Chips 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10.
    • Coprocessors
      • Designed to improve specific computing operations
      • Graphics coprocessors
    • Smart cards
      • Credit card sized with an embedded chip
      • Used by many universities
    • Specialty processors in cars
      • As many as 70
      • Used to control features
    • RFID tags
      • Information chips
      • Used for tracking purposes
    Specialty Processors 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11.
    • Holding area for data, instructions, and information
    • Memory is contained on chips connected to the system board
    • Types of memory chips
      • RAM
      • ROM
      • Flash
    Memory 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12.
    • Random Access Memory (RAM) chips hold the program and data
      • Cache memory or RAM cache
      • Flash RAM or flash memory
    • Other types of RAM
      • DRAM
      • SDRAM
      • DDR
      • Direct RDRAM
    RAM 1- Return Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13.
    • Read-only memory (ROM) chips are not volatile and cannot be changed by the user
    • CPU can read, or retrieve data and programs but the computer cannot write
    • Contain special instructions
      • Needed to start a computer
      • Give keyboard keys their special capabilities
      • Put characters on screen
    ROM 1- Return Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14.
    • Flash memory offers a combination of the features of RAM and ROM.
    • Flash memory is used for a wide of range of applications.
    • If changes are made to the computer system, these changes are reflected in flash memory.
    Flash 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15.
    • Allow for new devices to be added
      • Open architecture
      • Slots provide for expansion
    • Expansion cards are also called …
      • Plug-in boards
      • Controller cards
      • Adapter cards
      • Interface cards
    Expansion Slots and Cards 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16.
    • Graphics cards
    • Sound cards
    • Modem cards
    • Network interface cards (NIC)
    • PC cards and Express cards
    • TV tuner cards
    Commonly Used Expansion Cards 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17.
    • Allows you to view your favorite TV shows while running other applications such as Excel
    • Video can be captured to a file, added to a Web page, attached to an email, or added to a class presentation
    • Relatively inexpensive and easy to install
    TV Tuner Cards And Video Clips 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18.
    • Set of specific hardware and software standards developed by Intel, Microsoft, and others
    • Creating devices that are able to configure themselves when installed
    Plug and Play 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19.
    • Connect parts of the CPU to each other
    • Data roadway for traveling bits
      • Measured as bus width
      • More lanes, faster traffic
    • Two basic categories
      • System buses
      • Expansion buses
    Bus Lines 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20.
    • Connects the CPU to other components on the system board, including expansion slots
    • Principal types
      • PCI Express (PCIe)
      • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)
      • Universal serial bus (USB)
      • FireWire buses
      • Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)
    Expansion Buses 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Ports
    • Socket for connecting external devices
    • Ports can connect directly to the system board or they can connect to cards that are inserted into slots on the system board
    • Three Types
      • Standard Ports
      • Legacy Ports
      • Specialized Ports
    1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22.
    • Four common ports
      • VGA
      • USB ports
      • FireWire ports
      • Ethernet ports
    Standard Ports 1- Return Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23.
    • Serial ports
    • Parallel ports
    • Keyboard and mouse ports
      • Game ports
      • Infrared data association (IrDA)
    Legacy Ports 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Return
  • 24.
    • Three specialized ports
      • Musical Instrument digital interface (MIDI)
      • Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format (S/PDIF)
      • High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
    Specialized Ports 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25.
    • Used to connect exterior devices to the system unit via the ports
    • One end of the cable is attached to the device and the other end has a connector that is attached to a matching connector on the port
    Cables 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26.
    • Computers require direct current (DC)
    • DC power provided by converting alternating current (AC) from wall outlets or batteries
    • Desktop computers use power supply units
    • Notebooks and handhelds use AC adapters
    Power Supply 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 27.
    • Computer technicians repair and install computer components and systems
    • Employers look for
      • Certification in computer repair
      • Good communication skills
    • Continued education is required
    • Computer technicians can expect to earn an hourly wage of $13.50 to $22.50
    Careers In IT 1- Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 28. A Look to the Future
    • Wearable computers
    • Send and receive email while jogging
    • Maintain your personal schedule book
    • Remember the names of people at a party
    1-