Personal Computers and Applications Networking for Home and Small Businesses – Chapter 1
<ul><li>Multiple uses for computers </li></ul>Personal Computer Hardware Personal Computers & Applications How and Where C...
Personal Computer Hardware Personal Computers & Applications How and Where Computers are Used <ul><li>In order for most co...
Personal Computer Hardware Personal Computers & Applications Local and Network Applications <ul><li>The computer is only a...
Personal Computer Hardware Personal Computers & Applications Local and Network Applications <ul><li>In addition to Busines...
Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers Classes of Computers <ul><li>Different types of Computers  s each one with a...
Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers  Servers, Desktops and Workstations <ul><li>Servers  – keep in a secure loca...
Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers  Servers, Desktops and Workstations <ul><li>Desktop  personal computer (PC) ...
Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers  Servers, Desktops and Workstations <ul><li>Workstation  – high powered comp...
Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers  Portable Devices <ul><li>These portable devices vary in size, power and gra...
Personal Computer Hardware Binary Representation of Data <ul><li>Computers use binary codes to represent and interpret let...
Personal Computer Hardware Binary Representation of Data <ul><li>The data rate determines how long it will take to transfe...
Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Computer System <ul><li>Preassembled or Custom Built – whi...
Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Motherboard, CPU and RAM <ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul...
Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Motherboard, CPU and RAM <ul><li>Random Access Memory ( RA...
Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Motherboard, CPU and RAM <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (...
Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Adapter Cards <ul><li>Adapter cards  add functionality to ...
Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Storage Devices <ul><li>When power is removed from the com...
Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Storage Devices <ul><li>Optical Drives  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Peripheral Devices <ul><li>Added to the computer to expand...
<ul><li>Surge Protector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents damage to the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UPS (Uninterruptible ...
<ul><li>Computer Repair Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Turn PC off and unplug power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine if t...
<ul><li>PS/2 - connects keyboard and mouse </li></ul><ul><li>USB – connects many devices </li></ul><ul><li>Serial – connec...
 
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Chapter 1r

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  • Kebanyakan komputer untuk melakukan fungsi, ada tiga hal yang harus bekerja sama:
  • Komputer ini hanya berguna untuk program atau aplikasi pd komp itu.
  • Perangkat portabel bervariasi dalam ukuran, kekuatan dan kemampuan grafis dan meliputi: Laptop atau notebook PC Tablet PC Pocket PC Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Perangkat game Ponsel Laptop juga dapat dipasang ke sebuah docking station yang memungkinkan pengguna untuk menggunakan monitor yang lebih besar, tikus, berukuran penuh keyboard danmemiliki pilihan koneksi yang lebih
  • Komputer menggunakan kode biner untuk mewakili dan menafsirkan huruf, angka dankarakter khusus dengan bit. Sebuah kode yang biasa digunakan adalah American Standard Kode untuk Informasi Interchange (ASCII). Dengan ASCII, setiap karakter diwakili oleh string bit. Sebagai contoh: Modal huruf: A = 01000001 Setiap kelompok dari delapan bit, seperti representasi dari huruf dan angka, dikenal sebagai byte Ketika mengacu pada ruang penyimpanan, kita menggunakan istilah byte (B), kilobyte(KB), megabyte (MB), gigabyte (GB), dan terabyte (TB).
  • Data Rate menentukan berapa lama waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mentransfer file. Semakin besar file, lama waktu yang dibutuhkan, karena banyak informasi  untuk ditransfer. Kecepatan transfer data diukur dalam ribuan bit per detik (Kbps) atau jutaan bit per detik (Mbps).
  • Random Access Memory (RAM)  penyimpanan sementara menyimpan data yang sedang diproses oleh CPU Mengapa pengguna membutuhkan lebih banyak RAM? Beberapa aplikasi yang berjalan pada waktu yang sama Beberapa CPU Jumlah RAM yang tersedia ditentukan oleh motherboard
  • bagaimana data sampai ke lokasi
  • Bila daya dihapus dari komputer, setiap data yang tersimpan dalam RAM akan hilang. Program dan data pengguna harus disimpan dalam bentuk yang tidak akan hilang ketika power akan dihapus. Ini dikenal sebagai non-volatile penyimpanan. Jenis non-volatile penyimpanan yang tersedia untuk sistem komputer termasuk: Perangkat penyimpanan magnetik Optik perangkat penyimpanan Statis memori (flash) drive Penyimpanan magnetik Ini menyimpan perangkat informasi dalam bentuk medan magnet. Mereka termasuk: Hard disk drive Floppy drive Tape drive
  • Optical Drive Perangkat penyimpanan optik menggunakan sinar laser untuk merekam informasi dengan menciptakan perbedaan dalam kepadatan optik. Perangkat ini meliputi CD dan DVD yang terdiri dari tiga format yang berbeda: Baca saja: CD, DVD Tulis sekali: CD-R, DVD-R Menulis banyak: CD-RW, DVD-RW Statis Memory dan Memory Sticks Perangkat memori statis menggunakan chip memori untuk menyimpan informasi Karena ukuran dan bentuk, perangkat ini dikenal sebagai kunci memori USB atau flash drive
  • Surge Protector   mencegah kerusakan pada komputer UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) menyediakan daya cadangan tanpa gangguan untuk waktu singkat
  • Perbaikan Komputer Best Practices Matikan PC dan cabut listrik Menentukan apakah bagian hot-swappable (jika demikian, tidak ada kebutuhan untuk mematikan listrik sebelum menambahkan atau menghapus bagian) Jangan power supply terbuka atau monitor   keduanya mengandung tegangan tinggi Perhatian terhadap Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)   transfer listrik dari tubuh Anda ke bagian listrik
  • Chapter 1r

    1. 1. Personal Computers and Applications Networking for Home and Small Businesses – Chapter 1
    2. 2. <ul><li>Multiple uses for computers </li></ul>Personal Computer Hardware Personal Computers & Applications How and Where Computers are Used
    3. 3. Personal Computer Hardware Personal Computers & Applications How and Where Computers are Used <ul><li>In order for most computers to perform useful functions, there are three things that have to work together: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware - the physical components, both internal and external, that make up a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating System - a set of computer programs that manages the hardware of a computer. An operating system controls the resources on a computer, including memory and disk storage. An example of an operating system is Windows XP. </li></ul><ul><li>Application Software - programs loaded on the computer to perform a specific function using the capabilities of the computer. An example of application software is a word processor or a computer game. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Personal Computer Hardware Personal Computers & Applications Local and Network Applications <ul><li>The computer is only as useful as the program or application on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications can be divided into two general categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business & Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by a wide range of people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for various services . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Personal Computer Hardware Personal Computers & Applications Local and Network Applications <ul><li>In addition to Business/Industry and General Use software, an application can be classified as local or networked. </li></ul><ul><li>Local application - A local application is a program, such as a word processor, that is stored on the hard disk of the computer. The application runs only on that computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Network application - A network application is one that is designed to run over a network, such as the Internet. A network application has two components, one that runs on the local computer and one that runs on a remote computer. Email is an example of a network application. </li></ul>Activity 1.1.2
    6. 6. Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers Classes of Computers <ul><li>Different types of Computers s each one with a different purpose </li></ul>
    7. 7. Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers Servers, Desktops and Workstations <ul><li>Servers – keep in a secure location (Why??) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High performance computers which provide services to many clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple CPUs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loads of RAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High capacity drives </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers Servers, Desktops and Workstations <ul><li>Desktop personal computer (PC) </li></ul><ul><li>Used to run everyday applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is another type of computer that may look similar to a desktop, but is much more powerful: the workstation </li></ul>
    9. 9. Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers Servers, Desktops and Workstations <ul><li>Workstation – high powered computers </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large amounts of RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High capacity drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Design (CAD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video animation </li></ul></ul>Activity 1.2.2
    10. 10. Personal Computer Hardware Types of Computers Portable Devices <ul><li>These portable devices vary in size, power and graphic capability and include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop or notebook PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaming device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laptops can also be plugged into a docking station which allows the user to utilize a larger monitor, mouse, full-sized keyboard and have more connection options </li></ul>1.2.3
    11. 11. Personal Computer Hardware Binary Representation of Data <ul><li>Computers use binary codes to represent and interpret letters, numbers and special characters with bits. </li></ul><ul><li>A commonly used code is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). </li></ul><ul><li>With ASCII, each character is represented by a string of bits . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital letter: A = 01000001 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each group of eight bits, such as the representations of letters and numbers, is known as a byte </li></ul><ul><li>When referring to storage space , we use the terms bytes (B), kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), and terabytes (TB). </li></ul>Lab & Activity 1.3.2
    12. 12. Personal Computer Hardware Binary Representation of Data <ul><li>The data rate determines how long it will take to transfer a file. The larger the file, the longer it takes, because there is more information to transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>Data transfer rates are measured in thousands of bits per second (Kbps) or millions of bits per second (Mbps). </li></ul>Lab & Activity 1.3.3
    13. 13. Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Computer System <ul><li>Preassembled or Custom Built – which one should you choose?? </li></ul><ul><li>Preassembled Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preassembled Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May lack in performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Custom Built Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports higher performance applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Custom Built Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costly </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Motherboard, CPU and RAM <ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>main circuit board </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>slots for network, video, and sound carts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When selecting a motherboard it must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the selected CPU type and speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the amount and type of system RAM required by the applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have sufficient slots of the correct type to accept all required interface cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have sufficient interfaces of the correct type </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Motherboard, CPU and RAM <ul><li>Random Access Memory ( RAM ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>temporary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s tores data while it is being processed by the CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why would a user need more RAM? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple applications running at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple CPUs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of RAM available is determined by the motherboard </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Motherboard, CPU and RAM <ul><li>Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nerve center of the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors to remember when selecting your processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher speed = faster performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more power = more heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how data gets to its location (like a highway) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faster bus = faster computer </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Adapter Cards <ul><li>Adapter cards add functionality to a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the more common adapter cards include : Video cards , Sound cards , Network interface cards , Modems , Interface cards , Controller cards </li></ul>
    18. 18. Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Storage Devices <ul><li>When power is removed from the computer, any data stored in RAM is lost. Programs and user data must be stored in a form that will not disappear when the power is removed. </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as non-volatile storage . </li></ul><ul><li>any types of non-volatile storage are available for computer systems including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic storage devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical storage devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Static memory (flash) drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Storage </li></ul><ul><li>These devices store information in the form of magnetic fields. They include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape drives </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Storage Devices <ul><li>Optical Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Optical storage devices use laser beams to record information by creating differences in optical density. </li></ul><ul><li>These devices include CDs and DVDs and come in three different formats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read only: CD, DVD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write once: CD-R, DVD-R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write many: CD-RW, DVD-RW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Static Memory and Memory Sticks </li></ul><ul><li>Static memory devices use memory chips to store information </li></ul><ul><li>Due to their size and shape, these devices are known as USB memory keys or flash drives </li></ul>
    20. 20. Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Peripheral Devices <ul><li>Added to the computer to expand its capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Different categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input devices - trackball, joystick, scanner, digital camera, digitizer, barcode reader, microphone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output devices - printer, plotter, speakers, headphones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage devices - secondary hard drive, external CD/DVD devices, flash drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking - external modems, external NIC </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Surge Protector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents damage to the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides backup power without interruption for a short period of time </li></ul></ul>Personal Computer Hardware Computers Components and Peripherals Cases and Power Supplies
    22. 22. <ul><li>Computer Repair Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Turn PC off and unplug power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine if the part is hot-swappable (if so, there is no need to turn off power before adding or removing the part) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never open power supply or monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both contain high voltages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be aware of Electrostatic Discharge ( ESD ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transfers electricity from your body to electrical parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ground yourself properly </li></ul></ul>Personal Computer Hardware Computers System Components Safety and Best Practices
    23. 23. <ul><li>PS/2 - connects keyboard and mouse </li></ul><ul><li>USB – connects many devices </li></ul><ul><li>Serial – connects modems/printers </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel – connects printer </li></ul><ul><li>VGA – connects monitors </li></ul><ul><li>RJ11 – connects phone lines </li></ul><ul><li>RJ45 – connects to the network </li></ul>Personal Computer Hardware Computers System Components Installing Peripherals and Verifying Operation Activity 1.5.3

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