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  • 1. Teaching Today: An Introduction to Education 8 th edition Part 2: Working with Students Chapter 5: How Has Diversity Impacted Teaching? Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 2. Diversity
    • One of the most dramatic changes in education has been an increased diversity of students.
    • Diversity includes
      • Ethnic diversity
      • Language diversity
      • Ability diversity
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 3. Diversity (continued)
    • Ethnic and racial diversity has increased significantly in the past 30 years. The largest percentage of increase has been in the Hispanic enrollment as they represent 19% of the public school enrollment
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 4. Diversity (continued)
    • Language diversity results from the more than 1 million immigrants that enter the US every year. It is projected that by 2020 the foreign born population of the US will be 1 in 7 people.
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 5. Diversity (continued)
    • Ability diversity has increased as a result of federal legislation directed at the teaching of special populations. As a result of No Child Left Behind legislation, students with special learning needs are placed in the “least restricted environment,” and that often means the regular classroom
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 6. Focus Questions
    • What are the advantages and challenges of increased student diversity?
    • How do you prepare for the diversity you will encounter as a teacher?
    • Why did the social movement of desegregation impact education?
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 7. Focus Questions
    • When do you alter instructional methods and materials to meet the need of diverse students?
    • Which activities help to develop cultural and ethnic pride and which are offensive?
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 8.
  • 9. Multicultural Education
    • Multicultural Education is education that promotes educational equity for all learners
      • Culturally appropriate practices must be utilized
      • A culturally appropriate environment must be established
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 10. Page 112
  • 11. Page 112
  • 12. The Need for Accurate Information
    • Genetic-deficit View
    • Certain groups are predisposed to fail
    • Cultural Deficit View
    • Lack of stimulation in the home causes one to fail
    • Communication-process Position
    • Minority-group language patterns cause poor academic performance
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 13. The Influence of Desegregation
    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • “ de Facto segregation”
    • Milliken v. Bradley
    • Busing
    • Magnet Schools
    • Within-school Segregation
    • Project……Wiki
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 14. Gender Issues
    • Inequities experienced by female students
    • Inequities experienced by males
    • Single gender schools
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 15. Goals and Suggestions for Teachers
    • Believe that All Students Can Learn
    • Modify Group Practices
    • Accommodate Learning-Style Differences
    • Learn More About Diversity
    • Reflect on Your Own Perspective
    • Rely Less on Standardized Tests
    • Avoid Class Favorites
    • Project……Wiki
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 16. Providing Good Teachers
    • The central ingredient in good schools is good teachers; yet, the learners who most need quality teachers are the least likely to get them.
    • Teachers in predominantly minority schools tend to be less experienced, teaching out of their field, and holding emergency teaching certificates , in lieu of normal qualifications.
  • 17. Exceptional Learners
    • Exceptional Learners generally deviate markedly from the norm. This includes gifted and talented students, as well as those with learning disabilities, physical problems, and emotional or behavioral difficulties.
    • Exceptional Learners are protected by federal legislation.
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 18. Federal Legislation
    • Federal Legislation requires schools to have
      • Zero rejects
      • Nondiscriminatory testing
      • Appropriate education
      • Individualized Education Plan
      • Least Restrictive Environment
      • Due Process
      • Parent/guardian participation
      • Mainstreaming
      • Project……Wiki
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 19. Federal Legislation (continued)
    • Federal Legislation Requires a Variety of Educational Settings – Continuum of placement ….
      • Regular Classroom
      • Special classes
      • Separate public-school facilities
      • Separate private-school facilities
      • Publicly supported residential facilities
      • Private residential facilities
      • Home bound or hospital settings
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 20. Federal Legislation (continued)
    • Federal Legislation Requires IEPs
    • - Developed soon after the learner’s condition is verified
    • - Must include the learner’s regular teacher, one or both parent/guardians, and a non-teacher, usually a counselor, and the child, when appropriate
    • - The team must meet at least annually to discuss progress
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 21.
  • 22. Page 123
  • 23.
  • 24. Inclusion Issues
    • Arguments in Support of Inclusion
    • Arguments Opposing Inclusion
    • What Research Says
    • Council for Exceptional Children
    • What do you say……
    • List the support for and against inclusion and then indicate which of the points you agree with……..Page 125
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 25. A day in the life….Page 127
    • 1. What dispositions are of critical importance in high- stress situations?
    • 2. What dispositions are reflected in Pats actions?
  • 26. Characteristics of Learners with Specific Disabilities
    • Speech Impairments
    • Visual Impairments
    • Hearing Impairments
    • ADD / ADHD
    • Orthopedic Impairments
    • Emotional Disturbance
    • Mental Retardation
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 27. Assistive Technology
    • Assistive Technologies are individual pieces of equipment or complex system of equipment designed to maintain or improve the functional capabilities of learners with disabilities
    • Assistive Technologies help students organize their work, take notes, prepare written responses to assignments, access reference materials, and change information formats to meet their special learning needs.
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 28. Overrepresentation of Minorities
    • African Americans account for 14.5% of the national school population
    • African Americans account for 20.3% of the learners characterized as having disabilities
    • In schools with high expectations for all students, there is no overrepresentation of African Americans
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 29. Which group is missing…..
  • 30. Gifted Learners
    • Gifted Learners have outstanding intellectual ability or creative talent, the development of which requires special activities or services not ordinarily provided by local education agencies.
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 31. Gifted Learners
    • The Selection Process
    • Pressures Facing Gifted Learners
    • Enrichment Programs
    • Acceleration Programs
    • Developing Learners’ Potential
    • Make one statement about each of these here in your notes….
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 32. Reflections
    • Who influenced your views? How will they affect your treatment of future students?
    • How will you help students with varied cultural, ethnic, social, and economic backgrounds develop positive self-concepts while promoting a common commitment to democratic values?
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 33. Reflections (continued)
    • How should school district leaders deal with pressures to fund certain categories of learners learn; are they also responsible for providing a high-quality education to all school learners?
    • How will you respond to critics who argue that gifted learners are already “advantaged” and do not need further support?
    Teaching Today, 8e Armstrong, Henson and Savage Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved