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  2. 4. Phases of Spelling Development <ul><li>According to Gentry (1982, 2004, 2006), students move through two distinct phases of spelling development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1 - Learning to Spell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level III </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level IV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2 - Correct and Automatic Spelling </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. Developmental Sequence of Spelling Instruction <ul><li>2 nd Grade: Formal spelling instruction introduced </li></ul><ul><li>9- to 11-year olds: Learn to break words into syllables, add inflectional endings (e.g., es, ed, and ing ), and differentiate between homophones (e.g., your and you’re ) </li></ul><ul><li>11- to 14-year olds: Focus on morphemes, learn Greek and Latin root words and affixes, and learn that words with related meanings often are related in spelling despite changes in vowel and consonant sounds (e.g., sign/signal, and nation/national ) </li></ul>
  4. 6. Assessment of Spelling Skills <ul><li>Formal Spelling Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (Hoover, Dunbar, & Frisbie, 2006). Assesses ability to choose the correctly spelled word from four words or to indicate “no mistakes.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement—II (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004). Assesses ability to spell 50 increasingly difficult words, each of which is said by the examiner and used in a sentence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peabody Individual Achievement Test—Revised (Markwardt, 1998). Assesses ability to identify the correct spelling of a word after hearing the word pronounced. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wide Range Achievement Test—4 (Wilkinson & Robertson, 2006). Assesses skill in writing one’s name and writing letters and single words from dictation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Assessment of Spelling Skills <ul><li>Formal Spelling Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test of Orthographic Competence (Mather, Roberts, Hammill, & Allen, 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test of Written Spelling—4 (Larsen, Hammill, & Moats, 1999) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word Identification and Spelling Test (Wilson & Felton, 2005) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Assessment of Spelling Skills <ul><li>Formal Spelling Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion-Referenced Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills—II (Brigance, 2010a) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Assessment of Spelling Skills <ul><li>Informal Spelling Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictated Spelling Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal Spelling Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum-Based Measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling Error Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloze Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probes </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Teaching Spelling Skills: Rule-Based Instruction <ul><li>Spelling instruction can be based on teaching rules and generalizations. After learning a general spelling rule, the student is able to use it with unfamiliar words. These rules can apply to instruction using both linguistics and phonics. </li></ul><ul><li>Darch, Kim, and Johnson (2000) examined the effects of a rule-based approach compared to traditional spelling instruction and found that students receiving rule-based instruction out-performed students who received traditional spelling instruction. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Rule-Based Instruction (cont’d) <ul><li>The linguistic approach to teaching spelling is based on the idea that there is regularity in phoneme-grapheme correspondence. </li></ul><ul><li>The phonics approach to teaching spelling stresses phoneme-grapheme relationships within parts of words. </li></ul><ul><li>In rule-based instruction (in both linguistics and phonics), only spelling rules and generalizations that apply to a large number of words and have few exceptions should be taught. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Teaching Spelling Skills: Multilinguistic Approach <ul><li>Spelling instruction can utilize a multilinguistic approach that focuses on phonemic, orthographic, and morphological knowledge (Berninger et al., 2008; Kelman & Apel, 2004). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes prescriptive assessment and matches the instruction to the specific weaknesses of the student. For example, if the misspellings of a student are primarily phonological, which is often the case for students with learning disabilities (Berninger et al., 2008), the spelling intervention would focus heavily on phonological aspects of language (i.e., phonemic awareness combined with the alphabetic principle). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Teaching Spelling Skills: Multisensory Approach <ul><li>Spelling involves skills in the visual, auditory, and motor sensory modalities. it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fernald’s (1988) multisensory approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gillingham method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kearney and Drabman (1993) used a modified write-say spelling intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover-and-write method </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Teaching Spelling Skills: Test-Study-Test Technique <ul><li>The student is given a pretest at the beginning of each unit of study. The words the student misspells on the pretest become the study list. After instruction, another test determines the degree of mastery. A progress chart is kept, and words misspelled on the second test are added to the list of words for the following unit of study. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Spelling Study Strategies <ul><li>1. Say the word. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Write and say the word. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Check the word by comparing it with a model. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Trace and say the word. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Write the word from memory and check. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Repeat the first five steps. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Spelling Study Strategies <ul><li>The cover, copy, compare strategy also is effective in improving the spelling performance of students with learning problems (Nies & Belfiore, 2006). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Say the word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Point to the word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Repeat the word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Cover the word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Print the word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Compare the word to the correct model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Correct errors if necessary. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Spelling Study Strategies <ul><li>Visual mnemonics can help students with learning problems remember spelling words. With eyes closed, the student visualizes the word, attempts to see the mnemonic aid presented in the word, and then writes the word from memory. Moreover, the student can generate associations to facilitate recall of correct spellings (e.g., princi pal is your pal, de ss ert is s omething s weet). </li></ul>
  16. 18. Self-Questioning Strategy <ul><li>1. Do I know this word? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How many syllables do I hear in this word? </li></ul><ul><li>3. I will write the word the way I think it is spelled. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do I have the right number of syllables? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Is there any part of the word that I am not sure how to spell? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Does the word look right to me? </li></ul><ul><li>7. When I finish spelling, I will tell myself that I have worked hard. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Fixed and Flow Word Lists <ul><li>FIXED word list: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new list of words is assigned each week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words may be either somewhat unfamiliar or completely unknown to the students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students practice independently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students practice at their own rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FLOW word list: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words are dropped from each student’s list when mastered (e.g., spelled correctly on two or three consecutive days), and then a new, unpracticed word is added. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List is individualized, and the student does not spend time practicing known words. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Spelling for Students with Learning Problems <ul><li>Spelling words taught to students with learning problems initially should be limited to high-frequency words and misspelled words from their writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend weekly spelling lists be limited to 6 to 12 words, all of which emphasize a common structural element, if possible </li></ul><ul><li>2 or 3 words from the list introduced daily and practiced until the entire set of words is mastered [Graham and Voth (1990) ] </li></ul>
  19. 21. Additional Considerations <ul><li>Visual image should be emphasized. </li></ul><ul><li>Words the student misspells in written compositions may be included in his or her spelling program. </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling also may be taught and reinforced throughout the language arts curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Training in dictionary usage also should be included in the spelling program. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Additional Considerations (cont’d) <ul><li>Secondary level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help the adolescent understand the social and practical significance of correct spelling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The student’s own interests and various areas of study provide new words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational words also can be emphasized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be best to teach spelling in conjunction with other activities rather than to use class time solely for spelling instruction. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Spelling Activities <ul><li>Ask the student to complete words in sentences by filling in omitted letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a worksheet showing various words and their configurations. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a hidden-word format to provide practice in letter sequence of spelling words. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Spelling Activities (cont’d) <ul><li>Have the student keep a file box of spelling words that have caused some difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>In compiling the weekly spelling word list, ask class members to volunteer words </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a current spelling word phonetically. For example, the word move may be described as “a one-syllable word beginning with a consonant and ending with a vowel.” </li></ul>
  23. 25. Spelling Activities (cont’d) <ul><li>To focus on particular spelling patterns, have students sort a pack of word cards or the words on their weekly spelling list into two or more categories (e.g., according to vowel patterns, affixes, or root words). </li></ul><ul><li>Have the student count the phonemes in a spelling word and write the word in Elkonin boxes, which also are called word boxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the student work with anagram activities, in which the student is given a word and must rearrange all the letters to make a new word. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Instructional Games in Spelling <ul><li>Find-a-word </li></ul><ul><li>Detective </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Spell It—Keep It card game </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling bingo </li></ul><ul><li>Golf game board </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the dots </li></ul><ul><li>Checkers </li></ul><ul><li>TV talent </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary store hunt </li></ul><ul><li>Baseball spelling game </li></ul><ul><li>Football spelling game </li></ul><ul><li>Nym game </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle top scrabble </li></ul>
  25. 27. Self-Correcting Spelling Materials <ul><li>Spelling word puzzles </li></ul><ul><li>Flip-sider spelling cards </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling spinner </li></ul><ul><li>Tape recorder spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Answer box </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the letters </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling crossword puzzles </li></ul><ul><li>Scrambled letters </li></ul><ul><li>Poke box </li></ul><ul><li>Color magic </li></ul>
  26. 28. Commercial Spelling Programs <ul><li>Instant Spelling Words for Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling Through Morphographs </li></ul><ul><li>Spellography </li></ul><ul><li>Stetson Spelling Program </li></ul><ul><li>Target Spelling </li></ul>
  27. 29. Computer Software Programs <ul><li>Spelling Blaster – Ages 6-9 </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Stickybear Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Word Zapper </li></ul>