Sped 413 Chapter One


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Sped 413 Chapter One

  1. 1. Special Education <br />in an Era of<br />Inclusion and Standards<br />Chapter One<br />Jasmine Dybvig<br />
  2. 2. No Child Left Behind<br />The No Child Left Behind act (NCLB) intends to better serve the “neediest” of students in schools and to hold schools more accountable.<br /><ul><li>Increased Accountability
  3. 3. State accountability systems based on reading and math standards were put in place to keep schools accountable.
  4. 4. Parent and Student Choice
  5. 5. They have the option to move from a school that did not have adequate yearly progress (AYP) to a school that did have AYP
  6. 6. They have the choice to get special academic help from other providers using NCLB funds
  7. 7. Greater Flexibility with federal education funds
  8. 8. States
  9. 9. Schools districts
  10. 10. Schools
  11. 11. Reading first
  12. 12. The goal is to ensure that all children can read by the end of third grade.
  13. 13. Highly qualified teachers</li></li></ul><li>94-142<br /><ul><li>Public Law 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act) was passed by congress in 1975.
  14. 14. In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all children with disabilities
  15. 15. It has been amended three times
  16. 16. It is now referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)</li></li></ul><li>IDEA<br /><ul><li>Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
  17. 17. School districts need to provide special education to meet the needs of children with special learning requirements
  18. 18. Appropriate Evaluation
  19. 19. A full, individualized evaluation must take place before a student can receive special education services
  20. 20. Parents must give consent
  21. 21. Multiple people must evaluate child
  22. 22. Individualized Education Program (IEP)
  23. 23. Summarizes student’s learning program
  24. 24. Goals for student
  25. 25. Includes services school should provide</li></li></ul><li>IDEA <br /><ul><li>Least Restrictive Environment
  26. 26. Schools need to provide students with disabilities opportunities to learn in the general education setting
  27. 27. Give students the most inclusive setting possible!
  28. 28. Parent participation in decision making
  29. 29. Parents should be involved in IEP decisions
  30. 30. They can challenge or appeal any decision
  31. 31. Procedural Safeguards
  32. 32. Put in place to protect parents and children
  33. 33. Parents are given rights to obtain an independent educational evaluation, appeal decisions, obtain educational records, etc</li></li></ul><li>Section 504<br />“Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities can qualify for special services under section 504.”<br /><ul><li>This includes students that may be missed under IDEA.</li></ul>ADA<br />The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is similar to Section 504.<br /><ul><li>Provides civil rights coverage for disabled individuals
  34. 34. Teachers whom service those with disabilities should know the guidelines for:
  35. 35. Employment
  36. 36. Public accommodations
  37. 37. Transportation
  38. 38. Governmental operations
  39. 39. Telecommunication systems</li></li></ul><li>Standards-Based Education<br /><ul><li>The subject-matter taught must be linked to performance standards and content mandated by the state in the core subject areas.
  40. 40. Goal is to have set goals to keep schools on track
  41. 41. The ambition is for all students to be able to demonstrate the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in subject areas.
  42. 42. Standards (what a student should know and be able to do)
  43. 43. Content standard- knowledge, skills, and understand students attain
  44. 44. Performance standard-achievement levels students reach
  45. 45. Benchmarks
  46. 46. Specific statement of what a student should be able to do
  47. 47. Indicators
  48. 48. Knowledge or skills a students has demonstrated to meet a benchmark</li></li></ul><li>http://www.lehigh.edu/education/mp3/rti/rti.htm<br />
  49. 49. RTI<br /><ul><li>Tier 1: High-Quality Core Instruction:
  50. 50. High-quality and researched instruction in general education.
  51. 51. Achieve academic and behavioral goals in general education
  52. 52. Tier 2: High-Quality Targeted Supplemental Instruction:
  53. 53. Interventions to supplement core instruction
  54. 54. Students do not meet general expectations; they need extra support and specific instruction.
  55. 55. Tier 3: High-Quality Intensive Intervention:
  56. 56. Specialized interventions to meet disabilities
  57. 57. If students are eligible for special education, they are given more intensive and specific interventions in many special education settings.</li></li></ul><li>UDL<br />Universal Design for Learning<br /><ul><li>Design of products and environments to be used by other people, without the need of specialized designs or adaptations- Universal!!
  58. 58. Meets the needs of students without drawing attention to a single person
  59. 59. It is proactive, not reactive!
  60. 60. Uses new technology and electronic resources
  61. 61. New way of looking at students with disabilities</li></ul>Differentiated Instruction<br /><ul><li>A wide range of students can be serviced within general education classrooms.
  62. 62. Goal is to create an effective learning environment for students with different abilities as well as disabilities in the same classroom.</li></li></ul><li>Student Accountability<br /><ul><li>Students are required to take standardized tests starting in grade 3
  63. 63. Children with disabilities may or may not need to take the tests
  64. 64. Some students with disabilities are given accommodations to take the tests
  65. 65. Teachers should strive to have all students work towards taking the tests sometime in their future.</li></ul>Inclusion<br /><ul><li>A very important theme in special education is providing everyone, even those with disabilities, a place to belong in society.
  66. 66. Give all students a sense of acceptance and belonging
  67. 67. Create educational environments which provide students with the opportunity to belong</li></li></ul><li>Evidence-Based Education<br /><ul><li>Teachers are required to use interventions that have evidence that they work with the type of students they are being used with.
  68. 68. Accountability is how the teachers instruct students.
  69. 69. Instructional practices should be researched if they are going to be used with children with special needs.</li></ul>Diversity Consideration<br /><ul><li>Schools contain an immense amount of diversity among students
  70. 70. The amounts of diversity in schools has increased throughout the years
  71. 71. Teachers should be accepting of all students, and strive his/her best to teach all students to the best of his/her ability.
  72. 72. Teachers should learn and be educated about all different kinds of people in order to best serve their students. </li>